Using Advanced MPI

Modern Features of the Message-Passing Interface

Author: William Gropp,Torsten Hoefler,Rajeev Thakur,Ewing Lusk

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262527634

Category: Computers

Page: 392

View: 6674

This book offers a practical guide to the advanced features of the MPI (Message-Passing Interface) standard library for writing programs for parallel computers. It covers new features added in MPI-3, the latest version of the MPI standard, and updates from MPI-2. Like its companion volume, Using MPI, the book takes an informal, example-driven, tutorial approach. The material in each chapter is organized according to the complexity of the programs used as examples, starting with the simplest example and moving to more complex ones.Using Advanced MPI covers major changes in MPI-3, including changes to remote memory access and one-sided communication that simplify semantics and enable better performance on modern hardware; new features such as nonblocking and neighborhood collectives for greater scalability on large systems; and minor updates to parallel I/O and dynamic processes. It also covers support for hybrid shared-memory/message-passing programming; MPI_Message, which aids in certain types of multithreaded programming; features that handle very large data; an interface that allows the programmer and the developer to access performance data; and a new binding of MPI to Fortran.

Using MPI

Portable Parallel Programming with the Message-passing Interface

Author: William D.. Gropp,William Gropp,Ewing Lusk,Anthony Skjellum,Argonne Distinguished Fellow Emeritus Ewing Lusk

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262571326

Category: Computers

Page: 371

View: 2095

Using MPI is a completely up-to-date version of the authors' 1994 introduction to the core functions of MPI. It adds material on the new C++ and Fortran 90 bindings for MPI throughout the book.

Using OpenMP

Portable Shared Memory Parallel Programming

Author: Barbara Chapman,Gabriele Jost,Ruud van der Pas

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262533022

Category: Computers

Page: 353

View: 478

Using OpenMP discusses hardware developments, describes where OpenMP is applicable, and compares OpenMP to other programming interfaces for shared and distributed memory parallel architectures. It introduces the individual features of OpenMP, provides many source code examples that demonstrate the use and functionality of the language constructs, and offers tips on writing an efficient OpenMP program. It describes how to use OpenMP in full-scale applications to achieve high performance on large-scale architectures, discussing several case studies in detail, and offers in-depth troubleshooting advice. It explains how OpenMP is translated into explicitly multithreaded code, providing a valuable behind-the-scenes account of OpenMP program performance. Finally, Using OpenMP considers trends likely to influence OpenMP development, offering a glimpse of the possibilities of a future OpenMP 3.0 from the vantage point of the current OpenMP 2.5.

Introduction to High Performance Computing for Scientists and Engineers

Author: Georg Hager,Gerhard Wellein

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439811931

Category: Computers

Page: 356

View: 8017

Written by high performance computing (HPC) experts, Introduction to High Performance Computing for Scientists and Engineers provides a solid introduction to current mainstream computer architecture, dominant parallel programming models, and useful optimization strategies for scientific HPC. From working in a scientific computing center, the authors gained a unique perspective on the requirements and attitudes of users as well as manufacturers of parallel computers. The text first introduces the architecture of modern cache-based microprocessors and discusses their inherent performance limitations, before describing general optimization strategies for serial code on cache-based architectures. It next covers shared- and distributed-memory parallel computer architectures and the most relevant network topologies. After discussing parallel computing on a theoretical level, the authors show how to avoid or ameliorate typical performance problems connected with OpenMP. They then present cache-coherent nonuniform memory access (ccNUMA) optimization techniques, examine distributed-memory parallel programming with message passing interface (MPI), and explain how to write efficient MPI code. The final chapter focuses on hybrid programming with MPI and OpenMP. Users of high performance computers often have no idea what factors limit time to solution and whether it makes sense to think about optimization at all. This book facilitates an intuitive understanding of performance limitations without relying on heavy computer science knowledge. It also prepares readers for studying more advanced literature. Read about the authors’ recent honor: Informatics Europe Curriculum Best Practices Award for Parallelism and Concurrency

Parallel Programming for Modern High Performance Computing Systems

Author: Pawel Czarnul

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351385798

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 304

View: 3761

In view of the growing presence and popularity of multicore and manycore processors, accelerators, and coprocessors, as well as clusters using such computing devices, the development of efficient parallel applications has become a key challenge to be able to exploit the performance of such systems. This book covers the scope of parallel programming for modern high performance computing systems. It first discusses selected and popular state-of-the-art computing devices and systems available today, These include multicore CPUs, manycore (co)processors, such as Intel Xeon Phi, accelerators, such as GPUs, and clusters, as well as programming models supported on these platforms. It next introduces parallelization through important programming paradigms, such as master-slave, geometric Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) and divide-and-conquer. The practical and useful elements of the most popular and important APIs for programming parallel HPC systems are discussed, including MPI, OpenMP, Pthreads, CUDA, OpenCL, and OpenACC. It also demonstrates, through selected code listings, how selected APIs can be used to implement important programming paradigms. Furthermore, it shows how the codes can be compiled and executed in a Linux environment. The book also presents hybrid codes that integrate selected APIs for potentially multi-level parallelization and utilization of heterogeneous resources, and it shows how to use modern elements of these APIs. Selected optimization techniques are also included, such as overlapping communication and computations implemented using various APIs. Features: Discusses the popular and currently available computing devices and cluster systems Includes typical paradigms used in parallel programs Explores popular APIs for programming parallel applications Provides code templates that can be used for implementation of paradigms Provides hybrid code examples allowing multi-level parallelization Covers the optimization of parallel programs

Parallel Scientific Computing in C++ and MPI

A Seamless Approach to Parallel Algorithms and their Implementation

Author: George Em Karniadakis,Robert M. Kirby II

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110749477X

Category: Computers

Page: 628

View: 4051

Numerical algorithms, modern programming techniques, and parallel computing are often taught serially across different courses and different textbooks. The need to integrate concepts and tools usually comes only in employment or in research - after the courses are concluded - forcing the student to synthesise what is perceived to be three independent subfields into one. This book provides a seamless approach to stimulate the student simultaneously through the eyes of multiple disciplines, leading to enhanced understanding of scientific computing as a whole. The book includes both basic as well as advanced topics and places equal emphasis on the discretization of partial differential equations and on solvers. Some of the advanced topics include wavelets, high-order methods, non-symmetric systems, and parallelization of sparse systems. The material covered is suited to students from engineering, computer science, physics and mathematics.

Introduction to HPC with MPI for Data Science

Author: Frank Nielsen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319219030

Category: Computers

Page: 282

View: 6099

This gentle introduction to High Performance Computing (HPC) for Data Science using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard has been designed as a first course for undergraduates on parallel programming on distributed memory models, and requires only basic programming notions. Divided into two parts the first part covers high performance computing using C++ with the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard followed by a second part providing high-performance data analytics on computer clusters. In the first part, the fundamental notions of blocking versus non-blocking point-to-point communications, global communications (like broadcast or scatter) and collaborative computations (reduce), with Amdalh and Gustafson speed-up laws are described before addressing parallel sorting and parallel linear algebra on computer clusters. The common ring, torus and hypercube topologies of clusters are then explained and global communication procedures on these topologies are studied. This first part closes with the MapReduce (MR) model of computation well-suited to processing big data using the MPI framework. In the second part, the book focuses on high-performance data analytics. Flat and hierarchical clustering algorithms are introduced for data exploration along with how to program these algorithms on computer clusters, followed by machine learning classification, and an introduction to graph analytics. This part closes with a concise introduction to data core-sets that let big data problems be amenable to tiny data problems. Exercises are included at the end of each chapter in order for students to practice the concepts learned, and a final section contains an overall exam which allows them to evaluate how well they have assimilated the material covered in the book.

Parallel Programming in C with MPI and OpenMP

Author: Michael Jay Quinn

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Science Engineering

ISBN: 9780072822564

Category: Computers

Page: 529

View: 4752

This volume gives a high-level overview of parallel architectures, including processor arrays, centralized multi-processors, distributed multi-processors, commercial multi-computers and commodity clusters. A six-chapter tutorial introduces 25 MPI functions by developing parallel programs to solve a series of increasingly difficult problems. Each program is taken from problem description through design and analysis to implementation and benchmarking on an actual commodity cluster, providing the reader with a wealth of examples.

Parallel Programming Using C++

Author: Greg Wilson,Paul Lu

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262731188

Category: Computers

Page: 758

View: 7816

Foreword by Bjarne Stroustrup Software is generally acknowledged to be the single greatest obstacle preventing mainstream adoption of massively-parallel computing. While sequential applications are routinely ported to platforms ranging from PCs to mainframes, most parallel programs only ever run on one type of machine. One reason for this is that most parallel programming systems have failed to insulate their users from the architectures of the machines on which they have run. Those that have been platform-independent have usually also had poor performance. Many researchers now believe that object-oriented languages may offer a solution. By hiding the architecture-specific constructs required for high performance inside platform-independent abstractions, parallel object-oriented programming systems may be able to combine the speed of massively-parallel computing with the comfort of sequential programming. "Parallel Programming Using C++" describes fifteen parallel programming systems based on C++, the most popular object-oriented language of today. These systems cover the whole spectrum of parallel programming paradigms, from data parallelism through dataflow and distributed shared memory to message-passing control parallelism. For the parallel programming community, a common parallel application is discussed in each chapter, as part of the description of the system itself. By comparing the implementations of the polygon overlay problem in each system, the reader can get a better sense of their expressiveness and functionality for a common problem. For the systems community, the chapters contain a discussion of the implementation of thevarious compilers and runtime systems. In addition to discussing the performance of polygon overlay, several of the contributors also discuss the performance of other, more substantial, applications. For the research community, the contributors discuss the motivations for and philosophy of their systems. As well, many of the chapters include critiques that complete the research arc by pointing out possible future research directions. Finally, for the object-oriented community, there are many examples of how encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism can be used to control the complexity of developing, debugging, and tuning parallel software. "Scientific and Engineering Computation series"

How to Build a Beowulf

A Guide to the Implementation and Application of PC Clusters

Author: Donald J. Becker,John Salmon,Daniel F. Savarese,Thomas Sterling

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262265416

Category: Computers

Page: 261

View: 3862

Supercomputing research--the goal of which is to make computers that are ever faster and more powerful--has been at the cutting edge of computer technology since the early 1960s. Until recently, research cost in the millions of dollars, and many of the companies that originally made supercomputers are now out of business.The early supercomputers used distributed computing and parallel processing to link processors together in a single machine, often called a mainframe. Exploiting the same technology, researchers are now using off-the-shelf PCs to produce computers with supercomputer performance. It is now possible to make a supercomputer for less than $40,000. Given this new affordability, a number of universities and research laboratories are experimenting with installing such Beowulf-type systems in their facilities.This how-to guide provides step-by-step instructions for building a Beowulf-type computer, including the physical elements that make up a clustered PC computing system, the software required (most of which is freely available), and insights on how to organize the code to exploit parallelism. The book also includes a list of potential pitfalls.

Parallel Programming

Concepts and Practice

Author: Bertil Schmidt,Jorge Gonzalez-Dominguez,Christian Hundt,Moritz Schlarb

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 0128044861

Category: Computers

Page: 416

View: 968

Parallel Programming: Concepts and Practice provides an upper level introduction to parallel programming. In addition to covering general parallelism concepts, this text teaches practical programming skills for both shared memory and distributed memory architectures. The authors’ open-source system for automated code evaluation provides easy access to parallel computing resources, making the book particularly suitable for classroom settings. Covers parallel programming approaches for single computer nodes and HPC clusters: OpenMP, multithreading, SIMD vectorization, MPI, UPC++ Contains numerous practical parallel programming exercises Includes access to an automated code evaluation tool that enables students the opportunity to program in a web browser and receive immediate feedback on the result validity of their program Features an example-based teaching of concept to enhance learning outcomes

Using OpenMP -- The Next Step

Affinity, Accelerators, Tasking, and SIMD

Author: Ruud van der Pas,Eric Stotzer,Christian Terboven

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262344025

Category: Computers

Page: 392

View: 1929

This book offers an up-to-date, practical tutorial on advanced features in the widely used OpenMP parallel programming model. Building on the previous volume, Using OpenMP: Portable Shared Memory Parallel Programming (MIT Press), this book goes beyond the fundamentals to focus on what has been changed and added to OpenMP since the 2.5 specifications. It emphasizes four major and advanced areas: thread affinity (keeping threads close to their data), accelerators (special hardware to speed up certain operations), tasking (to parallelize algorithms with a less regular execution flow), and SIMD (hardware assisted operations on vectors). As in the earlier volume, the focus is on practical usage, with major new features primarily introduced by example. Examples are restricted to C and C++, but are straightforward enough to be understood by Fortran programmers. After a brief recap of OpenMP 2.5, the book reviews enhancements introduced since 2.5. It then discusses in detail tasking, a major functionality enhancement; Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) architectures, supported by OpenMP; SIMD, or Single Instruction Multiple Data; heterogeneous systems, a new parallel programming model to offload computation to accelerators; and the expected further development of OpenMP.

Modern Fortran in Practice

Author: Arjen Markus

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139510738

Category: Computers

Page: N.A

View: 6641

From its earliest days, the Fortran programming language has been designed with computing efficiency in mind. The latest standard, Fortran 2008, incorporates a host of modern features, including object-orientation, array operations, user-defined types, and provisions for parallel computing. This tutorial guide shows Fortran programmers how to apply these features in twenty-first-century style: modular, concise, object-oriented, and resource-efficient, using multiple processors. It offers practical real-world examples of interfacing to C, memory management, graphics and GUIs, and parallel computing using MPI, OpenMP, and coarrays. The author also analyzes several numerical algorithms and their implementations and illustrates the use of several open source libraries. Full source code for the examples is available on the book's website.

Cloud Computing for Science and Engineering

Author: Ian Foster,Dennis B. Gannon

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262037246

Category: Computers

Page: 392

View: 3510

The emergence of powerful, always-on cloud utilities has transformed how consumers interact with information technology, enabling video streaming, intelligent personal assistants, and the sharing of content. Businesses, too, have benefited from the cloud, outsourcing much of their information technology to cloud services. Science, however, has not fully exploited the advantages of the cloud. Could scientific discovery be accelerated if mundane chores were automated and outsourced to the cloud? Leading computer scientists Ian Foster and Dennis Gannon argue that it can, and in this book offer a guide to cloud computing for students, scientists, and engineers, with advice and many hands-on examples. The book surveys the technology that underpins the cloud, new approaches to technical problems enabled by the cloud, and the concepts required to integrate cloud services into scientific work. It covers managing data in the cloud, and how to program these services; computing in the cloud, from deploying single virtual machines or containers to supporting basic interactive science experiments to gathering clusters of machines to do data analytics; using the cloud as a platform for automating analysis procedures, machine learning, and analyzing streaming data; building your own cloud with open source software; and cloud security. The book is accompanied by a website, Cloud4SciEng.org, that provides a variety of supplementary material, including exercises, lecture slides, and other resources helpful to readers and instructors.

High Performance Computing

Modern Systems and Practices

Author: Thomas Sterling,Matthew Anderson,Maciej Brodowicz

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 0124202152

Category: Computers

Page: 718

View: 2447

High Performance Computing: Modern Systems and Practices is a fully comprehensive and easily accessible treatment of high performance computing, covering fundamental concepts and essential knowledge while also providing key skills training. With this book, domain scientists will learn how to use supercomputers as a key tool in their quest for new knowledge. In addition, practicing engineers will discover how supercomputers can employ HPC systems and methods to the design and simulation of innovative products, and students will begin their careers with an understanding of possible directions for future research and development in HPC. Those who maintain and administer commodity clusters will find this textbook provides essential coverage of not only what HPC systems do, but how they are used. Covers enabling technologies, system architectures and operating systems, parallel programming languages and algorithms, scientific visualization, correctness and performance debugging tools and methods, GPU accelerators and big data problems Provides numerous examples that explore the basics of supercomputing, while also providing practical training in the real use of high-end computers Helps users with informative and practical examples that build knowledge and skills through incremental steps Features sidebars of background and context to present a live history and culture of this unique field Includes online resources, such as recorded lectures from the authors’ HPC courses

Patterns for Parallel Programming

Author: Timothy G. Mattson,Beverly Sanders,Berna Massingill

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 9780321630032

Category: Computers

Page: 384

View: 5859

The Parallel Programming Guide for Every Software Developer From grids and clusters to next-generation game consoles, parallel computing is going mainstream. Innovations such as Hyper-Threading Technology, HyperTransport Technology, and multicore microprocessors from IBM, Intel, and Sun are accelerating the movement's growth. Only one thing is missing: programmers with the skills to meet the soaring demand for parallel software. That's where Patterns for Parallel Programming comes in. It's the first parallel programming guide written specifically to serve working software developers, not just computer scientists. The authors introduce a complete, highly accessible pattern language that will help any experienced developer "think parallel"-and start writing effective parallel code almost immediately. Instead of formal theory, they deliver proven solutions to the challenges faced by parallel programmers, and pragmatic guidance for using today's parallel APIs in the real world. Coverage includes: Understanding the parallel computing landscape and the challenges faced by parallel developers Finding the concurrency in a software design problem and decomposing it into concurrent tasks Managing the use of data across tasks Creating an algorithm structure that effectively exploits the concurrency you've identified Connecting your algorithmic structures to the APIs needed to implement them Specific software constructs for implementing parallel programs Working with today's leading parallel programming environments: OpenMP, MPI, and Java Patterns have helped thousands of programmers master object-oriented development and other complex programming technologies. With this book, you will learn that they're the best way to master parallel programming too.