Understanding Polymer Processing

Processes and Governing Equations

Author: Tim A. Osswald

Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG

ISBN: 156990717X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 378

View: 5076

This book provides the background needed to understand not only the wide field of polymer processing, but also the emerging technologies associated with the plastics industry in the 21st Century. It combines practical engineering concepts with modeling of realistic polymer processes. Divided into three sections, it provides the reader with a solid knowledge base in polymer materials, polymer processing, and modeling. "Understanding Polymer Processing" is intended for the person who is entering the plastics manufacturing industry and as a textbook for students taking an introductory course in polymer processing. It also serves as a guide to the practicing engineer when choosing a process, determining important parameters and factors during the early stages of process design, and when optimizing such a process. Practical examples illustrating basic concepts are presented throughout the book. New in the second edition is a chapter on additive manufacturing, together with associated examples, as well as improvements and corrections throughout the book. Contents: o Part I - Polymeric Materials This section gives a general introduction to polymers, including mechanical behavior of polymers and melt rheology o Part II Polymer Processing The major polymer processes are introduced in this section, including extrusion, mixing, injection molding, thermoforming, blow molding, film blowing, and many others. o Part III Modeling This last section delivers the tools to allow the engineer to solve back-of-the-envelope polymer processing models. It includes dimensional analysis and scaling, transport phenomena in polymer processing, and modeling polymer processes

Polymer Processing

Modeling and Simulation

Author: Tim A. Osswald,Juan Pablo Hernández-Ortiz

Publisher: Hanser Verlag

ISBN: 9781569903988

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 606

View: 8800

This three-part textbook is written for a two-semester polymer processing series in mechanical or chemical engineering. The first and second part are designed for a senior- to grad-level course introducing polymer processing, and the third part is for a graduate course on simulation in polymer processing. Throughout the book, many applications are presented in form of examples and illustrations. These will also serve the practicing engineer as a guide when determining important parameters and factors during the design process or when optimizing a process.

Thermodynamics

Author: Sanford Klein,Gregory Nellis

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139498185

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: N.A

View: 9373

This book differs from other thermodynamics texts in its objective which is to provide engineers with the concepts, tools, and experience needed to solve practical real-world energy problems. The presentation integrates computer tools (e.g., EES) with thermodynamic concepts to allow engineering students and practising engineers to solve problems they would otherwise not be able to solve. The use of examples, solved and explained in detail, and supported with property diagrams that are drawn to scale, is ubiquitous in this textbook. The examples are not trivial, drill problems, but rather complex and timely real world problems that are of interest by themselves. As with the presentation, the solutions to these examples are complete and do not skip steps. Similarly the book includes numerous end of chapter problems, both typeset and online. Most of these problems are more detailed than those found in other thermodynamics textbooks. The supplements include complete solutions to all exercises, software downloads, and additional content on selected topics. These are available at the book web site www.cambridge.org/KleinandNellis.

Fundamentals of Interfacial Engineering

Author: Robert J. Stokes,D. Fennell Evans

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471186472

Category: Science

Page: 701

View: 3156

Fundamentals of Interfacial Engineering defines the newly emerging, cross-disciplinary field of interfacial engineering. It gives students a coherent, integrated approach to the field, while offering engineering instructors an excellent starting point for curriculum development. The text emphasizes the fundamental concepts underlying interfacial phenomena and how these concepts are reduced to practice in processing and manufacturing settings. Fundamentals of Interfacial Engineering is a useful introductory overview of senior-level undergraduate and first-year graduate students in chemical engineering, materials science, polymer science, and electronics engineering, as well as for industrial and government researchers seeking knowledge of interfacial phenomena across disciplinary lines.

Materials Science of Polymers for Engineers

Author: Tim A. Osswald,Georg Menges

Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG

ISBN: 156990524X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 688

View: 3681

This unified approach to polymer materials science is divided in three major sections: - Basic Principles - covering historical background, basic material properties, molecular structure, and thermal properties of polymers. - Influence of Processing on Properties - tying processing and design by discussing rheology of polymer melts, mixing and processing, the development of anisotropy, and solidification processes. - Engineering Design Properties - covering the different properties that need to be considered when designing a polymer component - from mechanical properties to failure mechanisms, electrical properties, acoustic properties, and permeability of polymers. A new chapter introducing polymers from a historical perspective not only makes the topic less dry, but also sheds light on the role polymers played, for better and worse, in shaping today's industrial world. The first edition was praised for the vast number of graphs and data that can be used as a reference. A new table in the appendix containing material property graphs for several polymers further strengthens this attribute. The most important change made to this edition is the introduction of real-world examples and a variety of problems at the end of each chapter.

Transport phenomena and materials processing

Author: Sindo Kou

Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

ISBN: 9780471076674

Category: Science

Page: 669

View: 2997

An extremely useful guide to the theory and applications of transport phenomena in materials processing This book defines the unique role that transport phenomena play in materials processing and offers a graphic, comprehensive treatment unlike any other book on the subject. The two parts of the text are, in fact, two useful books. Part I is a very readable introduction to fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer for materials engineers and anyone not yet thoroughly familiar with the subject. It includes governing equations and boundary conditions particularly useful for studying materials processing. For mechanical and chemical engineers, and anyone already familiar with transport phenomena, Part II covers the many specific applications to materials processing, including a brief description of various materials processing technologies. Readable and unencumbered by mathematical manipulations (most of which are allocated to the appendixes), this book is also a useful text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level courses in materials, mechanical, and chemical engineering. It includes hundreds of photographs of materials processing in action, single and composite figures of computer simulation, handy charts for problem solving, and more. Transport Phenomena and Materials Processing: Describes eight key materials processing technologies, including crystal growth, casting, welding, powder and fiber processing, bulk and surface heat treating, and semiconductor device fabrication Covers the latest advances in the field, including recent results of computer simulation and flow visualization Presents special boundary conditions for transport phenomena in materials processing Includes charts that summarize commonly encountered boundary conditions and step-by-step procedures for problem solving Offers a unique derivation of governing equations that leads to both overall and differential balance equations Provides a list of publicly available computer programs and publications relevant to transport phenomena in materials processing An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department.

Polymer Processing

Principles and Modeling

Author: Jean-François Agassant,Pierre Avenas,Pierre J. Carreau,Bruno Vergnes,Michel Vincent

Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG

ISBN: 1569907056

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 888

View: 7797

Engineering of polymers is not an easy exercise: with evolving technology, it often involves complex concepts and processes. This book is intended to provide the theoretical essentials: understanding of processes, a basis for the use of design software, and much more. The necessary physical concepts such as continuum mechanics, rheological behavior and measurement methods, and thermal science with its application to heating-cooling problems and implications for flow behavior are analyzed in detail. This knowledge is then applied to key processing methods, including single-screw extrusion and extrusion die flow, twin-screw extrusion and its applications, injection molding, calendering, and processes involving stretching. With many exercises with solutions offered throughout the book to reinforce the concepts presented, and extensive illustrations, this is an essential guide for mastering the art of plastics processing. Practical and didactic, Polymer Processing: Principles and Modeling is intended for engineers and technicians of the profession, as well as for advanced students in Polymer Science and Plastics Engineering.

The Science and Technology of Rubber

Author: James E. Mark,Burak Erman,Mike Roland

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123948320

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 816

View: 9393

The 4e of The Science and Technology of Rubber provides a broad survey of elastomers with special emphasis on materials with a rubber-like elasticity. As in previous editions, the emphasis remains on a unified treatment of the material, exploring chemical aspects such as elastomer synthesis and curing, through recent theoretical developments and characterization of equilibrium and dynamic properties, to the final applications of rubber, including tire engineering and manufacturing. Updated material stresses the continuous relationship between ongoing research in synthesis, physics, structure and mechanics of rubber technology and industrial applications. Special attention is paid to recent advances in rubber-like elasticity theory and new processing techniques for elastomers. Exciting new developments in green tire manufacturing and tire recycling are covered. Provides a complete survey of elastomers for engineers and researchers in a unified treatment: from chemical aspects like elastomer synthesis and curing to the final applications of rubber, including tire engineering and manufacturing Contains important updates to several chapters, including elastomer synthesis, characterization, viscoelastic behavior, rheology, reinforcement, tire engineering, and recycling Includes a new chapter on the burgeoning field of bioelastomers

Conservation Equations And Modeling Of Chemical And Biochemical Processes

Author: Said S.E.H. Elnashaie,Parag Garhyan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203911501

Category: Science

Page: 636

View: 3878

Presenting strategies in control policies, this text uses a systems theory approach to predict, simulate and streamline plant operation, conserve fuel and resources, and increase workplace safety in the manufacturing, chemical, petrochemical, petroleum, biochemical and energy industries. Topics of discussion include system theory and chemical/biochemical engineering systems, steady state, unsteady state, and thermodynamic equilibrium, modeling of systems, fundamental laws governing the processes in terms of the state variables, different classifications of physical models, the story of chemical engineering in relation to system theory and mathematical modeling, overall heat balance with single and multiple chemical reactions and single and multiple reactions.

Polymer Processing Instabilities

Control and Understanding

Author: Savvas G. Hatzikiriakos,Kalman B. Migler

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 142003068X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 488

View: 3186

Polymer Processing Instabilities: Control and Understanding offers a practical understanding of the various flows that occur during the processing of polymer melts. The book pays particular attention to flow instabilities that affect the rate of production and the methods used to prevent and eliminate flow instabilities in order to increase production rates and enhance manufacturing efficiency. Polymer Processing Instabilities: Control and Understanding summarizes experimental observations of flow instabilities that occur in numerous processing operations such as extrusion, injection molding, fiber spinning, film casting, and film blowing for a wide range of materials, including most commodity polymers that are processed as melts at temperatures above their melting point or as concentrated solutions at lower temperatures. The book first presents the fundamental principles in rheology and flow instabilities. It relates the operating conditions with flow curves, the critical wall shear stress for the onset of the instabilities, and new visualization techniques with numerical modeling and molecular structure. It reviews one-dimensional phenomenological relaxation/oscillation models describing the experimental pressure and flow rate oscillations, analyzes the gross melt fracture (GMF) instability, and examines how traditional and non-traditional processing aids eliminate melt fracture and improve polymer processability. It supplies a numerical approach for the investigation of the linear viscoelastic stability behavior of simplified injection molding flows and examines a newly discovered family of instabilities that occur in co-extrusion. Polymer Processing Instabilities: Control and Understanding is unique in that it fills a gap in the polymer processing literature where polymer flow instabilities are not treated in-depth in any book. It summarizes state-of-the-art developments in the field, particularly those of the last ten years, and contains significant data based on this research.

Modeling in Materials Processing

Author: Jonathan A. Dantzig,Charles L. Tucker

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521779234

Category: Computers

Page: 363

View: 3217

Mathematical modeling and computer simulation are useful tools for improving materials processing. While courses in materials processing have covered modeling, they have been devoted to one particular class of materials--polymers, metals, or ceramics. This text offers a new approach, presenting an integrated treatment of metallic and non-metallic materials. The authors show that a common base of knowledge--specifically, the fundamentals of heat transfer and fluid mechanics--unifies these seemingly disparate areas. They emphasize understanding basic physical phenomena and knowing how to include them in a model. The book also includes selected numerical methods, a wealth of practical, realistic examples, and homework exercises.

Membranes for Clean and Renewable Power Applications

Author: A Gugliuzza,Angelo Basile

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 0857098659

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 438

View: 5266

The development and deployment of membrane technologies continues to advance thanks to innovative materials and novel engineering approaches. Membranes for clean and renewable power applications introduces the principles and concepts of membrane technology and explores the use of this technology in clean energy applications. Chapters in part one introduce the utilization of membrane technology in the production of clean and renewable power and the combining of membrane processes with renewable energy technologies. Part two focusses on membranes for biofuel production and processing including membranes and membrane reactors for the production of biodiesel and second generation biofuels. Part three discusses membranes for syngas, hydrogen and oxygen production and processing. Chapters highlight steam reforming of biofuels for the production of hydrogen-rich gas A., perovskite membrane reactors, and environmental analysis of hydrogen-methane blends for transportation. Chapters in part four explore membranes for fuel cells including ceramic membranes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), microbial fuel cells, and direct bioethanol fuel cells. Finally, part five discusses membranes integrated with solar, wind energy and water-related applications including membrane technologies for solar-hydrogen production, solar-desalination plants, and the storage as methane of energy generated by wind power and other renewable sources. A final chapter introduces wastewater processing, energy conservation and energy generation. Membranes for clean and renewable power applications is a comprehensive resource for professionals and consultants in the clean and renewable energy industry, membrane and materials scientists and professionals, and academics and researchers in the field. Introduces the principles and concepts of membrane technology and explores the use of this technology in clean energy applications

Chemistry, Manufacture and Applications of Natural Rubber

Author: Shinzo Kohjiya,Yuko Ikeda

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0857096915

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 528

View: 1482

The growing demand for more sustainable materials has led to increased research on the properties of natural rubber. Chemistry, Manufacture and Applications of Natural Rubber summarizes this research and its significance for the industrial applications of natural rubber. Chapters in part one explore the properties and processing of natural rubber, including the biosynthesis of natural rubber in different rubber-producing species, chemical modification of natural rubber for improved performance, and the effect of strain-induced crystallization on the physical properties of natural rubber. Further chapters highlight hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica-filled cross-linked natural rubber and computer simulation of network formation in natural rubber. Part two focusses on applications of natural rubber, including eco-friendly bio-composites using natural rubber matrices and reinforcements, soft bio-composites from natural rubber and marine products, natural rubber for the tire industry, the application of epoxidized natural rubber in pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs), and the use of natural rubber for vibration isolation and earthquake protection of structures. Finally, chapters in part three consider environmental and safety issues associated with natural rubber, including improving the sustainable development of natural rubber, the recycling of natural and synthetic isoprene rubbers and of sulfur cross-linked natural rubber, and recent research on natural rubber latex allergy. Chemistry, Manufacture and Applications of Natural Rubber is a comprehensive resource for academics, chemists, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, and other professionals in the rubber industry, as well as those industries, including automotive, civil, and medical engineering, using natural rubber products. An updated review with systematic and comprehensive coverage of natural rubbers Covers a broad range of topics, including the chemistry, processing, sustainability, and applications of natural rubbers Coverage of the best international research, including key experts from Asia, the United States, South America, and Europe

Molecular Biology of the Cell

Author: Bruce Alberts

Publisher: Garland Science

ISBN: 1317563743

Category: Science

Page: 1464

View: 5675

As the amount of information in biology expands dramatically, it becomes increasingly important for textbooks to distill the vast amount of scientific knowledge into concise principles and enduring concepts.As with previous editions, Molecular Biology of the Cell, Sixth Edition accomplishes this goal with clear writing and beautiful illustrations. The Sixth Edition has been extensively revised and updated with the latest research in the field of cell biology, and it provides an exceptional framework for teaching and learning. The entire illustration program has been greatly enhanced.Protein structures better illustrate structure–function relationships, icons are simpler and more consistent within and between chapters, and micrographs have been refreshed and updated with newer, clearer, or better images. As a new feature, each chapter now contains intriguing openended questions highlighting “What We Don’t Know,” introducing students to challenging areas of future research. Updated end-of-chapter problems reflect new research discussed in the text, and these problems have been expanded to all chapters by adding questions on developmental biology, tissues and stem cells, pathogens, and the immune system.

Micromixers

Fundamentals, Design and Fabrication

Author: Nam-Trung Nguyen

Publisher: William Andrew

ISBN: 1437735215

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 368

View: 7833

The ability to mix minute quantities of fluids is critical in a range of recent and emerging techniques in engineering, chemistry and life sciences, with applications as diverse as inkjet printing, pharmaceutical manufacturing, specialty and hazardous chemical manufacturing, DNA analysis and disease diagnosis. The multidisciplinary nature of this field – intersecting engineering, physics, chemistry, biology, microtechnology and biotechnology – means that the community of engineers and scientists now engaged in developing microfluidic devices has entered the field from a variety of different backgrounds. Micromixers is uniquely comprehensive, in that it deals not only with the problems that are directly related to fluidics as a discipline (aspects such as mass transport, molecular diffusion, electrokinetic phenomena, flow instabilities, etc.) but also with the practical issues of fabricating micomixers and building them into microsystems and lab-on-chip assemblies.With practical applications to the design of systems vital in modern communications, medicine and industry this book has already established itself as a key reference in an emerging and important field. The 2e includes coverage of a broader range of fabrication techniques, additional examples of fully realized devices for each type of micromixer and a substantially extended section on industrial applications, including recent and emerging applications. Introduces the design and applications of micromixers for a broad audience across chemical engineering, electronics and the life sciences, and applications as diverse as lab-on-a-chip, ink jet printing, pharmaceutical manufacturing and DNA analysis Helps engineers and scientists to unlock the potential of micromixers by explaining both the scientific (microfluidics) aspects and the engineering involved in building and using successful microscale systems and devices with micromixers The author's applied approach combines experience-based discussion of the challenges and pitfalls of using micromixers, with proposals for how to overcome them

Basic Equations of the Mass Transport Through a Membrane Layer

Author: Endre Nagy

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0124160255

Category: Science

Page: 329

View: 4057

With a detailed analysis of the mass transport through membrane layers and its effect on different separation processes, this book provides a comprehensive look at the theoretical and practical aspects of membrane transport properties and functions. Basic equations for every membrane are provided to predict the mass transfer rate, the concentration distribution, the convective velocity, the separation efficiency, and the effect of chemical or biochemical reaction taking into account the heterogeneity of the membrane layer to help better understand the mechanisms of the separation processes. The reader will be able to describe membrane separation processes and the membrane reactors as well as choose the most suitable membrane structure for separation and for membrane reactor. Containing detailed discussion of the latest results in transport processes and separation processes, this book is essential for chemistry students and practitioners of chemical engineering and process engineering. Detailed survey of the theoretical and practical aspects of every membrane process with specific equations Practical examples discussed in detail with clear steps Will assist in planning and preparation of more efficient membrane structure separation

Predictive Theoretical and Computational Approaches for Additive Manufacturing

Proceedings of a Workshop

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Policy and Global Affairs,Board on International Scientific Organizations,U.S. National Committee on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309449758

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 148

View: 9961

Additive manufacturing (AM) methods have great potential for promoting transformative research in many fields across the vast spectrum of engineering and materials science. AM is one of the leading forms of advanced manufacturing which enables direct computer-aided design (CAD) to part production without part-specific tooling. In October 2015 the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop of experts from diverse communities to examine predictive theoretical and computational approaches for various AM technologies. While experimental workshops in AM have been held in the past, this workshop uniquely focused on theoretical and computational approaches and involved areas such as simulation-based engineering and science, integrated computational materials engineering, mechanics, materials science, manufacturing processes, and other specialized areas. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Comprehensive Materials Processing

Author: N.A

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0080965334

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 5634

View: 2138

Comprehensive Materials Processing provides students and professionals with a one-stop resource consolidating and enhancing the literature of the materials processing and manufacturing universe. It provides authoritative analysis of all processes, technologies, and techniques for converting industrial materials from a raw state into finished parts or products. Assisting scientists and engineers in the selection, design, and use of materials, whether in the lab or in industry, it matches the adaptive complexity of emergent materials and processing technologies. Extensive traditional article-level academic discussion of core theories and applications is supplemented by applied case studies and advanced multimedia features. Coverage encompasses the general categories of solidification, powder, deposition, and deformation processing, and includes discussion on plant and tool design, analysis and characterization of processing techniques, high-temperatures studies, and the influence of process scale on component characteristics and behavior. Authored and reviewed by world-class academic and industrial specialists in each subject field Practical tools such as integrated case studies, user-defined process schemata, and multimedia modeling and functionality Maximizes research efficiency by collating the most important and established information in one place with integrated applets linking to relevant outside sources

Minerals and Coal Process Calculations

Author: D.V. Subba Rao

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351847155

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 332

View: 5688

The aim of process calculations is to evaluate the performance of minerals and coal processing operations in terms of efficiency of the operation, grade of the final products and recovery of the required constituents. To meet these requirements, in-depth detailed calculations are illustrated in this book. This book is designed to cover all the process calculations. The method and/or steps in process calculations have been described by taking numerical examples. Process calculations illustrated in a simple and self explanatory manner based on two basic material balance equations will allow the reader to understand the contents thoroughly. Inclusion of elaborate process calculations in every chapter is the highlight of this book. This book is unique and devoted entirely to the process calculations with sufficient explanation of the nature of the calculations. This book will prove useful to all: from student to teacher, operator to engineer, researcher to designer, and process personnel to plant auditors concerned with minerals and coal processing.

Thermal Analysis of Polymers

Fundamentals and Applications

Author: Joseph D. Menczel,R. Bruce Prime

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118995996

Category: Science

Page: 696

View: 7096

Presents a solid introduction to thermal analysis, methods, instrumentation, calibration, and application along with the necessary theoretical background. Useful to chemists, physicists, materials scientists, and engineers who are new to thermal analysis techniques, and to existing users of thermal analysis who wish expand their experience to new techniques and applications Topics covered include Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Differential Thermal Analysis (DSC/DTA), Thermogravimetry, Thermomechanical Analysis and Dilatometry, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, Micro-Thermal Analysis, Hot Stage Microscopy, and Instrumentation. Written by experts in the various areas of thermal analysis Relevant and detailed experiments and examples follow each chapter.