Uncertainty-Based Information

Elements of Generalized Information Theory

Author: George J. Klir,Mark J. Wierman

Publisher: Physica

ISBN: 3790818690

Category: Mathematics

Page: 168

View: 8057

Information is precious. It reduces our uncertainty in making decisions. Knowledge about the outcome of an uncertain event gives the possessor an advantage. It changes the course of lives, nations, and history itself. Information is the food of Maxwell's demon. His power comes from know ing which particles are hot and which particles are cold. His existence was paradoxical to classical physics and only the realization that information too was a source of power led to his taming. Information has recently become a commodity, traded and sold like or ange juice or hog bellies. Colleges give degrees in information science and information management. Technology of the computer age has provided access to information in overwhelming quantity. Information has become something worth studying in its own right. The purpose of this volume is to introduce key developments and results in the area of generalized information theory, a theory that deals with uncertainty-based information within mathematical frameworks that are broader than classical set theory and probability theory. The volume is organized as follows.

Uncertainty and Information

Foundations of Generalized Information Theory

Author: George J. Klir

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471755567

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 499

View: 8992

Deal with information and uncertainty properly and efficientlyusing tools emerging from generalized information theory Uncertainty and Information: Foundations of Generalized InformationTheory contains comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of resultsthat have emerged from a research program begun by the author inthe early 1990s under the name "generalized information theory"(GIT). This ongoing research program aims to develop a formalmathematical treatment of the interrelated concepts of uncertaintyand information in all their varieties. In GIT, as in classicalinformation theory, uncertainty (predictive, retrodictive,diagnostic, prescriptive, and the like) is viewed as amanifestation of information deficiency, while information isviewed as anything capable of reducing the uncertainty. A broadconceptual framework for GIT is obtained by expanding theformalized language of classical set theory to include moreexpressive formalized languages based on fuzzy sets of varioustypes, and by expanding classical theory of additive measures toinclude more expressive non-additive measures of varioustypes. This landmark book examines each of several theories for dealingwith particular types of uncertainty at the following fourlevels: * Mathematical formalization of the conceived type ofuncertainty * Calculus for manipulating this particular type ofuncertainty * Justifiable ways of measuring the amount of uncertainty in anysituation formalizable in the theory * Methodological aspects of the theory With extensive use of examples and illustrations to clarify complexmaterial and demonstrate practical applications, generoushistorical and bibliographical notes, end-of-chapter exercises totest readers' newfound knowledge, glossaries, and an Instructor'sManual, this is an excellent graduate-level textbook, as well as anoutstanding reference for researchers and practitioners who dealwith the various problems involving uncertainty and information. AnInstructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all theproblems in the book is available from the Wiley editorialdepartment.

Recent Advances on Hybrid Approaches for Designing Intelligent Systems

Author: Oscar Castillo,Patricia Melin,Witold Pedrycz,Janusz Kacprzyk

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319051709

Category: Computers

Page: 721

View: 6567

This book describes recent advances on hybrid intelligent systems using soft computing techniques for diverse areas of application, such as intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization complex problems. Soft Computing (SC) consists of several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, neural networks and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful hybrid intelligent systems. The book is organized in five main parts, which contain a group of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of type-2 fuzzy logic, which basically consists of papers that propose new models and applications for type-2 fuzzy systems. The second part contains papers with the main theme of bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which are basically papers using nature-inspired techniques to achieve optimization of complex optimization problems in diverse areas of application. The third part contains papers that deal with new models and applications of neural networks in real world problems. The fourth part contains papers with the theme of intelligent optimization methods, which basically consider the proposal of new methods of optimization to solve complex real world optimization problems. The fifth part contains papers with the theme of evolutionary methods and intelligent computing, which are papers considering soft computing methods for applications related to diverse areas, such as natural language processing, recommending systems and optimization.

Fuzzy Set Theory Fuzzy Logic and their Applications

Author: Bhargava A.K.

Publisher: S. Chand Publishing

ISBN: 8121941946

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 8113

Classical Sets Fuzzy Relation Equations Basic Concepts On Fuzzy Sets Possibility Theory Fuzzy Sets Versus Crisp Sets Fuzzy Logic Operations On Fuzzy Sets Uncertainty-Based Information Interval Arithmetic Approximate Reasoning Fuzzy Numbers And Fuzzy Arithmetic Fuzzy Control And Fuzzy Expert Systems Fuzzy Relations Fuzzy Decision Making Index

Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis in Engineering and the Sciences

Author: Bilal M. Ayyub,George J. Klir

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420011456

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 400

View: 3916

Engineers and scientists often need to solve complex problems with incomplete information resources, necessitating a proper treatment of uncertainty and a reliance on expert opinions. Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis in Engineering and the Sciences prepares current and future analysts and practitioners to understand the fundamentals of knowledge and ignorance, how to model and analyze uncertainty, and how to select appropriate analytical tools for particular problems. This volume covers primary components of ignorance and their impact on practice and decision making. It provides an overview of the current state of uncertainty modeling and analysis, and reviews emerging theories while emphasizing practical applications in science and engineering. The book introduces fundamental concepts of classical, fuzzy, and rough sets, probability, Bayesian methods, interval analysis, fuzzy arithmetic, interval probabilities, evidence theory, open-world models, sequences, and possibility theory. The authors present these methods to meet the needs of practitioners in many fields, emphasizing the practical use, limitations, advantages, and disadvantages of the methods.

Entropy Measures, Maximum Entropy Principle and Emerging Applications

Author: Karmeshu,Jawaharlal Karmeshu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540002420

Category: Computers

Page: 297

View: 9622

This book is dedicated to Prof. J. Kapur and his contributions to the field of entropy measures and maximum entropy applications. Eminent scholars in various fields of applied information theory have been invited to contribute to this Festschrift, collected on the occasion of his 75th birthday. The articles cover topics in the areas of physical, biological, engineering and social sciences such as information technology, soft computing, nonlinear systems or molecular biology with a thematic coherence. The volume will be useful to researchers working in these different fields enabling them to see the underlying unity and power of entropy optimization frameworks.

Systemics of Emergence

Research and Development

Author: Gianfranco Minati,Eliano Pessa,Mario Abram

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387288994

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 745

View: 3606

Within the General Systems Theory (GST) approach, it is possible to focus on "emergent" systemic properties (typically occurring in open, adaptive, anticipatory and chaotic systems), by stressing their specificity and their lack of reducibility into further components. In other words, emergence underlies the processes allowing the establishing of systemic properties. Research on emergence deals with experimental detection, modeling and simulation of processes giving rise to the occurrence of macroscopic (often complex and unexpected) behaviors in complex systems consisting of a large number of components. Actually such a theoretical and experimental effort relies on analytical methods, such as the ones used in modern theories of self-organization, collective-behaviors, phase transitions and artificial life. In sum, the research on emergence analyzes the engine of GST, while GST itself focuses on the general outcomes of this research, thus conceptually inducing an inter- and trans-disciplinary context. SYSTEMICS OF EMERGENCE: Research and Development is a volume devoted to exploring the core theoretical and disciplinary research problems of emergence processes from which systems are established. It focuses on emergence as the key point of any systemic process. This topic is dealt with within different disciplinary approaches, indicated by the organization in sections: 1) Applications; 2) Biology and human care; 3) Cognitive Science; 4) Emergence; 5) General Systems; 6) Learning; 7) Management; 8) Social Systems; 9) Systemic Approach and Information Science; 10) Theoretical issues in Systemics. The Editors and contributing authors have produced this volume to help, encourage and widen the work in this area of General Systems Research.

Towards Efficient Fuzzy Information Processing

Using the Principle of Information Diffusion

Author: Chongfu Huang,Yong Shi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783790814750

Category: Mathematics

Page: 370

View: 4248

When we learn from books or daily experience, we make associations and draw inferences on the basis of information that is insufficient for under standing. One example of insufficient information may be a small sample derived from observing experiments. With this perspective, the need for de veloping a better understanding of the behavior of a small sample presents a problem that is far beyond purely academic importance. During the past 15 years considerable progress has been achieved in the study of this issue in China. One distinguished result is the principle of in formation diffusion. According to this principle, it is possible to partly fill gaps caused by incomplete information by changing crisp observations into fuzzy sets so that one can improve the recognition of relationships between input and output. The principle of information diffusion has been proven suc cessful for the estimation of a probability density function. Many successful applications reflect the advantages of this new approach. It also supports an argument that fuzzy set theory can be used not only in "soft" science where some subjective adjustment is necessary, but also in "hard" science where all data are recorded.

Formal Theories of Information

From Shannon to Semantic Information Theory and General Concepts of Information

Author: Giovanni Sommaruga

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642006582

Category: Computers

Page: 269

View: 9136

This book presents the scientific outcome of a joint effort of the computer science departments of the universities of Berne, Fribourg and Neuchâtel. Within an initiative devoted to "Information and Knowledge", these research groups collaborated over several years on issues of logic, probability, inference, and deduction. The goal of this volume is to examine whether there is any common ground between the different approaches to the concept of information. The structure of this book could be represented by a circular model, with an innermost syntactical circle, comprising statistical and algorithmic approaches; a second, larger circle, the semantical one, in which "meaning" enters the stage; and finally an outermost circle, the pragmatic one, casting light on real-life logical reasoning. These articles are complemented by two philosophical contributions exploring the wide conceptual field as well as taking stock of the articles on the various formal theories of information.

Bridging Differences

Effective Intergroup Communication

Author: William B. Gudykunst

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 0761929371

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 425

View: 8670

Bridging Differences: Effective Intergroup Communication is based on the assumption that the processes operating when we communicate with people from other groups are the same processes operating when we communicate with people from our own groups. Author William B. Gudykunst has written this book from the perspective of "communicating with strangers" and addresses how factors related to our group memberships (e.g., inaccurate and unfavorable stereotypes of members of other cultures and ethnic groups) can cause us to misinterpret the messages we receive from members of those groups. Designed for students taking courses in Intercultural Communication or Intergroup Communication, Bridging Differences is also useful for many courses in Cultural Studies, Anthropology, Sociology, and Management.

Information Processing and Management of Uncertainty in Knowledge-Based Systems

13th International Conference, IPMU 2010, Dortmund, Germany, June 28–July 2, 2010. Proceedings

Author: Eyke Hüllermeier,Rudolf Kruse,Frank Hoffmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642140548

Category: Computers

Page: 764

View: 1101

The International Conference on Information Processing and Management of - certainty in Knowledge-Based Systems, IPMU, is organized every two years with the aim of bringing together scientists working on methods for the management of uncertainty and aggregation of information in intelligent systems. Since 1986, this conference has been providing a forum for the exchange of ideas between th theoreticians and practitioners working in these areas and related ?elds. The 13 IPMU conference took place in Dortmund, Germany, June 28–July 2, 2010. This volume contains 79 papers selected through a rigorous reviewing process. The contributions re?ect the richness of research on topics within the scope of the conference and represent several important developments, speci?cally focused on theoretical foundations and methods for information processing and management of uncertainty in knowledge-based systems. We were delighted that Melanie Mitchell (Portland State University, USA), Nihkil R. Pal (Indian Statistical Institute), Bernhard Sch ̈ olkopf (Max Planck I- titute for Biological Cybernetics, Tubing ̈ en, Germany) and Wolfgang Wahlster (German Research Center for Arti?cial Intelligence, Saarbruc ̈ ken) accepted our invitations to present keynote lectures. Jim Bezdek received the Kamp ́ede F ́ eriet Award, granted every two years on the occasion of the IPMU conference, in view of his eminent research contributions to the handling of uncertainty in clustering, data analysis and pattern recognition.

Incorporating Market Information Into the Construction of the Fan Chart

Author: Prakash Kannan,Selim Elekdag

Publisher: International Monetary Fund

ISBN: 1451917511

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 21

View: 1240

This paper develops a simple procedure for incorporating market-based information into the construction of fan charts. Using the International Monetary Fund (IMF)''s global growth forecast as a working example, the paper goes through the theoretical and practical considerations of this new approach. The resulting spreadsheet, which implements the approach, is available upon request from the authors.

Cumulative Subject and Author Indexes for

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080566832

Category: Computers

Page: 800

View: 8086

As we approach the 21st century, the Advances in Computers serial remains the oldes continuously published anthology chronicling the evolution of the information technology field. Since 1960, this series has described the ever-changing nature of computing. In this volume, we will emphasize the major themes that have dominated computing in these latter days of the 1990s. Of course we mean the distributed nature of information technology. The growth of networking, the Internet and the World Wide Web have greatly changed the role of the computer, and in turn, our lives as well. Starting as a computer science research topic in 1969, the ARPANET, funded by the U.S. government's Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), tied together university, research, and military computing centers. By the mid-1980s the ARPANET evolved into the Internet under funding by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). The computer experimenter, the so-called "computer geek," discovered the Internet and joined the fun. By the early 1990s, the World Wide Web (WWW) grew as a subnet of the Internet, and email and Web browsing became available to all. Today millions of "computer illiterate" individuals daily use these resources to send mail and search for online information. No longer is the Internet the domain of the serious computer researcher. In this volume we will describe some of the changes the Internet has brought us.

Agent Mediated Electronic Commerce II

Towards Next-Generation Agent-Based Electronic Commerce Systems

Author: Alexandros Moukas,Carles Sierra,Fredrik Ygge

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540677739

Category: Computers

Page: 242

View: 3204

The Internet is spawning many new markets and electronic commerce is changing many market conventions. Not only are old commercial practices being adapted to the new conditions of immediacy brought forth by the global networks, but new products and services, as well as new practices, are beginning to appear. There is already ample evidence that agent-based technologies will be crucial for these - velopments. However many theoretical, technological, sociological, and legal - pects will need to be addressed before such opportunities become a significant reality. In addition to streamlining traditional transactions, agents enable new types of transactions. For example, the elusive one-to-one marketing becomes more of a - ality when consumer agents capture and share (or sell) consumer demographics. Prices and other transaction dimensions need no longer to be fixed; selling agents can dynamically tailor merchant offerings to each consumer. Economies of scale become feasible in new markets when agents negotiate on special arbitration c- tracts. Dynamic business relationships will give rise to more competitively agile organizations. It is these new opportunities combined with substantial reduction in transaction costs that will revolutionize electronic commerce.

The Internal Auditing Handbook

Author: K. H. Spencer Pickett

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470662137

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 1088

View: 3427

The first edition of The Internal Auditing Handbook received wide acclaim from readers and became established as one of the definitive publications on internal auditing. The second edition was released soon after to reflect the rapid progress of the internal audit profession. There have been a number of significant changes in the practice of internal auditing since publication of the second edition and this revised third edition reflects those changes. The third edition of The Internal Auditing Handbook retains all the detailed material that formed the basis of the second edition and has been updated to reflect the Institute of Internal Auditor’s (IIA) International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing. Each chapter has a section on new developments to reflect changes that have occurred over the last few years. The key role of auditors in reviewing corporate governance and risk management is discussed in conjunction with the elevation of the status of the chief audit executive and heightened expectations from boards and audit committees. Another new feature is a series of multi-choice questions that have been developed and included at the end of each chapter. This edition of The Internal Auditing Handbook will prove to be an indispensable reference for both new and experienced auditors, as well as business managers, members of audit committees, control and compliance teams, and all those who may have an interest in promoting corporate governance.

Type-2 Fuzzy Granular Models

Author: Mauricio A. Sanchez,Oscar Castillo,Juan R. Castro

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319412884

Category: Computers

Page: 93

View: 7862

In this book, a series of granular algorithms are proposed. A nature inspired granular algorithm based on Newtonian gravitational forces is proposed. A series of methods for the formation of higher-type information granules represented by Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets are also shown, via multiple approaches, such as Coefficient of Variation, principle of justifiable granularity, uncertainty-based information concept, and numerical evidence based. And a fuzzy granular application comparison is given as to demonstrate the differences in how uncertainty affects the performance of fuzzy information granules.

Evolutionary Systems

Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self-Organization

Author: G. Vijver,Stanley N. Salthe,M. Delpos

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401715106

Category: Philosophy

Page: 438

View: 4373

The three well known revolutions of the past centuries - the Copernican, the Darwinian and the Freudian - each in their own way had a deflating and mechanizing effect on the position of humans in nature. They opened up a richness of disillusion: earth acquired a more modest place in the universe, the human body and mind became products of a long material evolutionary history, and human reason, instead of being the central, immaterial, locus of understanding, was admitted into the theater of discourse only as a materialized and frequently out-of-control actor. Is there something objectionable to this picture? Formulated as such, probably not. Why should we resist the idea that we are in certain ways, and to some degree, physically, biologically or psychically determined? Why refuse to acknowledge the fact that we are materially situated in an ever evolving world? Why deny that the ways of inscription (traces of past events and processes) are co-determinative of further "evolutionary pathways"? Why minimize the idea that each intervention, of each natural being, is temporally and materially situated, and has, as such, the inevitable consequence of changing the world? The point is, however, that there are many, more or less radically different, ways to consider the "mechanization" of man and nature. There are, in particular, many ways to get the message of "material and evolutionary determination", as well as many levels at which this determination can be thought of as relevant or irrelevant.