Time Use Research in the Social Sciences

Author: Wendy E. Pentland

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306459515

Category: Mathematics

Page: 281

View: 9490

Despite the fact that, for most of us, time is a central focus of our lives, the examination of what we do with our time and why has received limited attention as a method for understanding human behavior in the social sciences. Humans' view and use of time shows tremendous variation, including across cultures and with age, lifestyle, and gender. For many of us, a sense of time is ever-present. We speak of time as a commodity, a resource, an ally, an enemy, and a gift. It maybe on our side, on our hands, with us, or against us. We perceive it to change speeds (dragging vs. flying vs. standing still) and lest it get away on us, we attempt to harness and control it with clocks, schedules, and deadlines. We describe our use of time in a myriad ofways: we spend it, save it, waste it, kill it, give it, take it, and grab it. The impetus for this book grew from a three-day research symposium where established time use researchers from a variety of disciplines from Canada, the United States, Finland, Australia, and New Zealand gathered together to merge their knowledge and resources to collaborate in exam- ing the relationship between human time utilization and health and we- being. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support for the sym- sium received from the Government of Canada's Program for Inter- tional Research Linkages and M. Powell Lawton, without whose support and encouragement this book would likely not exist.

Psychology and Law

International Perspectives

Author: Friedrich Lösel,Doris Bender,Thomas Bliesener

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110879778

Category: Psychology

Page: 585

View: 7100


Social Perspectives in Lesbian and Gay Studies

A Reader

Author: Peter M. Nardi,Beth E. Schneider

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136219382

Category: Social Science

Page: 640

View: 620

This comprehensive reader brings a social science perspective to an area hitherto dominated by the humanities. Through it, students will be able to follow the story of how sociology has come to engage with gay and lesbian issues from the 1950s to the present, from the earliest research on the underground worlds of gay men to the emergence of queer theory in the 1990s. Bringing together classic readings and the best work of younger scholars from all parts of the English-speaking world, this reader will be an invaluable resource for courses at undergraduate and graduate level in all areas of the sociology of sexuality and gender. Separate sections cover: * theoretical foundations * identity and community making * institutions and social change * challenges for the future. Each section begins with an introduction giving readers a brief guide to the readings in that section, contextualises them and relates them to one another and the book ends with an afterword by Ken Plummer summing up the present state of play and looking forward to the future.

International Encyclopedia of Social & Behavioral Sciences

Author: N.A

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0080548059

Category: Social Science

Page: 17500

View: 9488

This Encyclopedia is the first attempt in a generation to map the social and behavioral sciences on a grand scale. Not since the publication in 1968 of the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, edited by David L. Sills, has there been such an ambitious project to describe the state of the art in all the fields encompassed within the social and behavioral sciences. Available in both print (26 volumes) and online editions, it comprises 4,000 articles, commissioned by 52 Section Editors, and includes 90,000 bibliographic references as well as comprehensive name and subject indexes.

Psychology and Law

An Empirical Perspective

Author: Neil Brewer,Kipling D. Williams

Publisher: Guilford Publications

ISBN: 1462532349

Category: Psychology

Page: 516

View: 8286

From the initial investigation of a crime to the sentencing of an offender, many everyday practices within the criminal justice system involve complex psychological processes. This volume analyzes the processes involved in such tasks as interviewing witnesses, detecting deception, and eliciting eyewitness reports and identification from adults and children. Factors that influence decision making by jurors and judges are examined as well. Throughout, findings from experimental research are translated into clear recommendations for improving the quality of evidence and the fairness of investigative and legal proceedings. The book also addresses salient methodological questions and identifies key directions for future investigation.

Social Acceleration

A New Theory of Modernity

Author: Hartmut Rosa

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231519885

Category: Philosophy

Page: 512

View: 6513

Hartmut Rosa advances an account of the temporal structure of society from the perspective of critical theory. He identifies three categories of change in the tempo of modern social life: technological acceleration, evident in transportation, communication, and production; the acceleration of social change, reflected in cultural knowledge, social institutions, and personal relationships; and acceleration in the pace of life, which happens despite the expectation that technological change should increase an individual's free time. According to Rosa, both the structural and cultural aspects of our institutions and practices are marked by the "shrinking of the present," a decreasing time period during which expectations based on past experience reliably match the future. When this phenomenon combines with technological acceleration and the increasing pace of life, time seems to flow ever faster, making our relationships to each other and the world fluid and problematic. It is as if we are standing on "slipping slopes," a steep social terrain that is itself in motion and in turn demands faster lives and technology. As Rosa deftly shows, this self-reinforcing feedback loop fundamentally determines the character of modern life.

The Legal System

A Social Science Perspective

Author: Lawrence M. Friedman

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610442288

Category: Law

Page: 338

View: 5221

Examines the impact of social forces on the legal system and how the rules and orders promulgated by that legal system affect social behavior. Dr. Friedman explores the relationship between class structure and the work of legal systems in the light of the existing literature and analyzes the influence of the cultural elements contained in a legal system. In a comprehensive analysis of the concept of legal culture, the author sheds new light on the development of our legal norms and the types of legal systems which prevail in a democracy.

The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology

Author: Jaan Valsiner

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199366225

Category: Psychology

Page: 1136

View: 1286

The goal of cultural psychology is to explain the ways in which human cultural constructions -- for example, rituals, stereotypes, and meanings -- organize and direct human acting, feeling, and thinking in different social contexts. A rapidly growing, international field of scholarship, cultural psychology is ready for an interdisciplinary, primary resource. Linking psychology, anthropology, sociology, archaeology, and history, The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology is the quintessential volume that unites the variable perspectives from these disciplines. Comprised of over fifty contributed chapters, this book provides a necessary, comprehensive overview of contemporary cultural psychology. Bridging psychological, sociological, and anthropological perspectives, one will find in this handbook: - A concise history of psychology that includes valuable resources for innovation in psychology in general and cultural psychology in particular - Interdisciplinary chapters including insights into cultural anthropology, cross-cultural psychology, culture and conceptions of the self, and semiotics and cultural connections - Close, conceptual links with contemporary biological sciences, especially developmental biology, and with other social sciences - A section detailing potential methodological innovations for cultural psychology By comparing cultures and the (often differing) human psychological functions occuring within them, The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology is the ideal resource for making sense of complex and varied human phenomena.

Critical Perspectives on the Organization and Improvement of Schooling

Author: Kenneth A. Sirotnik,Jeannie Oakes

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940094229X

Category: Education

Page: 256

View: 7943

Major "paradigm shifts"-replacing one "world view" with another regarding what constitutes appropriate knowledge do not happen over night. Centuries usually intervene in the process. Even minor shifts admitting alternative world views into the domain of legitimate knowledge producing theory and practice-require decades of controversy, especially, it seems to us, in the field of education. It has only been in the last 20 years or so that the educational research community has begun to accept the "scientific" credibility of the qualitative approaches to inquiry such as participant observation, case study, ethnogra phy, and the like. In fact, these methods, with their long and distinguished philosophical traditions in phenomenology, have really only come into their own within the last decade. The critical perspective on generating and evaluating knowledge and practice-what this book is mostly about-is in many ways a radical depar ture from both the more traditional quantitative and qualitative perspec tives. The traditional approaches, in fact, are far more similar to one another than they are to the critical perspective. This is the case, in our view, for one crucial reason: Both the more quantitative, empirical-analytic and qualitative, interpretive traditions share a fundamental epistemological commitment: they both eschew ideology and human interests as explicit components in their paradigms of inquiry. Ideology and human interests, however, are the "bread and butter" of a critical approach to inquiry.

Child and Adolescent Development in Your Classroom

Author: Christi Crosby Bergin,David Allen Bergin

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1285965604

Category: Education

Page: 736

View: 4835

Covering development from early childhood through high school in an easy-to-follow format, this book provides future teachers with authentic, research-based strategies and guidelines for their classrooms. The authors apply child development concepts to topics of high interest and relevance to teachers, including classroom discipline, constructivism, social-emotional development, and many others. A strong emphasis on diversity among children is reflected throughout. Case studies and real-world vignettes further bridge the distance between research and the classroom, helping future teachers be better prepared to create an environment that promotes optimal development in children. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

The Point of View of the Universe

Sidgwick and Contemporary Ethics

Author: Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek,Peter Singer

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191022438

Category: Philosophy

Page: 320

View: 3820

What does the idea of taking 'the point of view of the universe' tell us about ethics? The great nineteenth-century utilitarian Henry Sidgwick used this metaphor to present what he took to be a self-evident moral truth: the good of one individual is of no more importance than the good of any other. Ethical judgments, he held, are objective truths that we can know by reason. The ethical axioms he took to be self-evident provide a foundation for utilitarianism. He supplements this foundation with an argument that nothing except states of consciousness have ultimate value, which led him to hold that pleasure is the only thing that is intrinsically good. Are these claims defensible? Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek and Peter Singer test them against a variety of views held by contemporary writers in ethics, and conclude that they are. This book is therefore a defence of objectivism in ethics, and of hedonistic utilitarianism. The authors also explore, and in most cases support, Sidgwick's views on many other key questions in ethics: how to justify an ethical theory, the significance of an evolutionary explanation of our moral judgments, the choice between preference-utilitarianism and hedonistic utilitarianism, the conflict between self-interest and universal benevolence, whether something that it would be wrong to do openly can be right if kept secret, how demanding utilitarianism is, whether we should discount the future, or favor those who are worse off, the moral status of animals, and what is an optimum population.

Prisons Crowding: A Psychological Perspective

Author: Paul Paulus

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461238129

Category: Psychology

Page: 115

View: 1192

This volume is a summary of a 1S-year effort to determine the effects of prison crowding and their relationship to the broader realm of crowding phenomena and theories. Although the writing of this volume was for the most part a solitary effort, the data and ideas it is based on were mostly the result of a collaborative effort with Verne Cox and Garvin McCain. Their schedules limited their ability to contribute to this volume, but they provided much constructive feedback and assistance. Cox also wrote a preliminary draft of Chapter 3, and both McCain and Cox made major contributions to Chapter S and assisted with several other chapters. I am greatly indebted to these two fine scholars for their efforts and support over the course of our joint research endeavors. In recognition of this fact, the pronoun "we" is used throughout this volume. This research would not have been possible without the cooperation and support of thousands of inmates and hundreds of prison officials. The un conditional support throughout the project from Director Norman Carlson and former regional research director Jerome Mabli, both of the Federal Bureau of Prisons, is also greatly appreciated. Thanks are due to the National Institute of Justice for financial support during various phases of this project. The support of John Spevacek of the Institute was indispens able. Funds were also provided by the Hogg Foundation, U. S. Department of Justice-Civil Rights Division, and the University of Texas at Arlington.

Mental Disorder in Canada

An Epidemiological Perspective

Author: John Cairney,David L. Streiner

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442698586

Category: Psychology

Page: 432

View: 2663

Canada has long been recognized as a leader in the field of psychiatric epidemiology, the study of the factors affecting mental health in populations. However, there has never been a book dedicated to the study of mental disorder at a population level in Canada. This collection of essays by leading scholars in the discipline uses data from the country's first national survey of mental disorder, the Canadian Community Health Survey of 2005, to fill that gap. Mental Disorder in Canada explores the history of psychiatric epidemiology, evaluates methodological issues, and analyzes the prevalence of several significant mental disorders in the population. The collection also includes essays on stigma, mental disorder and the criminal justice system, and mental health among women, children, workers, and other demographic groups. Focusing specifically on Canadian scholarship, yet wide-reaching in scope, Mental Disorder in Canada is an important contribution to the dissemination and advancement of knowledge on psychiatric epidemiology.

The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice

Author: E.Allan Lind,Tom R. Tyler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306427268

Category: Psychology

Page: 267

View: 3691

We dedicate this book to John Thibaut. He was mentor and personal friend to one of us, and his work had a profound intellectual influence on both of us. We were both strongly influenced by Thibaut's insightful articulation of the importance to psychology of the concept of pro cedural justice and by his empirical work with Laurens Walker in reactions to legal institu demonstrating the role of procedural justice tions. The great importance we accord the Thibaut and Walker work is evident throughout this volume. If anyone person can be said to have created an entire field of inquiry, John Thibaut created the psychological study of procedural justice. (To honor Thibaut thus in no sense reduces our recognition of the contributions of his co-worker, Laurens Walker, in the creation of the field. We are as certain that Walker would endorse our statement as we are that Thibaut, with characteristic modesty, would demur from it. ) Even to praise Thibaut in this fashion falls short of recognizing all of his contributions to procedural justice. Not only did he initiate the psy chological study of the topic, he also built much of the intellectual foun dation upon which the study of procedural justice rests. Thibaut's work with Harold Kelley (1959; Kelley & Thibaut, 1978) created a social psy chological theory of interdependence that, among many other applica tions, serves as the basis for one of the major models of the psychology of procedural justice.

Through the Labyrinth

The Truth About How Women Become Leaders

Author: Alice H. Eagly,Linda L. Carli

Publisher: Harvard Business Review Press

ISBN: 1633690237

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 8200

Despite real progress, women remain rare enough in elite positions of power that their presence still evokes a sense of wonder. In Through the Labyrinth, Alice Eagly and Linda Carli examine why women's paths to power remain difficult to traverse. First, Eagly and Carli prove that the glass ceiling is no longer a useful metaphor and offer seven reasons why. They propose the labyrinth as a better image and explain how to navigate through it. This important and practical book addresses such critical questions as: How far have women actually come as leaders? Do stereotypes and prejudices still limit women's opportunities? Do people resist women's leadership more than men's? And, do organisations create obstacles to women who would be leaders?This book's rich analysis is founded on scientific research from psychology, economics, sociology, political science, and management. The authors ground their conclusions in that research and invoke a wealth of engaging anecdotes and personal accounts to illustrate the practical principles that emerge. With excellent leadership in short supply, no group, organisation, or nation can afford to restrict women's access to leadership roles. This book evaluates whether such restrictions are present and, when they are, what we can do to eliminate them.

Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law

Author: Brian L. Cutler

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1452265801

Category: Psychology

Page: 1008

View: 2952

The Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law addresses the interface of psychology and law and draws from the related discipline of criminal justice. These two volumes represent an outstanding collection of entries describing a wide array of contemporary and historical psychology and law topics. With more than 400 entries, this comprehensive resource is perfect to fill the substantial gap in the holdings of academic, professional, and personal libraries on this topic. Key Themes Criminal Competencies Criminal Responsibility Death Penalty Education and Professional Development Forensic Assessment in Civil and Criminal Cases Juvenile Offenders Mental Health Law Police and Investigative Psychology Psychological and Forensic Assessment Instruments Psychology of Criminal Behavior Sentencing and Incarceration Symptoms and Disorders Relevant to Forensic Assessment Trial Processes Violence Risk Assessment The Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law allows individual students, scientists, and practitioners to keep abreast of the growing knowledge base outside their individual areas of expertise, making it a must-have resource for any academic library.

Behavioral Approaches to Crime and Delinquency

A Handbook of Application, Research, and Concepts

Author: Edward K. Morris,Curtis J. Braukmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461309034

Category: Psychology

Page: 652

View: 1266

The systematic application of behavioral psychology to crime and delinquency was begun only 20 years ago, yet it has already contributed significantly to our practical knowledge about prevention and correction and to our general under standing of a pressing social problem. In this handbook, we review and evalu ate what has been accomplished to date, as well as what is currently at the leading edge of the field. We do so in order to present a clear, comprehensive, and systematic view of the field and to promote and encourage still more effective action and social policy reform in the future. The chapters in this text have been written by professionals who were among the original innovators in applying behavioral psychology to crime and delinquency and who continue to make critical contributions to the field's progress, and by a new generation of energetic, young professionals who are taking the field in important and innovative directions. The contributors have attempted to review and evaluate their areas with critical dispassion, to pro vide thorough but not overly specialized discussion of their material, and to draw implications for how research, application, and social policy might be improved in the future. For our part as editors, we have tried to foster integra tion across the chapters and to provide background and conceptual material of our own.