Thought and Knowledge

An Introduction to Critical Thinking

Author: Diane F. Halpern

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1134637861

Category: Psychology

Page: 640

View: 7392

This best-selling textbook, written by award-winning educator and past president of the American Psychological Association, Diane F. Halpern, applies theory and research from the learning sciences to teach students the thinking skills they need to succeed in today's world. This new edition retains features from earlier editions that have helped its readers become better thinkers. A rigorous academic grounding based in cognitive psychology is presented in a clear writing style with a humorous tone and supported by numerous practical examples and anecdotes. Thought and Knowledge, Fifth Edition has been revised to help students meet the challenges of a global neighborhood and make meaningful conclusions from the overwhelming quantity of information now available at the click of a mouse. The skills learned with this text will help students learn more efficiently, research more productively, and present logical, informed arguments. Thought and Knowledge, Fifth Edition is appropriate for use as a textbook in critical thinking courses offered in departments of psychology, philosophy, English, humanities, or as a supplement in any course where critical thinking is emphasized.

Thought & Knowledge

An Introduction to Critical Thinking

Author: Diane F. Halpern

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 9780805839654

Category: Psychology

Page: 467

View: 7769

This best-selling textbook, written by award-winning educator and past president of the APA, Diane Halpern, applies theory and research from the learning sciences to teach students the thinking skills they need to succeed in today's world. This new edition retains features from earlier editions that have helped its readers become better thinkers. A rigorous academic grounding based in cognitive psychology is presented in a clear writing style with a humorous tone and supported by numerous practical examples and anecdotes. Thought & Knowledge, Fourth Editionhas been revised to help students meet the challenges of a global neighborhood and make meaningful conclusions form the overwhelming quantity of information now available at the click of a mouse. The skills learned with this text will help students learn more efficiently, research more productively, and present logical, informed arguments. New features include: *Template for Making Arguments.This is a crucial preparation tool for students in any subject area. For those planning on continuing to Graduate School, this feature is an essential reference. The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) now requires that all test takers write an argument on a contemporary topic. *Concept Mapsprovide students with strategies to clarify complex information and retain long-term knowledge. *Contemporary Examples,throughout the text, relate current events to the book discussions. *Explanations on How to Evaluate Information found on Web sites. *Revised Student Workbook.Thinking Critically About Critical Thinking, Fourth Editionis filled with new exercises to reinforce learning and practice newly acquired skills. This workbook can be purchased in a student package with the text or as a separate item. Thought & Knowledge, Fourth Editionis appropriate for use as a textbook in critical thinking courses offered in departments of psychology, philosophy, English, humanities, or as a supplement in any course where critical thinking is emphasized.

Helping Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder Express their Thoughts and Knowledge in Writing

Tips and Exercises for Developing Writing Skills

Author: Elise Geither,Lisa M. Meeks

Publisher: Jessica Kingsley Publishers

ISBN: 085700980X

Category: Education

Page: 136

View: 1381

When it comes to academic work, students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often have the required knowledge but struggle to get their thoughts down in writing. This is a practical guide to teaching and improving writing skills in students with ASD to meet academic writing standards and prepare for the increased expectations of higher education. The book covers key considerations for all educators teaching writing skills to high school and college students with ASD including how to address difficulties with comprehension, executive functioning, and motor skills, how to structure ideas into a coherent argument, and how to develop creativity and expression in writing, as well as how to successfully adapt these skills to meet university expectations. Each chapter includes teaching tips, insightful student perspectives, and ready-to-use writing exercises.

Jorge Luis Borges

thought and knowledge in the XXth century

Author: Alfonso de Toro,Fernando de Toro

Publisher: N.A


Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 358

View: 2253

Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum

A Brief Edition of Thought & Knowledge

Author: Diane F. Halpern

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317778375

Category: Psychology

Page: 296

View: 5966

Consider that many of the people who are alive today will be working at jobs that do not currently exist and that the explosion of information means that today's knowledge will quickly become outdated. As a result, two goals for education clearly emerge -- learning how to learn and how to think critically about information that changes at a rapid rate. We face a multitude of new challenges to our natural environment, difficult dilemmas concerning the use of weapons of mass destruction, political agendas for the distribution of scarce commodities and wealth, psychological problems of loneliness and depression, escalating violence, and an expanding elderly population. International in scope and in magnitude, these new problems strain resources and threaten the continuance of life on earth. To creatively and effectively attack these imminent problems, a well educated, thinking populace is essential. An abridged edition of Halpern's best-selling text, Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum is designed to help students enhance their thinking skills in every class. The skills discussed are needed in every academic area and setting -- both in and out of class. They are: determining cause; assessing likelihood and uncertainty; comprehending complex text; solving novel problems; making good decisions; evaluating claims and evidence; and thinking creatively. In this adaptation of her best-selling text, Diane Halpern applies the theories and research of cognitive psychology to the development of critical thinking and learning skills needed in the increasingly complex world in which we work and live. The book is distinguished by its clear writing style, humorous tone, many practical examples and anecdotes, and rigorous academic grounding. Everyday examples and exercises promote the transfer of critical thinking skills and dispositions to real-world settings and problems. The goal is to help readers recognize when and how to apply the thinking skills needed to analyze arguments, reason clearly, identify and solve problems, and make sound decisions. Also of importance, a general thinking skills framework ties the chapters together, but each is written so that it can "stand alone." This organization allows for maximum flexibility in the selection of topics and the order in which they are covered. This book is intended for use in any course emphasizing critical thinking as an approach to excellence in thinking and learning.

Knowledge, Thought, and the Case for Dualism

Author: Richard Fumerton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110729262X

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

View: 609

The relationship between mind and matter, mental states and physical states, has occupied the attention of philosophers for thousands of years. Richard Fumerton's primary concern is the knowledge argument for dualism - an argument that proceeds from the idea that we can know truths about our existence and our mental states without knowing any truths about the physical world. This view has come under relentless criticism, but here Fumerton makes a powerful case for its rehabilitation, demonstrating clearly the importance of its interconnections with a wide range of other controversies within philosophy. Fumerton analyzes philosophical views about the nature of thought and the relation of those views to arguments for dualism, and investigates the connection between a traditional form of foundationalism about knowledge, and a foundationalist view about thought that underlies traditional arguments for dualism. His book will be of great interest to those studying epistemology and the philosophy of mind.

Islam and Knowledge

Al Faruqi's Concept of Religion in Islamic Thought

Author: Imtiyaz Yusuf

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 0857731262

Category: Philosophy

Page: 352

View: 8393

Born in Palestine in 1921, Professor Isma‘il Raji al Faruqi was a major figure in Islamic Studies and international interfaith dialogue. He is remembered as an intellectual, a philosopher, and a pioneering authority in comparative religion. A prolific writer, described as a ‘creative mind’, al Faruqi saw God as the only way to understand reality, laying the foundations for a new interpretation of the Islamic Concept of Tawhid (oneness of God). Al Faruqi was one of the founding fathers and the first President of the International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT), an intellectual forum which promotes and supports research projects and cultural events and publishes scholarly works relating to the Islamic World. We live in an era when the Islamic World is making a range of attempts to redefine itself and to grapple with the challenges of modernity, technological progress and globalization. Many schools of thought - some traditional and revivalist, others a more direct response to the developments in the information age - have emerged that seek to position modern Islam within the context of this rapidly changing contemporary world. Exploring and defining the relationship between religion and knowledge was the centre-piece of the ideas of Isma‘il Raji al Faruqi. A distinguished twentieth-century Arab-American scholar of Islam, al Faruqi formulated ideas that have made substantial contributions to the Islam and modernity discourse. This book’s exploration of the interaction between Islam and knowledge takes in not only a philosophical examination of this relationship, but also the ways in which an Islamic perspective can relate to our understanding of science, the arts, architecture, technology and a whole range of other knowledgebased fields of enquiry. Many distinguished scholars have contributed to this illuminating volume, including Seyyed Hossein Nasr, John Esposito, Charles Fletcher and others, producing a body of insight and perspective which will prove an essential reference point both for scholars of Islam as well as students of philosophy and comparative religion.

Language, Mind, and Knowledge

Author: Keith Gunderson

Publisher: U of Minnesota Press

ISBN: 0816657793

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 3010

Language, Mind, and Knowledge was first published in 1975. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. This is Volume VII of the Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, a series published in cooperation with the Minnesota Center for Philosophy of Science at the University of Minnesota and edited by Herbert Feigl and Grover Maxwell. Professor Maxwell is the present director of the Center. Some of the papers in this volume were presented at or grew out of a conference on the philosophy of language which was held at the Center under the direction of Professor Gunderson. Others were written independently. The aim of the book, like that of the conference, is to assemble a wide variety of approaches to issues in the philosophy of language with emphasis on the ways in which the issues involved have bearing on other matters such as linguistic theory, cognitive psychology, the philosophy of mind, and epistemology. There are twelve papers by eleven contributors: "Languages and Language" by David Lewis; "Logic and Language: An Examination of Recent Criticisms of Internationalism" by Jerrold J. Katz; "The Meaning of 'Meaning'" by Hilary Putnam; "Reference and Context" by Charles Chastain; "Language, Thought, and Communication" by Gilbert Harman; "Knowledge of Language" by Noam Chomsky; "Language, Rules, and Complex Behavior" by Michael D. Root; "A Taxonomy of Illocutionary Acts" by John R. Searle; "On What We Know" by Zeno Vendler; "Vendler on Knowledge and Belief" by Bruce Aune; "Reply to Professor Aune" by Zeno Vendler; "Brain Writing and Mind Reading" by D.C. Dennett.

Scripture and Knowledge

An Essay on Religious Epistemology

Author: Shlomo Bîderman

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789004101548

Category: Religion

Page: 256

View: 3350

Scripture and Knowledge clarifies the epistemological uses of scripture and examines some of the ways in which these uses have been understood in religious traditions. The author contends that philosophers have neglected scripture as a means of understanding religion. He shows the inadequacy of prevalent emphases on either the content or the social function of scripture as the sole measure of its role. As the author demonstrates, scripture has a unique epistemological aspect, that of a framework that gives believers a total picture of the world and its significance. A discussion of the knowledge claims made by scripture and of the authority by which these claims are justified is accompanied by extended examples from Jewish and Hindu sources.

Acquaintance, Ontology, and Knowledge

Collected Essays in Ontology

Author: Fred Wilson

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110327015

Category: Philosophy

Page: 726

View: 2688

These essays bring together forty years of work in ontology. Intentionality, negation, universals, bare particulars, tropes, general facts, relations, the myth of the 'myth of the given', are among the topics covered. Bergmann, Quine, Sellars, Russell, Wittgenstein, Hume, Bradley, Hochberg, Dummett, Frege, Plato, are among the philosophers discussed. The essays criticize non-Humean notions of cause; they criticize the notion that besides simple atomic facts there are also negative facts and general facts. They defend a realism of properties as universals, against nominalism; bare particulars; a (qualified) realism with regard to logical form; a Russellian account of relations; and an account of minds and intentionality, which is opposed to materialism, but is also a form of (methodological) behaviourism. In general, the ontology is one of logical atomism and empiricist throughout, rooted in a Principle of Acquaintance.

Gender and Knowledge

Elements of a Postmodern Feminism

Author: Susan J. Hekman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 074566704X

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 7401

After the success of the hardback, students and academics will welcome the publication of this book in paperback. The aim of the book is to explore the connection between two perspectives that have had a profound effect upon contemporary thought: post-modernism and feminism. Through bringing together and systematically analysing the relations between these, Hekman is able to make a major intervention into current debates in social theory and philosophy. The critique of Enlightenment knowledge, she argues, is at the core of both post-modernism and feminism. Each also offers a basis for critical reflections about the other. In particular, post-modern philosophy provides a means of criticizing aspects of contemporary feminism and thus contributing to the development of a more sophisticated approach to current feminist issues.

Meaning, Mind, and Knowledge

Author: Christopher S. Hill

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191644102

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 5970

In this collection of essays, most of which are of recent vintage, and seven of which appear here for the first time, Christopher S. Hill addresses a large assortment of philosophical issues. Part I presents a deflationary theory of truth, argues that semantic properties like reference and correspondence with fact can also be characterized in deflationary terms, and offers an account of the value of these 'thin' properties, tracing it to their ability to track more substantial properties that are informational or epistemic in character. Part II defends the view that conscious experiences are type-identical with brain states. It addresses a large array of objections to this identity thesis, including objections based on the alleged multiple realizability of experiences, and objections based on Cartesian intuitions about the modeal separability of mind and matter. In the end, however, it maintains that theories of experience based on type-identity should give way to representationalist accounts. Part III presents a representationalist solution to the mind-body problem. It argues that all awareness, including awareness of qualia, is governed by a Kantian appearance/reality distinction—a distinction between the ways objects and properties are represented as being, and the ways they are in themselves. It also presents theories of pain and visual qualia that kick them out of the mind and assign them to locations in body and the external world. Part IV defends reliabilist theories of epistemic justification, deploys such theories in answering Cartesian skepticism, responds critically to Hawthorne's lottery problem and related proposals about the role of knowledge in conversation and practical reasoning, presents a new account of the sources of modeal knowledge, and proposes an account of logical and mathematical beliefs that represents them as immunune to empirical revision.

Images, Perception, and Knowledge

Papers Deriving from and Related to the Philosophy of Science Workshop at Ontario, Canada, May 1974

Author: J.M. Nicholas

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401011931

Category: Science

Page: 318

View: 8576

Despite the strictures of the extreme Behaviourists, psychologists have been taking an increasing interest in the development of theories concerning the 'mechanisms' internal to humans and animals which permit perceptual, memory, and problem solving behaviour. One consideration which has enormously stimulated an interest in theories of internal cognitive represen tation has been progress in the theory and the technology of computing machines, which has opened the promising prospect of computer simulation of human and animal psychological functions. What has developed is the possibility of constructing models of human psychology, realizing them in computer hardware, and testing the resultant machine performance against that of the human subject. A second consideration which helps motivate the construction of models of internal representation is the considerable advances in experimental and theoretical knowledge of the human brain understood from the neuro-anatomical view. The likely profit of adopting a narrowly Behaviourist methodology shrinks in the face of our growing, fine-grained knowledge of cerebral 'wetware'. The purpose of this volume is selectively to exhibit some of the proposals concerning theories of internal representation which have been put forward in recent years. The area of central concern is the resurgence of interest in the role of imagery in cognition which has taken place in the last fifteen years.

Simulation and Knowledge of Action

Author: Jérôme Dokic,Joëlle Proust

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027251701

Category: Psychology

Page: 269

View: 1239

The current debate between theory theory and simulation theory on the nature of mentalisation has reached no consensus yet, although many now think that some hybrid theory is needed. This collection of essays represents an effort at re-evaluating the scope of simulation theory, while also considering areas in which it could be submitted to experimental tests. The volume explores the two main versions of simulation theory, Goldman s introspectionism and Gordon s radical simulationism, and enquires whether they allow a non-circular account of mentalisation. The originality of the volume is to confront conceptual views on simulation with data from pragmatics, developmental psychology and the neurosciences. Individual chapters contain discussions of specific issues such as autism, imitation, motor imagery, conditional reasoning, joint attention and the understanding of demonstratives. It will be of interest primarily to advanced students and researchers in the philosophy of mind, language and action, but also to everyone interested in the nature of interpretation and communication. (Series B)

Facilitating Seven Ways of Learning

A Resource for More Purposeful, Effective, and Enjoyable College Teaching

Author: James R. Davis,Bridget D. Arend

Publisher: Stylus Publishing, LLC

ISBN: 1579228437

Category: Education

Page: 326

View: 9485

For teachers in higher education who haven’t been able to catch up with developments in teaching and learning, James Davis and Bridget Arend offer an introduction that focuses on seven coherent and proven evidence-based strategies. The underlying rationale is to provide a framework to match teaching goals to distinct ways of learning, based on well-established theories of learning. The authors present approaches that readers can readily and safely experiment with to achieve desired learning outcomes, and build confidence in changing their methods of teaching. Research on learning clearly demonstrates that learning is not one thing, but many. The learning associated with developing a skill is different from the learning associated with understanding and remembering information, which in turn is different from thinking critically and creatively, solving problems, making decisions, or change paradigms in the light of evidence. Differing outcomes involve different ways of learning and teaching strategies. The authors provide the reader with a conceptual approach for selecting appropriate teaching strategies for different types of content, and for achieving specific learning objectives. They demonstrate through examples how a focused and purposeful selection of activities improves student performance, and in the process makes for a more effective and satisfying teaching experience. The core of the book presents a chapter on each of the seven ways of learning. Each chapter offers a full description of the process, illustrates its application with examples from different academic fields and types of institutions, clearly describes the teacher’s facilitation role, and covers assessment and online use. The seven ways of learning are: Behavioral Learning; Cognitive Learning; Learning through Inquiry; Learning with Mental Models; Learning through Groups and Teams; Learning through Virtual Realities; and Experiential Learning. Along the way, the authors provide the reader with a basis for evaluating other approaches to teaching and other learning methodologies so that she or he can confidently go beyond the “seven ways” to adapt or adopt further strategies. This is the ideal companion for teachers who are beginning to explore new ways of teaching, and want to do some serious independent thinking about learning. The book can also be used to prepare graduate students for teaching, and will be welcomed by centers for teaching and learning to help continuing faculty re-examine a particular aspect of their teaching.

Nietzsche's Theory of Knowledge

Author: Rüdiger Hermann Grimm

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110861224

Category: Philosophy

Page: 218

View: 9556

In der Reihe werden herausragende monographische Interpretationen von Nietzsches Werk im Ganzen oder von spezifischen Themen und Aspekten aus unterschiedlichen wissenschaftlichen Perspektiven veröffentlicht, vor allem aus philosophischer, literatur- und kommunikationswissenschaftlicher, soziologischer und historischer Sicht. Die Publikationen repräsentieren den aktuellen Stand. Jeder Band ist peer-reviewed.