The Will to Improve

Governmentality, Development, and the Practice of Politics

Author: Tania Murray Li

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822389789

Category: Social Science

Page: 390

View: 4631

The Will to Improve is a remarkable account of development in action. Focusing on attempts to improve landscapes and livelihoods in Indonesia, Tania Murray Li carefully exposes the practices that enable experts to diagnose problems and devise interventions, and the agency of people whose conduct is targeted for reform. Deftly integrating theory, ethnography, and history, she illuminates the work of colonial officials and missionaries; specialists in agriculture, hygiene, and credit; and political activists with their own schemes for guiding villagers toward better ways of life. She examines donor-funded initiatives that seek to integrate conservation with development through the participation of communities, and a one-billion-dollar program designed by the World Bank to optimize the social capital of villagers, inculcate new habits of competition and choice, and remake society from the bottom up. Demonstrating that the “will to improve” has a long and troubled history, Li identifies enduring continuities from the colonial period to the present. She explores the tools experts have used to set the conditions for reform—tools that combine the reshaping of desires with applications of force. Attending in detail to the highlands of Sulawesi, she shows how a series of interventions entangled with one another and tracks their results, ranging from wealth to famine, from compliance to political mobilization, and from new solidarities to oppositional identities and violent attack. The Will to Improve is an engaging read—conceptually innovative, empirically rich, and alive with the actions and reflections of the targets of improvement, people with their own critical analyses of the problems that beset them.

The will to improve

governmentality, development, and the practice of politics

Author: Tania Li

Publisher: Duke University Press Books

ISBN: N.A

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 374

View: 5127

Theoretical and anthropological study of how techniques of governance have been devised in the colonial and postcolonial context of Indonesia and their effect on current debates over economic development in the region.

The Will to Improve

Governmentality, Development, and the Practice of Politics

Author: Tania Murray Li

Publisher: Duke University Press Books

ISBN: 9780822340270

Category: Social Science

Page: 390

View: 4017

The Will to Improve is a remarkable account of development in action. Focusing on attempts to improve landscapes and livelihoods in Indonesia, Tania Murray Li carefully exposes the practices that enable experts to diagnose problems and devise interventions, and the agency of people whose conduct is targeted for reform. Deftly integrating theory, ethnography, and history, she illuminates the work of colonial officials and missionaries; specialists in agriculture, hygiene, and credit; and political activists with their own schemes for guiding villagers toward better ways of life. She examines donor-funded initiatives that seek to integrate conservation with development through the participation of communities, and a one-billion-dollar program designed by the World Bank to optimize the social capital of villagers, inculcate new habits of competition and choice, and remake society from the bottom up. Demonstrating that the “will to improve” has a long and troubled history, Li identifies enduring continuities from the colonial period to the present. She explores the tools experts have used to set the conditions for reform—tools that combine the reshaping of desires with applications of force. Attending in detail to the highlands of Sulawesi, she shows how a series of interventions entangled with one another and tracks their results, ranging from wealth to famine, from compliance to political mobilization, and from new solidarities to oppositional identities and violent attack. The Will to Improve is an engaging read—conceptually innovative, empirically rich, and alive with the actions and reflections of the targets of improvement, people with their own critical analyses of the problems that beset them.

Governmentality

Power and Rule in Modern Society

Author: Mitchell Dean

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1847873847

Category: Political Science

Page: 294

View: 4248

Originally published in 1999 this exceptionally clear and lucid book quickly became the standard overview of what are now called 'governmentality studies'. With its emphasis on the relationship between governmentality and other key concepts drawn from Michel Foucault, such as bio-politics and sovereignty, the first edition anticipated and defined the terms of contemporary debate and analysis. In this timely second edition Mitchell Dean engages with the full textual basis of Foucault's lectures and once again provides invaluable insights into the traditions, methods and theories of political power identifying the authoritarian as well as liberal sides of governmentality. Every chapter has been fully revised and updated to incorporate, and respond to, new theoretical, social and political developments in the field; a new introduction surveying the state of governmentality today has also been added as well as a completely new chapter on international governmentality.

Land’s End

Capitalist Relations on an Indigenous Frontier

Author: Tania Murray Li

Publisher: Duke University Press Books

ISBN: 9780822357056

Category: Social Science

Page: 239

View: 1148

Drawing on two decades of ethnographic research in Sulawesi, Indonesia, Tania Murray Li offers an intimate account of the emergence of capitalist relations among indigenous highlanders who privatized their common land to plant a boom crop, cacao. Spurred by the hope of ending their poverty and isolation, some prospered, while others lost their land and struggled to sustain their families. Yet the winners and losers in this transition were not strangers—they were kin and neighbors. Li's richly peopled account takes the reader into the highlanders' world, exploring the dilemmas they faced as sharp inequalities emerged among them. The book challenges complacent, modernization narratives promoted by development agencies that assume inefficient farmers who lose out in the shift to high-value export crops can find jobs elsewhere. Decades of uneven and often jobless growth in Indonesia meant that for newly landless highlanders, land's end was a dead end. The book also has implications for social movement activists, who seldom attend to instances where enclosure is initiated by farmers rather than coerced by the state or agribusiness corporations. Li's attention to the historical, cultural, and ecological dimensions of this conjuncture demonstrates the power of the ethnographic method and its relevance to theory and practice today.

Red Tape

Bureaucracy, Structural Violence, and Poverty in India

Author: Akhil Gupta

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822351102

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 5569

Examining the chronic, widespread poverty in India, the world's fourth largest economy, Akhil Gupta theorizes the relation between the state in India and the poor as one of structural violence.

Transforming the Frontier

Peace Parks and the Politics of Neoliberal Conservation in Southern Africa

Author: Bram Büscher

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822354209

Category: History

Page: 290

View: 763

International peace parks—transnational conservation areas established and managed by two or more countries—have become a popular way of protecting biodiversity while promoting international cooperation and regional development. In Transforming the Frontier, Bram Büscher shows how cross-border conservation neatly reflects the neoliberal political economy in which it developed. Based on extensive research in southern Africa with the Maloti-Drakensberg Transfrontier Conservation and Development Project, Büscher explains how the successful promotion of transfrontier conservation as a "win-win" solution happens not only in spite of troubling contradictions and problems, but indeed because of them. This is what he refers to as the "politics of neoliberal conservation," which receives its strength from effectively combining strategies of consensus, antipolitics, and marketing. Drawing on long-term, multilevel ethnographic research, Büscher argues that transfrontier conservation projects are not as concerned with on-the-ground development as they are purported to be. Instead, they are reframing environmental protection and sustainable development to fit an increasingly contradictory world order.

Anthropology and Development

Culture, Morality and Politics in a Globalised World

Author: Emma Crewe,Richard Axelby

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139789201

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 6953

In recent decades international development has grown into a world-shaping industry. But how do aid agencies work and what do they achieve? How does aid appear to the adults and children who receive it? And why has there been so little improvement in the position of the poor? Viewing aid and development from anthropological perspectives gives illuminating answers to questions such as these. This essential textbook reveals anthropologists' often surprising findings and details ethnographic case studies on the cultures of development. The authors use a fertile literature to examine the socio-political organisation of aid communities, agencies and networks, as well as the judgements they make about each other. The everyday practice of development work is about negotiating power and culture, but in vastly different ways in different contexts and for different social groups. Exploring the spaces between policy and practice, success and failure, the future and the past, this book provides a rounded understanding of development work that suggests new moral and political possibilities for an increasingly globalised world.

New Ecologies for the Twenty-First Century

Author: Associate Professor of Political Science Arun Agrawal

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780822386421

Category: BUSINESS & ECONOMICS

Page: 345

View: 9340

Annotation In Kumaon in northern India, villagers set hundreds of forest fires in the early 1920s, protesting the colonial British state's regulations to protect the environment. Yet by the 1990s, they had begun to conserve their forests carefully. In his innovative historical and political study, Arun Agrawal analyzes this striking transformation. He describes and explains the emergence of environmental identities and changes in state-locality relations and shows how the two are related. In so doing, he demonstrates that scholarship on common property, political ecology, and feminist environmentalism can be combined--in an approach he calls environmentality--to better understand changes in conservation efforts. Such an understanding is relevant far beyond Kumaon: local populations in more than fifty countries are engaged in similar efforts to protect their environmental resources.Agrawal brings environment and development studies, new institutional economics, and Foucauldian theories of power and subjectivity to bear on his ethnographical and historical research. He visited nearly forty villages in Kumaon, where he assessed the state of village forests, interviewed hundreds of Kumaonis, and examined local records. Drawing on his extensive fieldwork and archival research, he shows how decentralization strategies change relations between states and localities, community decision makers and common residents, and individuals and the environment. In exploring these changes and their significance, Agrawal establishes that theories of environmental politics are enriched by attention to the interconnections between power, knowledge, institutions, and subjectivities.

Logics of Empowerment

Development, Gender, and Governance in Neoliberal India

Author: Aradhana Sharma

Publisher: U of Minnesota Press

ISBN: 0816654522

Category: Social Science

Page: 260

View: 8478

Bringing much-needed specificity to the study of neoliberalism, 'Logics of Empowerment' fosters a deeper understanding of development and politics in contemporary India.

Instituting Nature

Authority, Expertise, and Power in Mexican Forests

Author: Andrew S. Mathews

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262016524

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 8997

Greater knowledge and transparency are often promoted as the keys to solving a widearray of governance problems. In Instituting Nature, Andrew Mathews describes Mexico's efforts overthe past hundred years to manage its forests through forestry science and biodiversity conservation.He shows that transparent knowledge was produced not by official declarations or scientists'expertise but by encounters between the relatively weak forestry bureaucracy and the indigenouspeople who manage and own the pine forests of Mexico. Mathews charts the performances, collusions,complicities, and evasions that characterize the forestry bureaucracy. He shows that the authorityof forestry officials is undermined by the tension between local realities and national policy;officials must juggle sweeping knowledge claims and mundane concealments, ambitious regulations androutine rule breaking. Moving from government offices in Mexico City to forests in the state ofOaxaca, Mathews describes how the science of forestry and bureaucratic practices came to Oaxaca inthe 1930s and how local environmental and political contexts set the stage for local resistance. Hetells how the indigenous Zapotec people learned the theory and practice of industrial forestry asemployees and then put these skills to use when they become the owners and managers of the area'spine forests--eventually incorporating forestry into their successful claims for autonomy from thestate. Despite the apparently small scale and local contexts of this balancing act between the powerof forestry regulations and the resistance of indigenous communities, Mathews shows that it haslarge implications--for how we understand the modern state, scientific knowledge, and power and forthe global carbon markets for which Mexican forests might become valuable. Thehardcover edition does not include a dust jacket.

Mobile Pastoralists

Development Planning and Social Change in Oman

Author: Dawn Chatty

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231105491

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 230

View: 5137

Anthropological study of the nomadic Harasis.

Institutions Count

Their Role and Significance in Latin American Development

Author: Alejandro Portes,Lori D. Smith

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520273532

Category: Social Science

Page: 206

View: 343

"Institutions Count is an impressively collaborative project and a valuable contribution, both for its lucid presentation of case study data across countries and cultures as well as its new insights to the roles institutions play in national development." —Bryan R. Roberts, Professor of Sociology at the University of Texas, Austin "Institutions Count by Portes and Smith is a significant addition to studies of institutions as well as studies of development. The main contributions include a clarification of the concept of institutions; an impeccable methodology for the empirical analysis of five institutions in five developing countries; and an innovative, comparative analysis of the outcomes of the individual studies. It is to be recommended to scholars across the social sciences who are frustrated by the lack of rigor in the existing literature on the increasingly popular topic of institutions."—Barbara Stallings, Wm. R. Rhodes Research Professor, Brown University

Powers of Exclusion

Land Dilemmas in Southeast Asia

Author: Derek Hall,Philip Hirsch,Tania Li

Publisher: University of Hawaii Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 257

View: 9913

Questions of who can access land and who is excluded from it underlie many recent social and political conflicts in Southeast Asia. Powers of Exclusion examines the key processes through which shifts in land relations are taking place, notably state land allocation and provision of property rights, the dramatic expansion of areas zoned for conservation, booms in the production of export-oriented crops, the conversion of farmland to post-agrarian uses, "intimate" exclusions involving kin and co-villagers, and mobilizations around land framed in terms of identity and belonging. In case studies drawn from seven countries, the authors find that four "powers of exclusion"--regulation, the market, force and legitimation--have combined to shape land relations in new and often surprising ways. Land debates are often presented as a conflict between market-oriented land use with full private property rights on the one side, and equitable access, production for subsistence, and respect for custom on the other. The authors step back from these debates to point out that any productive use of land requires the exclusion of some potential users, and that most projects for transforming land relations are thus accompanied by painful dilemmas. Rather than counterposing "exclusion" to "inclusion," the book argues that attention must be paid to who is excluded, how, why, and with what consequences. Powers of Exclusion is a path-breaking book that draws on insights from multiple disciplines to map out the new contours of struggles for land in Southeast Asia. The volume provides a framework for analyzing the dilemmas of land relations across the Global South and beyond.

Islamic NGOs in Bangladesh

Development, Piety and Neoliberal governmentality

Author: Mohammad Musfequs Salehin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317548728

Category: Social Science

Page: 236

View: 7704

NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations) have emerged in both a development and aid capacity in Bangladesh, providing wide-reaching public services to the country’s population living in extreme poverty. However, resistance to and limitations of NGO-led development - which in conjunction with Bangladesh’s social transformation - led to a new religious-based NGO development practice. Looking at the role of Islamic NGOs in Bangladesh, the book investigates new forms of neoliberal governmentality supported by international donors. It discusses how this form of social regulation produces and reproduces subjectivities, particularly Muslim women subjectivity, and has combined religious and economic rationality, further complicating the boundaries and the relationship between Islam, modernity, and development. The book argues that both secular and Islamic NGOs target women in the name of empowerment but more importantly as the most reliable partners to meet their debt obligations of micro-financing schemes, including shari’a-based financing. The targeted women, in turn, experience Islamic NGOs as less coercive and more sensitive to their religious environment in the rural village community than are secular NGOs. Providing a comparative study of the role of religious and secular NGOs in the implementation of neoliberal policies and development strategies, this book will be a significant addition to research on South Asian Politics, Development Studies, Gender Studies, and Religion.

Power of Development

Author: Jonathan Crush

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134832966

Category: Science

Page: 340

View: 1207

Post-colonial, post-modern and feminist critiques have challenged the ways we theorise and practice development. Development is not just the conclusion of economic logic; its histories reveal a legacy of contested power, illuminating the contemporary battlefields of knowledge. These essays explore the language of development, its rhetoric and meaning within different political and institutional contexts. The contested ideas behind world development are explained, with illustrative material, sensitive to place and time, chiefly drawn from Asia, Africa and Latin America. This book examines the power of development to imagine new worlds and to constantly reinvent itself as the solution to problems of national and global disorder.

Political Matter

Technoscience, Democracy, and Public Life

Author: Bruce Braun,Sarah Whatmore

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780816670895

Category: Political Science

Page: 319

View: 939

An engaging collection that explores the politics of material objects.

The Politics of Energy Security

Critical Security Studies, New Materialism and Governmentality

Author: Johannes Kester

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 135171175X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 248

View: 3342

Energy security is known for its ‘slippery’ nature and subsequent broad range of definitions. Instead of another attempt to grasp its essence, this book offers a critical reflection that problematizes the use of energy security itself. After a short historical and methodological analysis of the proliferation of energy security, The Politics of Energy Security unpacks three social practices that drive energy security. These include an analysis of the logics of security, a study of the relation between the materiality of sociotechnical (energy) systems and the knowledge people have over such systems, and a reflection on the power and politics behind (energy) security. Each of these are discussed and ultimately illustrated in the last chapter to show how energy security works, how it is shaped and what role it plays within political processes. Based on a novel performative reading of energy security with its focus on ontological politics and an in-depth look at the often implicitly accepted social practices that determine how people shape and are shaped by energy security, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars of energy security and policy, political theory, international relations, critical security studies, and environmental studies more broadly.

Society of Others

Kinship and Mourning in a West Papuan Place

Author: Rupert Stasch

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520256859

Category: History

Page: 317

View: 5040

"In this timely commentary on the ideas of difference, strangeness, and Western contact, Stasch weaves ethnographic materials together with theoretical framing in an exceptionally clear and compelling way. A highly original, important and, in fact, astonishing piece of scholarship."--Bambi Schieffelin, author of The Give and Take of Everyday Life "In this remarkable ethnography, Rupert Stasch takes us to the lowlands of West Papua and into the lives of people who have built a social world out of their relationships with strange and potentially dangerous others. The Korowai are classic inhabitants of the "savage slot," still dogged by their designation as Stone Age primitives. Instead of flipping the script and arguing that the Korowai are just like everyone else, Stasch draws far-reaching lessons from the particularities of Korowai life. Stasch writes with grace and clarity on the ambivalent ways in which the Korowai confront, evade, and embrace an otherness that resides not just in words, food, places, and human bodies, but also in the pasts and futures brought to mind by these material signs. Analyzing Korowai sign use as a concrete, historical process, he charts the passage between intimacy and alterity that Korowai undergo in their encounters not only with spirits and Indonesian soldiers, but also with children, husbands, and wives. Some of what Stasch describes may seem strange and even disturbing. But in pondering Stasch's findings, one gradually comes to see the making of persons and relationships in an entirely new light. Gone is the old debate between biological determination and cultural freedom; in its place is an approach that affirms the multiple histories that converge in and flow from a life. Erudite, empathetic, and unremittingly smart, Society of Others recasts the very meaning of kinship--and makes a case for the power of what anthropologists do."--Danilyn Rutherford, author of Raiding the Land of the Foreigners: The Limits of the Nation on an Indonesian Frontier

Uncivil Youth

Race, Activism, and Affirmative Governmentality

Author: Soo Ah Kwon

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822354233

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 169

View: 7575

Soo Ah Kwon explores youth of color activism, focusing on the political conditions that enable—and limit—youth of color from achieving meaningful change given the entrenchment of nonprofits within the logic of the neoliberal state.