The Science of Measurement

A Historical Survey

Author: Herbert Arthur Klein

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486144976

Category: Science

Page: 736

View: 7123

Witty, imaginative coverage of metrology—concepts of weight, length, volume, temperature, time, nuclear radiation, thermal power, light, pressure, much more. Nontechnical. "Solid and entertaining."—Los Angeles Times.

The Mathematics of Measurement

A Critical History

Author: John J. Roche

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387915814

Category: Mathematics

Page: 330

View: 1381

The Mathematics of Measurement is a historical survey of the introduction of mathematics to physics and of the branches of mathematics that were developed specifically for handling measurements, including dimensional analysis, error analysis, and the calculus of quantities.

Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements

Author: Richard S. Figliola,Donald Beasley

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118881273

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 624

View: 9241

Figliola and Beasley’s 6th edition of Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements provides a time-tested and respected approach to the theory of engineering measurements. An emphasis on the role of statistics and uncertainty analysis in the measuring process makes this text unique. While the measurements discipline is very broad, careful selection of topical coverage, establishes the physical principles and practical techniques for quantifying many engineering variables that have multiple engineering applications. In the sixth edition, Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements continues to emphasize the conceptual design framework for selecting and specifying equipment, test procedures and interpreting test results. Coverage of topics, applications and devices has been updated—including information on data acquisition hardware and communication protocols, infrared imaging, and microphones. New examples that illustrate either case studies or interesting vignettes related to the application of measurements in current practice are introduced.

Managing and Delivering Performance

Author: Bernard Marr

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113643769X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 312

View: 2204

Performance management is at the top of agendas in most government and public organizations, as well as many not-for-profit organizations. In this follow up to his successful book, Strategic Performance Management, the author focuses on the unique challenges public sector organizations face when tackling the issues of strategic performance management. Drawing on his extensive experience of working with numerous government, public sector, and not-for-profit organizations over the author covers: * The context of decision making in the public sector * The significance of the use of budgeting for performance management, and the impact of performance measurements on budgets * A huge range of underpinning cases and examples from the public sector, including cases on the Home Office and the NHS in the UK, and the US Air Force For senior executives in the public sector and government, and for faculty and students in the field this is the authoritative strategic level treatment of this fast-growing area.

The Chronic Crisis in Psychological Measurement and Assessment

A Historical Survey

Author: Scott T. Meier

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483271595

Category: Psychology

Page: 306

View: 9268

The Chronic Crisis in Psychological Measurement and Assessment: A Historical Survey provides a historical survey of relevant concepts in psychological measurement and assessment. It does not delve into intimate details and complexities, but traces measurement and assessment controversies over time and across psychological domains. The main goal has been to approach the problems of measurement and assessment from the perspective of psychological theory. The book begins with an overview, a broad picture of how psychological measurement and assessment have evolved. Separate chapters present descriptions and interpretations of measurement issues that have been important over the lifespan of psychological science. Traditional approaches along with newer concepts and procedures are are discussed, along with an attempt to integrate the major themes that emerge from the historical survey with the ultimate purpose of reviewing and proposing new directions. This book is offered as a complement to existing texts in psychological measurement and assessment.

A Single Sky

How an International Community Forged the Science of Radio Astronomy

Author: David P. D. Munns

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262304279

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 2504

For more than three thousand years, the science of astronomy depended on visible light. In just the last sixty years, radio technology has fundamentally altered how astronomers see the universe. Combining the wartime innovation of radar and the established standards of traditional optical telescopes, the "radio telescope" offered humanity a new vision of the universe. In A Single Sky, the historian David Munns explains how the idea of the radio telescope emerged from a new scientific community uniting the power of radio with the international aspirations of the discipline of astronomy. The radio astronomers challenged Cold War era rivalries by forging a united scientific community looking at a single sky.Munns tells the interconnecting stories of Australian, British, Dutch, and American radio astronomers, all seeking to learn how to see the universe by means of radio. Jointly, this international array of radio astronomers built a new "community" style of science opposing the "glamour" of nuclear physics. A Single Sky describes a communitarian style of science, a culture of interdisciplinary and international integration and cooperation, and counters the notion that recent science has been driven by competition. Collaboration, or what a prominent radio astronomer called "a blending of radio invention and astronomical insight," produced a science as revolutionary as Galileo's first observations with a telescope. Working together, the community of radio astronomers revealed the structure of the galaxy.

Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures

Their Si Equivalences and Origins

Author: François Cardarelli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781852336820

Category: Computers

Page: 848

View: 7531

This book will sell because everything that people do is measured in units of one type or another. Scientists use them all the time but they are also important in the study of history, geography and other academic disciplines as well as in the daily life of the more general reader.

The Measurement of Starlight

Two Centuries of Astronomical Photometry

Author: J. B. Hearnshaw

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521403931

Category: Science

Page: 511

View: 388

Astronomical photometry is the science of measuring the brightness and colors of stars and other celestial objects. This authoritative volume traces the fascinating historical development of astronomical photometry from visual techniques at the time of William Herschel in the 1780s to the birth of photometry with charge-coupled devices in the 1970s. In this intriguing survey, the author shows how the advent of new technology has revolutionized the science of photometry at each stage of its development, and what dramatic advances have been achieved despite several major disasters--especially in the practice of photographic photometry. This book also clearly illustrates the critical relationship between the development of a science and the technology it uses.

Semiotik / Semiotics. 2. Teilband

Author: Roland Posner

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 311020326X

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 1216

View: 3528

Die Reihe HANDBÜCHER ZUR SPRACH- UND KOMMUNIKATIONSWISSENSCHAFT erschließt einen Wissensbereich, der sowohl die allgemeine Linguistik und die speziellen, philologisch orientierten Sprachwissenschaften als auch diejenigen Wissenschaftsgebiete umfasst, die sich in den letzten Jahrzehnten aus der immer umfangreicher werdenden Forschung über die vielfältigen Erscheinungen des kommunikativen Handelns entwickelt haben. In der klassischen Disziplin der Sprachwissenschaft erscheint eine Zusammenfassung des Wissensstandes notwendig, um der im Wechsel der Theorien rasch voranschreitenden Forschung eine Bezugsbasis zu geben; in den neuen Wissenschaften können die Handbücher dem Forscher Übersicht geben und Orientierung verschaffen. Um diese Ziele zu erreichen, wird in der Handbuchreihe, was · die Vollständigkeit in der Darstellung, · die Explizitheit in der Begründung, · die Verlässlichkeit in der Dokumentation von Daten und Ergebnissen und · die Aktualität im Methodischen angeht, eine Stufe der Verwirklichung angestrebt, die mit den besten Handbuchkonzeptionen anderer Wissenschaftszweige vergleichbar ist. Alle Herausgeber, die der Reihe und diejenigen der einzelnen Bände, wie auch alle Autoren, die in den Handbüchern ein Thema bearbeiten, tragen dazu bei, dieses Ziel zu verwirklichen. Veröffentlichungssprachen sind Deutsch, Englisch und Französisch. Wenngleich als Hauptzweck der Handbuchreihe die angemessene Darstellung des derzeitigen Wissensstandes in den durch die jeweiligen Handbuchbände abgedeckten Ausschnitten der Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft zu gelten hat, so wird doch bei der Abgrenzung der wissenschaftlichen Bereiche, die jeweils in einem Handbuchband erschlossen werden sollen, keine starre Systematik vorausgesetzt. Die Reihe ist offen; die geschichtliche Entwicklung kann berücksichtigt werden. Diese Konzeption sowie die Notwendigkeit, dass zur gründlichen Vorbereitung jedes Bandes genügend Zeit zur Verfügung steht, führen dazu, dass die ganze Reihe in loser Erscheinungsfolge ihrer Bände vervollständigt werden kann. Jeder Band ist ein in sich abgeschlossenes Werk. Die Reihenfolge der Handbuchbände stellt keine Gewichtung der Bereiche dar, sondern hat sich durch die Art der Organisation ergeben: der Herausgeber der Reihe bemüht sich, eine Kollegin oder einen Kollegen für die Herausgabe eines Handbuchbandes zu gewinnen. Hat diese/r zugesagt, so ist sie/er in der Wahl der Mitherausgeber und bei der Einladung der Autoren vollkommen frei. Die Herausgeber eines Bandes planen einen Band inhaltlich unabhängig und werden dabei lediglich an bestimmte Prinzipien für den Aufbau und die Abfassung gebunden; nur wo es um die Abgrenzung zu anderen Bänden geht, ist der Reihenherausgeber inhaltlich beteiligt. Dabei wird davon ausgegangen, dass mit dieser Organisationsform der Hauptzweck dieser Handbuchreihe, nämlich die angemessene Darstellung des derzeitigen Problem- und Wissensstandes in den durch die jeweiligen Handbuchbände abgedeckten Teilbereichen, am besten verwirklicht werden kann.

Measurement and Statistics on Science and Technology

1920 to the Present

Author: Benoit Godin

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 0415341043

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 360

View: 812

How do we objectively measure scientific activities? What proportion of economic activities should a society devote to research and development? How can public-sector and private-sector research best be directed to achieve social goals? Governments and researchers from industrial countries have been measuring science and technology for more than eighty years. This book provides the first comprehensive account of the attempts to measure science and technology activities in Western countries and the successes and shortcomings of statistical systems. Godin guides readers through the historical moments that led to the development of statistics on science and technology and also examines the socio-political dynamics behind social measurement. This enlightening account will be of interest to students and academics investigating science measurement as well as policy makers working in this burgeoning field.

Greek Science of the Hellenistic Era

A Sourcebook

Author: Georgia L. Irby-Massie,Paul T. Keyser

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113455639X

Category: History

Page: 432

View: 9012

We all want to understand the world around us, and the ancient Greeks were the first to try and do so in a way we can properly call scientific. Their thought and writings laid the essential foundations for the revivals of science in medieval Baghdad and renaissance Europe. Now their work is accessible to all, with this invaluable introduction to c.100 scientific authors active from 320 BCE to 230 CE. The book begins with an outline of a new socio-political model for the development and decline of Greek science, followed by eleven chapters that cover the main disciplines: * the science which the Greeks saw as fundamental - mathematics * astronomy * astrology and geography * mechanics * optics and pneumatics * the non-mathematical sciences of alchemy, biology, medicine and 'psychology'. Each chapter contains an accessible introduction on the origins and development of the topic in question, and all the authors are set in context with brief biographies.

Employee Engagement

Tools for Analysis, Practice, and Competitive Advantage

Author: William H. Macey,Benjamin Schneider,Karen M. Barbera,Scott A. Young

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444357956

Category: Psychology

Page: 224

View: 9830

Providing both practical advice, tools, and case examples, Employee Engagement translates best practices, ideas, and concepts into concrete and practical steps that will change the level of engagement in any organization. Explores the meaning of engagement and how engagement differs significantly from other important yet related concepts like satisfaction and commitment Discusses what it means to create a culture of engagement Provides a practical presentation deck and talking points managers can use to introduce the concept of engagement in their organization Addresses issues of work-life balance, and non-work activities and their relationship to engagement at work

Philosophy of Technology

Practical, Historical and Other Dimensions

Author: P.T. Durbin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400923031

Category: Philosophy

Page: 192

View: 9845

The corps of philosophers who make up the Society for Philosophy & Technology has now been collaborating, in one fashion or another, for almost fifteen years. In addition, the number of philosophers, world-wide, who have begun to focus their analytical skills on technology and related social problems grows increasingly every year. {It would certainly swell the ranks if all of them joined the Society!) It seems more than ap propriate, in this context, to publish a miscellaneous volume that em phasizes the extraordinary range and diversity of contemporary contribu tions to the philosophical understanding of the exceedingly complex phenomenon that is modern technology. My thanks, once again, to the anonymous referees who do so much to maintain standards for the series. And thanks also to the secretaries - Mary Imperatore and Dorothy Milsom - in the Philosophy Department at the University of Delaware; their typing and retyping of the MSS, and especially notes and references, also contributes to keeping our standards high. PAUL T. DURBIN vii Paul T. Durbin (ed.), Philosophy ofT echnology, p. vii.

Polarized Light, Third Edition

Author: Dennis H. Goldstein

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 143983041X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 808

View: 3700

Polarized light is a pervasive influence in our world—and scientists and engineers in a variety of fields require the tools to understand, measure, and apply it to their advantage. Offering an in-depth examination of the subject and a description of its applications, Polarized Light, Third Edition serves as a comprehensive self-study tool complete with an extensive mathematical analysis of the Mueller matrix and coverage of Maxwell’s equations. Links Historical Developments to Current Applications and Future Innovations This book starts with a general description of light and continues with a complete exploration of polarized light, including how it is produced and its practical applications. The author incorporates basic topics, such as polarization by refraction and reflection, polarization elements, anisotropic materials, polarization formalisms (Mueller–Stokes and Jones) and associated mathematics, and polarimetry, or the science of polarization measurement. New to the Third Edition: A new introductory chapter Chapters on: polarized light in nature, and form birefringence A review of the history of polarized light, and a chapter on the interference laws of Fresnel and Arago—both completely re-written A new appendix on conventions used in polarized light New graphics, and black-and-white photos and color plates Divided into four parts, this book covers the fundamental concepts and theoretical framework of polarized light. Next, it thoroughly explores the science of polarimetry, followed by discussion of polarized light applications. The author concludes by discussing how our polarized light framework is applied to physics concepts, such as accelerating charges and quantum systems. Building on the solid foundation of the first two editions, this book reorganizes and updates existing material on fundamentals, theory, polarimetry, and applications. It adds new chapters, graphics, and color photos, as well as a new appendix on conventions used in polarized light. As a result, the author has re-established this book’s lofty status in the pantheon of literature on this important field.

Handbook of Survey Research

Author: Peter V. Marsden,James D. Wright

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing

ISBN: 1848552246

Category: Social Science

Page: 886

View: 3079

"The Handbook of Survey Research, Second Edition" builds on its widely-recognized 1983 predecessor by updating its previous historical account of the development of survey research and the evolution of social science before going on to examine new and expanded usages of survey research during the past half century. Editors Peter Marsden (Harvard University) and James D. Wright (University of Central Florida), long-time editor of Elsevier's Social Science Research, have created an authoritative reference book and an excellent starting point for anyone requiring a broad examination of the field. Detailed chapters include: sampling; measurement; questionnaire construction and question writing; survey implementation and management; survey data analysis; special types of surveys; and integrating surveys with other data collection methods. This handbook is distinguished from other texts by its greater comprehensiveness and depth of coverage including topics such as measurement models, the role of cognitive psychology, surveying networks, and cross-national/cross-cultural surveys. Timely and relevant it includes materials that are only now becoming highly influential topics.