The Science of Measurement

A Historical Survey

Author: Herbert Arthur Klein

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486144976

Category: Science

Page: 736

View: 6563

Witty, imaginative coverage of metrology—concepts of weight, length, volume, temperature, time, nuclear radiation, thermal power, light, pressure, much more. Nontechnical. "Solid and entertaining."—Los Angeles Times.

The Mathematics of Measurement

A Critical History

Author: John J. Roche,ROCHE

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387915814

Category: Mathematics

Page: 330

View: 8705

The Mathematics of Measurement is a historical survey of the introduction of mathematics to physics and of the branches of mathematics that were developed specifically for handling measurements, including dimensional analysis, error analysis, and the calculus of quantities.

Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements

Author: Richard S. Figliola,Donald Beasley

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118881273

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 624

View: 4137

Figliola and Beasley’s 6th edition of Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements provides a time-tested and respected approach to the theory of engineering measurements. An emphasis on the role of statistics and uncertainty analysis in the measuring process makes this text unique. While the measurements discipline is very broad, careful selection of topical coverage, establishes the physical principles and practical techniques for quantifying many engineering variables that have multiple engineering applications. In the sixth edition, Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements continues to emphasize the conceptual design framework for selecting and specifying equipment, test procedures and interpreting test results. Coverage of topics, applications and devices has been updated—including information on data acquisition hardware and communication protocols, infrared imaging, and microphones. New examples that illustrate either case studies or interesting vignettes related to the application of measurements in current practice are introduced.

Managing and Delivering Performance

Author: Bernard Marr

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113643769X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 312

View: 2781

Performance management is at the top of agendas in most government and public organizations, as well as many not-for-profit organizations. In this follow up to his successful book, Strategic Performance Management, the author focuses on the unique challenges public sector organizations face when tackling the issues of strategic performance management. Drawing on his extensive experience of working with numerous government, public sector, and not-for-profit organizations over the author covers: * The context of decision making in the public sector * The significance of the use of budgeting for performance management, and the impact of performance measurements on budgets * A huge range of underpinning cases and examples from the public sector, including cases on the Home Office and the NHS in the UK, and the US Air Force For senior executives in the public sector and government, and for faculty and students in the field this is the authoritative strategic level treatment of this fast-growing area.

The Chronic Crisis in Psychological Measurement and Assessment

A Historical Survey

Author: Scott T. Meier

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483271595

Category: Psychology

Page: 306

View: 5763

The Chronic Crisis in Psychological Measurement and Assessment: A Historical Survey provides a historical survey of relevant concepts in psychological measurement and assessment. It does not delve into intimate details and complexities, but traces measurement and assessment controversies over time and across psychological domains. The main goal has been to approach the problems of measurement and assessment from the perspective of psychological theory. The book begins with an overview, a broad picture of how psychological measurement and assessment have evolved. Separate chapters present descriptions and interpretations of measurement issues that have been important over the lifespan of psychological science. Traditional approaches along with newer concepts and procedures are are discussed, along with an attempt to integrate the major themes that emerge from the historical survey with the ultimate purpose of reviewing and proposing new directions. This book is offered as a complement to existing texts in psychological measurement and assessment.

Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures

Their Si Equivalences and Origins

Author: François Cardarelli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781852336820

Category: Computers

Page: 848

View: 8966

This book will sell because everything that people do is measured in units of one type or another. Scientists use them all the time but they are also important in the study of history, geography and other academic disciplines as well as in the daily life of the more general reader.

The Measurement of Starlight

Two Centuries of Astronomical Photometry

Author: J. B. Hearnshaw

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521403931

Category: Science

Page: 511

View: 2093

Astronomical photometry is the science of measuring the brightness and colors of stars and other celestial objects. This authoritative volume traces the fascinating historical development of astronomical photometry from visual techniques at the time of William Herschel in the 1780s to the birth of photometry with charge-coupled devices in the 1970s. In this intriguing survey, the author shows how the advent of new technology has revolutionized the science of photometry at each stage of its development, and what dramatic advances have been achieved despite several major disasters--especially in the practice of photographic photometry. This book also clearly illustrates the critical relationship between the development of a science and the technology it uses.

A Single Sky

How an International Community Forged the Science of Radio Astronomy

Author: David P. D. Munns

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262304279

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 2256

For more than three thousand years, the science of astronomy depended on visible light. In just the last sixty years, radio technology has fundamentally altered how astronomers see the universe. Combining the wartime innovation of radar and the established standards of traditional optical telescopes, the "radio telescope" offered humanity a new vision of the universe. In A Single Sky, the historian David Munns explains how the idea of the radio telescope emerged from a new scientific community uniting the power of radio with the international aspirations of the discipline of astronomy. The radio astronomers challenged Cold War era rivalries by forging a united scientific community looking at a single sky.Munns tells the interconnecting stories of Australian, British, Dutch, and American radio astronomers, all seeking to learn how to see the universe by means of radio. Jointly, this international array of radio astronomers built a new "community" style of science opposing the "glamour" of nuclear physics. A Single Sky describes a communitarian style of science, a culture of interdisciplinary and international integration and cooperation, and counters the notion that recent science has been driven by competition. Collaboration, or what a prominent radio astronomer called "a blending of radio invention and astronomical insight," produced a science as revolutionary as Galileo's first observations with a telescope. Working together, the community of radio astronomers revealed the structure of the galaxy.

A Companion to the History of Science

Author: Bernard Lightman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118620747

Category: Science

Page: 596

View: 9923

The Wiley Blackwell Companion to the History of Science is a single volume companion that discusses the history of science as it is done today, providing a survey of the debates and issues that dominate current scholarly discussion, with contributions from leading international scholars. Provides a single-volume overview of current scholarship in the history of science edited by one of the leading figures in the field Features forty essays by leading international scholars providing an overview of the key debates and developments in the history of science Reflects the shift towards deeper historical contextualization within the field Helps communicate and integrate perspectives from the history of science with other areas of historical inquiry Includes discussion of non-Western themes which are integrated throughout the chapters Divided into four sections based on key analytic categories that reflect new approaches in the field

The Measure of All Things

A History of Chemical Analysis

Author: Thomas R. Dulski

Publisher: Booklocker.com

ISBN: 9781632637147

Category: Science

Page: 798

View: 2620

Materials characterization has been essential to human progress throughout the centuries. This volume provides a timeline that traces the history of chemical analysis as it was embedded in the progress of science, and as that was, in turn, embedded in the unfolding of world history.

The Science and Applications of Acoustics

Author: Daniel R. Raichel

Publisher: A I P Press

ISBN: 0387989072

Category: Science

Page: 598

View: 3707

This textbook treats the broad range of modern acoustics from the basics of wave propagation in solids and fluids to applications such as noise control and cancellation, under-water acoustics, music and music synthesis, sonoluminescence, and medical diagnostics with ultrasound. The discussion begins with a historical overview. It then turns to a derivation of the wave equation from fundamental equations of motion for fluids and for solids, with solutions of the equation in open air and in bounded media such as strings, bars, membranes, and pipes. Sound filters and electrical analogs for sound propagation are also treated. A chapter on measurement techniques provides a comprehensive survey of the means of evaluating sound levels and frequency content of signals. A section on the physiology of hearing and psychoacoustics includes recent findings on how the human ear functions. The remainder of the book deals with a wide variety of applications, including architectural acoustics; enclosures and barriers, noise codes and regulations, and methods of noise control; underwater acoustics; ultrasonics; control of vibrations; and music, musical instruments, and reproduction of music. Intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in science or engineering, the text can also serve as a valuable reference for acousticians, engineers, scientists, architects, medical researchers, and musicians. The treatment assumes that the reader has a thorough knowledge of mathematics through elementary partial differential equations and university-level physics. Virtually every chapter includes examples and problems.

Laying Down the Lines

A History of Land Surveying in Alberta

Author: Judy Larmour

Publisher: Brindle and Glass

ISBN: 9781897142042

Category: History

Page: 325

View: 9962

Between the Fourth Meridian and the Continental Divide is a vast land with some of the most varied landscapes, difficult terrain, and treacherous climates in Canada. The challenge of exploring, surveying and mapping the territory now known as Alberta holds some of the most fascinating stories in the 100-year-old province's history. From the first excursions of David Thompson and John Palliser to the ongoing work of surveying for industry and development, from the first hand-drawn maps and sextants to modern satellite imaging and computer modeling, historian Judy Larmour captures the grand arcs and the fascinating details of the dramatic centuries-long struggle to find and mark place.

Semiotik / Semiotics. 2. Teilband

Author: Roland Posner

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 311020326X

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 1216

View: 5665

Die Reihe HANDBÜCHER ZUR SPRACH- UND KOMMUNIKATIONSWISSENSCHAFT erschließt einen Wissensbereich, der sowohl die allgemeine Linguistik und die speziellen, philologisch orientierten Sprachwissenschaften als auch diejenigen Wissenschaftsgebiete umfasst, die sich in den letzten Jahrzehnten aus der immer umfangreicher werdenden Forschung über die vielfältigen Erscheinungen des kommunikativen Handelns entwickelt haben. In der klassischen Disziplin der Sprachwissenschaft erscheint eine Zusammenfassung des Wissensstandes notwendig, um der im Wechsel der Theorien rasch voranschreitenden Forschung eine Bezugsbasis zu geben; in den neuen Wissenschaften können die Handbücher dem Forscher Übersicht geben und Orientierung verschaffen. Um diese Ziele zu erreichen, wird in der Handbuchreihe, was · die Vollständigkeit in der Darstellung, · die Explizitheit in der Begründung, · die Verlässlichkeit in der Dokumentation von Daten und Ergebnissen und · die Aktualität im Methodischen angeht, eine Stufe der Verwirklichung angestrebt, die mit den besten Handbuchkonzeptionen anderer Wissenschaftszweige vergleichbar ist. Alle Herausgeber, die der Reihe und diejenigen der einzelnen Bände, wie auch alle Autoren, die in den Handbüchern ein Thema bearbeiten, tragen dazu bei, dieses Ziel zu verwirklichen. Veröffentlichungssprachen sind Deutsch, Englisch und Französisch. Wenngleich als Hauptzweck der Handbuchreihe die angemessene Darstellung des derzeitigen Wissensstandes in den durch die jeweiligen Handbuchbände abgedeckten Ausschnitten der Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft zu gelten hat, so wird doch bei der Abgrenzung der wissenschaftlichen Bereiche, die jeweils in einem Handbuchband erschlossen werden sollen, keine starre Systematik vorausgesetzt. Die Reihe ist offen; die geschichtliche Entwicklung kann berücksichtigt werden. Diese Konzeption sowie die Notwendigkeit, dass zur gründlichen Vorbereitung jedes Bandes genügend Zeit zur Verfügung steht, führen dazu, dass die ganze Reihe in loser Erscheinungsfolge ihrer Bände vervollständigt werden kann. Jeder Band ist ein in sich abgeschlossenes Werk. Die Reihenfolge der Handbuchbände stellt keine Gewichtung der Bereiche dar, sondern hat sich durch die Art der Organisation ergeben: der Herausgeber der Reihe bemüht sich, eine Kollegin oder einen Kollegen für die Herausgabe eines Handbuchbandes zu gewinnen. Hat diese/r zugesagt, so ist sie/er in der Wahl der Mitherausgeber und bei der Einladung der Autoren vollkommen frei. Die Herausgeber eines Bandes planen einen Band inhaltlich unabhängig und werden dabei lediglich an bestimmte Prinzipien für den Aufbau und die Abfassung gebunden; nur wo es um die Abgrenzung zu anderen Bänden geht, ist der Reihenherausgeber inhaltlich beteiligt. Dabei wird davon ausgegangen, dass mit dieser Organisationsform der Hauptzweck dieser Handbuchreihe, nämlich die angemessene Darstellung des derzeitigen Problem- und Wissensstandes in den durch die jeweiligen Handbuchbände abgedeckten Teilbereichen, am besten verwirklicht werden kann.

Demography

The Science of Population

Author: Jay Weinstein,Vijayan K. Pillai

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1442235217

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 6466

This comprehensive, introductory text takes an applied, interdisciplinary approach. Because one author is a sociologist and the other a demographer, the text introduces perspectives from many different disciplines. The most applied book on the market, Demography: The Science of Population teaches students how to use the multitude of demographic resources available to them as consumers of data. Using case studies throughout to illustrate key concepts in a realistic and concrete manner, the authors also draw examples from recent U.S. Census data, United Nations and World Bank reports, tables from the National Center for Health Statistics, and other U.S. state- and county-level sources. New to the Second Edition This second edition is divided into four main parts; each part begins with a short introduction, and all chapters include end-of-chapter summaries. All tables, related narrative, and graphics have been updated to include data from the 2000 and 2010 census counts, more recent estimates for the United States—especially the American Community Survey—and comparable new data from international sources (e.g. World Bank, Population Research Bureau World Data Sheet). Several new figures have been added throughout the text. Part I: An Overview of Population Science, introduces the field of demography and provides a summary of its subject matter. The chapters in this part have been reorganized to reflect changes in the discipline. Chapter 1 now includes a new “the study of populations” section, a shorter Chapter 2 covers population size, and its former discussion of structure has been moved to Chapter 3. This de-emphasizes the history of population science to some extent and increases emphasis on population size as the key demographic variable. Chapter 4 presents the main principles and analytical techniques associated with the three “static” characteristics of populations: size, structure, and geographic distribution. Part II: Population Dynamics: Vital Events and Growth, reflects the wealth of data and analytical techniques now available from The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and its “Wonder” utility. The first three chapters focus on the vital events of birth, death, and migration. The final chapter in this part brings this material together in a discussion of population growth: its measurement, its history, and current related policy concerns. Part III: Population Models, introduces the principles of life table analysis, population estimation, and projection. This material has been simplified and updated. Chapter 9, The Life Table: An Introduction, has been revised to accord with the new federal alignment for vital statistics between the CDC and National Institute for Health Statistics. Life tables from non-U.S. sources are increased in number and in detailed functions. Part IV: Demography in Application, provides overviews of population policy, the environment, and demographic resources, along with a brief postscript on population in the larger scheme of things. What appeared as two appendices in the first edition, one on the history of population policy and one on tourism as a type of international migration, have been combined to create a new Chapter 14. The end-of-chapter material has been shortened and now contains a summary, key terms, and notes. A full-color enhanced eText is also available, and the second edition is accompanied by a teaching and learning package, including instructor’s manual, test bank, lecture slides, and a companion website that offers students additional resources, flashcards, and self-study quizzes.

Greek Science of the Hellenistic Era

A Sourcebook

Author: Georgia L. Irby-Massie,Paul T. Keyser

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113455639X

Category: History

Page: 432

View: 3270

We all want to understand the world around us, and the ancient Greeks were the first to try and do so in a way we can properly call scientific. Their thought and writings laid the essential foundations for the revivals of science in medieval Baghdad and renaissance Europe. Now their work is accessible to all, with this invaluable introduction to c.100 scientific authors active from 320 BCE to 230 CE. The book begins with an outline of a new socio-political model for the development and decline of Greek science, followed by eleven chapters that cover the main disciplines: * the science which the Greeks saw as fundamental - mathematics * astronomy * astrology and geography * mechanics * optics and pneumatics * the non-mathematical sciences of alchemy, biology, medicine and 'psychology'. Each chapter contains an accessible introduction on the origins and development of the topic in question, and all the authors are set in context with brief biographies.