The Real Projective Plane

Author: H.S.M. Coxeter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461227348

Category: Mathematics

Page: 227

View: 1139

Along with many small improvements, this revised edition contains van Yzeren's new proof of Pascal's theorem (§1.7) and, in Chapter 2, an improved treatment of order and sense. The Sylvester-Gallai theorem, instead of being introduced as a curiosity, is now used as an essential step in the theory of harmonic separation (§3.34). This makes the logi cal development self-contained: the footnotes involving the References (pp. 214-216) are for comparison with earlier treatments, and to give credit where it is due, not to fill gaps in the argument. H.S.M.C. November 1992 v Preface to the Second Edition Why should one study the real plane? To this question, put by those who advocate the complex plane, or geometry over a general field, I would reply that the real plane is an easy first step. Most of the prop erties are closely analogous, and the real field has the advantage of intuitive accessibility. Moreover, real geometry is exactly what is needed for the projective approach to non· Euclidean geometry. Instead of introducing the affine and Euclidean metrics as in Chapters 8 and 9, we could just as well take the locus of 'points at infinity' to be a conic, or replace the absolute involution by an absolute polarity.

Models of the Real Projective Plane

Computer Graphics of Steiner and Boy Surfaces

Author: Francois Apery

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322895696

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 156

View: 2844

In the present time, objects generated by computers are replacing models made from wood, wire, and plaster. It is interesting to see how computer graphics can help us to understand the geometry of surfaces and illustrate some recent results on representations of the real projective plane.

Projective Geometry and Algebraic Structures

Author: R. J. Mihalek

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 148326520X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 232

View: 2305

Projective Geometry and Algebraic Structures focuses on the relationship of geometry and algebra, including affine and projective planes, isomorphism, and system of real numbers. The book first elaborates on euclidean, projective, and affine planes, including axioms for a projective plane, algebraic incidence bases, and self-dual axioms. The text then ponders on affine and projective planes, theorems of Desargues and Pappus, and coordination. Topics include algebraic systems and incidence bases, coordinatization theorem, finite projective planes, coordinates, deletion subgeometries, imbedding theorem, and isomorphism. The publication examines projectivities, harmonic quadruples, real projective plane, and projective spaces. Discussions focus on subspaces and dimension, intervals and complements, dual spaces, axioms for a projective space, ordered fields, completeness and the real numbers, real projective plane, and harmonic quadruples. The manuscript is a dependable reference for students and researchers interested in projective planes, system of real numbers, isomorphism, and subspaces and dimensions.

Perspectives on Projective Geometry

A Guided Tour Through Real and Complex Geometry

Author: Jürgen Richter-Gebert

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642172861

Category: Mathematics

Page: 571

View: 5632

Projective geometry is one of the most fundamental and at the same time most beautiful branches of geometry. It can be considered the common foundation of many other geometric disciplines like Euclidean geometry, hyperbolic and elliptic geometry or even relativistic space-time geometry. This book offers a comprehensive introduction to this fascinating field and its applications. In particular, it explains how metric concepts may be best understood in projective terms. One of the major themes that appears throughout this book is the beauty of the interplay between geometry, algebra and combinatorics. This book can especially be used as a guide that explains how geometric objects and operations may be most elegantly expressed in algebraic terms, making it a valuable resource for mathematicians, as well as for computer scientists and physicists. The book is based on the author’s experience in implementing geometric software and includes hundreds of high-quality illustrations.

Oriented Projective Geometry

A Framework for Geometric Computations

Author: Jorge Stolfi

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483265196

Category: Mathematics

Page: 246

View: 4538

Oriented Projective Geometry: A Framework for Geometric Computations proposes that oriented projective geometry is a better framework for geometric computations than classical projective geometry. The aim of the book is to stress the value of oriented projective geometry for practical computing and develop it as a rich, consistent, and effective tool for computer programmers. The monograph is comprised of 20 chapters. Chapter 1 gives a quick overview of classical and oriented projective geometry on the plane, and discusses their advantages and disadvantages as computational models. Chapters 2 through 7 define the canonical oriented projective spaces of arbitrary dimension, the operations of join and meet, and the concept of relative orientation. Chapter 8 defines projective maps, the space transformations that preserve incidence and orientation; these maps are used in chapter 9 to define abstract oriented projective spaces. Chapter 10 introduces the notion of projective duality. Chapters 11, 12, and 13 deal with projective functions, projective frames, relative coordinates, and cross-ratio. Chapter 14 tells about convexity in oriented projective spaces. Chapters 15, 16, and 17 show how the affine, Euclidean, and linear vector spaces can be emulated with the oriented projective space. Finally, chapters 18 through 20 discuss the computer representation and manipulation of lines, planes, and other subspaces. Computer scientists and programmers will find this text invaluable.

Linear Algebra and Projective Geometry

Author: Reinhold Baer

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486154661

Category: Mathematics

Page: 336

View: 3901

Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this text establishes that projective geometry and linear algebra are essentially identical. The supporting evidence consists of theorems offering an algebraic demonstration of certain geometric concepts. 1952 edition.

Pencils of Cubics and Algebraic Curves in the Real Projective Plane

Author: Sverine Fiedler Le Touz

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781138590519

Category:

Page: 256

View: 1890

Pencils of Cubics and Algebraic Curves in the Real Projective Plane thoroughly examines the combinatorial configurations of n generic points in RP2. Especially how it is the data describing the mutual position of each point with respect to lines and conics passing through others. The first part of the book answers questions related to using rational cubics and pencils of cubics. The other two parts deal with configurations of eight points in convex position, and applications and results around Hilbert's sixteenth problem.

Mathematical Models

From the Collections of Universities and Museums – Photograph Volume and Commentary

Author: Gerd Fischer

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3658188650

Category: Mathematics

Page: 216

View: 8887

This book presents beautiful photos of mathematical models of geometric surfaces made from a variety of materials including plaster, metal, paper, wood, and string. The construction of these models at the time (of Felix Klein and others) was not an end in itself, but was accompanied by mathematical research especially in the field of algebraic geometry. The models were used to illustrate the mathematical objects defined by abstract formulas, either as equations or parameterizations. In the second part of the book, the models are explained by experts in the field of geometry. This book is a reprint thirty years after the original publication in 1986 with a new preface by Gert-Martin Greuel. The models have a timeless appeal and a historical value.

An Introduction to Finite Projective Planes

Author: Abraham Adrian Albert,Reuben Sandler

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486789942

Category: Mathematics

Page: 112

View: 7139

Text for both beginning and advanced undergraduate and graduate students covers finite planes, field planes, coordinates in an arbitrary plane, central collineations and the little Desargues' property, the fundamental theorem, and non-Desarguesian planes. 1968 edition.

Projective Geometry

An Introduction

Author: Rey Casse

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199298858

Category: Mathematics

Page: 198

View: 3538

This lucid and accessible text provides an introductory guide to projective geometry, an area of mathematics concerned with the properties and invariants of geometric figures under projection. Including numerous worked examples and exercises throughout, the book covers axiomatic geometry, field planes and PG(r, F), coordinating a projective plane, non-Desarguesian planes, conics and quadrics in PG(3, F). Assuming familiarity with linear algebra, elementary group theory, partial differentiation and finite fields, as well as some elementary coordinate geometry, this text is ideal for 3rd and 4th year mathematics undergraduates.

A Modern View of Geometry

Author: Leonard M. Blumenthal

Publisher: Courier Dover Publications

ISBN: 0486821137

Category: Mathematics

Page: 208

View: 9718

Elegant exposition of postulation geometry of planes offers rigorous, lucid treatment of coordination of affine and projective planes, set theory, propositional calculus, affine planes with Desargues and Pappus properties, more. 1961 edition.

A Guide to the Classification Theorem for Compact Surfaces

Author: Jean Gallier,Dianna Xu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642343643

Category: Mathematics

Page: 178

View: 9301

This welcome boon for students of algebraic topology cuts a much-needed central path between other texts whose treatment of the classification theorem for compact surfaces is either too formalized and complex for those without detailed background knowledge, or too informal to afford students a comprehensive insight into the subject. Its dedicated, student-centred approach details a near-complete proof of this theorem, widely admired for its efficacy and formal beauty. The authors present the technical tools needed to deploy the method effectively as well as demonstrating their use in a clearly structured, worked example. Ideal for students whose mastery of algebraic topology may be a work-in-progress, the text introduces key notions such as fundamental groups, homology groups, and the Euler-Poincaré characteristic. These prerequisites are the subject of detailed appendices that enable focused, discrete learning where it is required, without interrupting the carefully planned structure of the core exposition. Gently guiding readers through the principles, theory, and applications of the classification theorem, the authors aim to foster genuine confidence in its use and in so doing encourage readers to move on to a deeper exploration of the versatile and valuable techniques available in algebraic topology.

Projective Geometry

From Foundations to Applications

Author: Albrecht Beutelspacher,Ute Rosenbaum

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521483643

Category: Mathematics

Page: 258

View: 2107

A textbook on projective geometry that emphasises applications in modern information and communication science.

Foundations of Projective Geometry

Author: Robin Hartshorne

Publisher: Ishi Press

ISBN: 9784871878371

Category: Mathematics

Page: 161

View: 4538

The first geometrical properties of a projective nature were discovered in the third century by Pappus of Alexandria. Filippo Brunelleschi (1404-1472) started investigating the geometry of perspective in 1425. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) and Gerard Desargues (1591-1661) independently developed the pivotal concept of the "point at infinity." Desargues developed an alternative way of constructing perspective drawings by generalizing the use of vanishing points to include the case when these are infinitely far away. He made Euclidean geometry, where parallel lines are truly parallel, into a special case of an all-encompassing geometric system. Desargues's study on conic sections drew the attention of 16-years old Blaise Pascal and helped him formulate Pascal's theorem. The works of Gaspard Monge at the end of 18th and beginning of 19th century were important for the subsequent development of projective geometry. The work of Desargues was ignored until Michel Chasles chanced upon a handwritten copy in 1845. Meanwhile, Jean-Victor Poncelet had published the foundational treatise on projective geometry in 1822. Poncelet separated the projective properties of objects in individual class and establishing a relationship between metric and projective properties. The non-Euclidean geometries discovered shortly thereafter were eventually demonstrated to have models, such as the Klein model of hyperbolic space, relating to projective geometry.

Introduction to Projective Geometry

Author: C. R. Wylie

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486141705

Category: Mathematics

Page: 576

View: 9088

This introductory volume offers strong reinforcement for its teachings, with detailed examples and numerous theorems, proofs, and exercises, plus complete answers to all odd-numbered end-of-chapter problems. 1970 edition.

Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision

Author: Richard Hartley,Andrew Zisserman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139449141

Category: Computers

Page: N.A

View: 2953

A basic problem in computer vision is to understand the structure of a real world scene given several images of it. Techniques for solving this problem are taken from projective geometry and photogrammetry. Here, the authors cover the geometric principles and their algebraic representation in terms of camera projection matrices, the fundamental matrix and the trifocal tensor. The theory and methods of computation of these entities are discussed with real examples, as is their use in the reconstruction of scenes from multiple images. The new edition features an extended introduction covering the key ideas in the book (which itself has been updated with additional examples and appendices) and significant new results which have appeared since the first edition. Comprehensive background material is provided, so readers familiar with linear algebra and basic numerical methods can understand the projective geometry and estimation algorithms presented, and implement the algorithms directly from the book.

Lectures in Projective Geometry

Author: A. Seidenberg

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486154734

Category: Mathematics

Page: 240

View: 1560

An ideal text for undergraduate courses, this volume takes an axiomatic approach that covers relations between the basic theorems, conics, coordinate systems and linear transformations, quadric surfaces, and the Jordan canonical form. 1962 edition.

Non-Euclidean Geometry

Author: H. S. M. Coxeter

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780883855225

Category: Mathematics

Page: 336

View: 1639

A reissue of Professor Coxeter's classic text on non-Euclidean geometry. It surveys real projective geometry, and elliptic geometry. After this the Euclidean and hyperbolic geometries are built up axiomatically as special cases. This is essential reading for anybody with an interest in geometry.