The Politics of Uncertainty

Sustaining and Subverting Electoral Authoritarianism

Author: Andreas Schedler

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199680329

Category: Political Science

Page: 493

View: 2649

This volume offers a major new theory of authoritarian politics. It studies regime struggles between government and opposition under electoral authoritarianism and argues that autocracies suffer from institutional uncertainties.

Democracy Prevention

The Politics of the U.S.-Egyptian Alliance

Author: Jason Brownlee

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107025710

Category: Political Science

Page: 279

View: 1675

"For fifteen years the military regime that took power in Egypt in 1952 enjoyed a contentious but respectful bilateral relationship with the United States. After Israel devastated the Egyptian military in the 1967 War, however, Cairo severed diplomatic ties with Washington. , dipYears later, compatible strategic aims brought the two governments back together. While Anwar Sadat strove to restore Egypt's territory and solvency, the White House sought to reduce Soviet influence in the Middle East. A US-Egyptian alliance served both parties, but it took a daring military assault by Sadat to impress the wisdom of the friendship upon the Nixon administration. What followed was one of the most tectonic shifts of the Cold War: the complete return of the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt; a lasting peace between Israel and Egypt, Israel's most formidable regional adversary; and a strategic pact between the United States and Egypt, previously a key client of the Soviet Union. After the Iranian Revolution, Egypt became a component of America's new strategy for preserving its influence over the Persian Gulf"--

Electoral authoritarianism

the dynamics of unfree competition

Author: Andreas Schedler

Publisher: Lynne Rienner Pub

ISBN: 9781588264404

Category: Political Science

Page: 267

View: 3965

Presents cutting-edge, empirical research on the internal dynamics of electoral authoritarian regimes.

Religion and Regimes

Support, Separation, and Opposition

Author: Mehran Tamadonfar,Ted G. Jelen

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 0739176110

Category: Religion

Page: 304

View: 6458

Religion and Regimes: Support, Separation, and Opposition emphasizes the changing political role of religion in various nations of the world. The approach is based on market models of religion, and connects the style of religious politics in a given nation to the nature of competition among dominant religious traditions and their alternatives.

Election Watchdogs

Transparency, Accountability and Integrity

Author: Pippa Norris,Alessandro Nai

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190677821

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 6409

Recent decades have seen growing concern regarding problems of electoral integrity. The most overt malpractices used by rulers include imprisoning dissidents, harassing adversaries, coercing voters, vote-rigging counts, and even blatant disregard for the popular vote. Elsewhere minor irregularities are common, exemplified by inaccurate voter registers, maladministration of polling facilities, lack of security in absentee ballots, pro-government media bias, ballot miscounts, and gerrymandering. Serious violations of human rights that undermine electoral credibility are widely condemned by domestic observers and the international community. Recent protests about integrity have mobilized in countries as diverse as Russia, Mexico, and Egypt. However, long-standing democracies are far from immune to these ills; past problems include the notorious hanging chads in Florida in 2000 and more recent accusations of voter fraud and voter suppression during the Obama-Romney contest. When problems come to light, however, is anyone held to account and are effective remedies implemented? In response to these developments, there have been growing attempts to analyze flaws in electoral integrity and transparency using systematic data from cross-national time-series, forensic analysis, field experiments, case studies, and new instruments monitoring mass and elite perceptions of malpractices. This volume collects essays from international experts who evaluate the robustness, conceptual validity, and reliability of the growing body of evidence. The essays compare alternative approaches and apply these methods to evaluate the quality of elections in several areas, including the United States, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America. Election Watchdogs:Transparency, Accountability and Integrity presents new insights into the importance of diverse actors who promote electoral transparency, accountability, and ultimately the integrity of electoral governance.

The Eurasian Core and Its Edges

Dialogues with Wang Gungwu on the History of the World

Author: Ooi Kee Beng

Publisher: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies

ISBN: 9814519855

Category: History

Page: 254

View: 4949

With China’s transformation into a republic after two millennia as an empire as the starting point, Ooi Kee Beng prompts renowned historian Wang Gungwu through a series of interviews to discuss China, Europe, Southeast Asia and India. What emerges is an exciting and original World History that is neither Eurocentric nor Sinocentric. If anything, it is an appreciation of the dominant role that Central Asia played in the history of most of mankind over the last several thousand years. The irrepressible power of the Eurasian core over the centuries explains much of the development of civilizations founded at the fringes — at its edges to the west, the east and the south. Most significantly, what is recognized as The Global Age today, is seen as the latest result of these conflicts between core and edge leading at the Atlantic fringe to human mastery of the sea — in military and mercantile terms. In effect, human history, which had for centuries been configured by continental dynamics, has only quite recently established a new dimension to counteract these. In summary, Wang Gungwu argues convincingly that “The Global is Maritime”.

The power of elections

democratic participation, competition and legitimacy in Africa

Author: Staffan I. Lindberg

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 230

View: 9784


The Digital Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy

Information Technology and Political Islam

Author: Philip N. Howard

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199813663

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 6537

Around the developing world, political leaders face a dilemma: the very information and communication technologies that boost economic fortunes also undermine power structures. Globally, one in ten internet users is a Muslim living in a populous Muslim community. In these countries, young people are developing political identities online, and digital technologies are helping civil society build systems of political communication independent of the state and beyond easy manipulation by cultural or religious elites. With unique data on patterns of media ownership and technology use, The Digital Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy demonstrates how, since the mid-1990s, information technologies have had a role in political transformation. Democratic revolutions are not caused by new information technologies. But in the Muslim world, democratization is no longer possible without them.

Concepts and Method in Social Science

The Tradition of Giovanni Sartori

Author: David Collier

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780415775779

Category: Social Science

Page: 368

View: 6740

Careful work with concepts is a cornerstone of good social science methodology. Concepts and Method in Social Science demonstrates the crucial role of concepts, providing a timely contribution that draws both on the classic work of Giovanni Sartori and the writing of a younger generation of scholars. In this volume, major writings of Sartori are juxtaposed with other work that exemplifies important approaches to concept analysis. The book is organized into three key sections: Part I : Sartori on Concepts and Methods – including an examination of the necessary logical steps in moving from conceptualization to measurement and the relationships among meanings, terms and observations. Part II: Extending the Sartori Tradition – eminent scholars analyse five key ideas in concept analysis: revolution, culture, democracy, peasants and institutionalization within the context of the Sartori tradition. Part III: In the Academy and Beyond – both an engaging autobiographical essay written by Giovanni Sartori and reflections from former students provide a unique context in which to situate this varied and rigorous discussion of concept analysis and qualitative methods. Concepts and Method in Social Science is an accessible text that is well suited to advanced undergraduates and graduate students, providing a distinct and coherent introduction to comparative political analysis.

The Self-restraining State

Power and Accountability in New Democracies

Author: Andreas Schedler

Publisher: Lynne Rienner Publishers

ISBN: 9781555877743

Category: Political Science

Page: 395

View: 3797

This text states that democratic governments must be accountable to the electorate; but they must also be subject to restraint and oversight by other public agencies. The state must control itself. This text explores how new democracies can achieve this goal.

Democratization and Competitive Authoritarianism in Africa

Author: Matthijs Bogaards,Sebastian Elischer

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3658092165

Category: Political Science

Page: 215

View: 5245

The special issue revisits Levitsky and Way’s seminal study on Competitive Authoritarianism (2010). The contributions by North American, European, and African scholars deepen our understanding of the emergence, trajectories, and outcomes of hybrid regimes across the African continent.

Competitive Authoritarianism

Hybrid Regimes after the Cold War

Author: Steven Levitsky,Lucan A. Way

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139491482

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 7658

Based on a detailed study of 35 cases in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and post-communist Eurasia, this book explores the fate of competitive authoritarian regimes between 1990 and 2008. It finds that where social, economic, and technocratic ties to the West were extensive, as in Eastern Europe and the Americas, the external cost of abuse led incumbents to cede power rather than crack down, which led to democratization. Where ties to the West were limited, external democratizing pressure was weaker and countries rarely democratized. In these cases, regime outcomes hinged on the character of state and ruling party organizations. Where incumbents possessed developed and cohesive coercive party structures, they could thwart opposition challenges, and competitive authoritarian regimes survived; where incumbents lacked such organizational tools, regimes were unstable but rarely democratized.

Against the Profit Motive

The Salary Revolution in American Government, 1780-1940

Author: Nicholas R. Parrillo

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300176589

Category: History

Page: 568

View: 690

DIVIn America today, a public official’s lawful income consists of a salary. But until a century ago, the law frequently authorized officials to make money on a profit-seeking basis. Prosecutors won a fee for each defendant convicted. Tax collectors received a cut of each evasion uncovered. Naval officers took a reward for each ship sunk. The list goes on. This book is the first to document American government’s “for-profit” past, to discover how profit-seeking defined officials’ relationship to the citizenry, and to explain how lawmakers—by banishing the profit motive in favor of the salary—transformed that relationship forever./div

Brokers, Voters, and Clientelism

The Puzzle of Distributive Politics

Author: Susan C. Stokes,Thad Dunning,Marcelo Nazareno,Valeria Brusco

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107042208

Category: Political Science

Page: 316

View: 3923

Brokers, Voters, and Clientelism studies distributive politics: how parties and governments use material resources to win elections. The authors develop a theory that explains why loyal supporters, rather than swing voters, tend to benefit from pork-barrel politics; why poverty encourages clientelism and vote buying; and why redistribution and voter participation do not justify non-programmatic distribution.

Dictators and Democrats

Masses, Elites, and Regime Change

Author: Stephan Haggard,Robert R. Kaufman

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400882982

Category: Political Science

Page: 424

View: 6681

From the 1980s through the first decade of the twenty-first century, the spread of democracy across the developing and post-Communist worlds transformed the global political landscape. What drove these changes and what determined whether the emerging democracies would stabilize or revert to authoritarian rule? Dictators and Democrats takes a comprehensive look at the transitions to and from democracy in recent decades. Deploying both statistical and qualitative analysis, Stephen Haggard and Robert Kaufman engage with theories of democratic change and advocate approaches that emphasize political and institutional factors. While inequality has been a prominent explanation for democratic transitions, the authors argue that its role has been limited, and elites as well as masses can drive regime change. Examining seventy-eight cases of democratic transition and twenty-five reversions since 1980, Haggard and Kaufman show how differences in authoritarian regimes and organizational capabilities shape popular protest and elite initiatives in transitions to democracy, and how institutional weaknesses cause some democracies to fail. The determinants of democracy lie in the strength of existing institutions and the public's capacity to engage in collective action. There are multiple routes to democracy, but those growing out of mass mobilization may provide more checks on incumbents than those emerging from intra-elite bargains. Moving beyond well-known beliefs regarding regime changes, Dictators and Democrats explores the conditions under which transitions to democracy are likely to arise.

The SAGE Handbook of Comparative Politics

Author: Todd Landman,Neil Robinson

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1412919762

Category: Political Science

Page: 563

View: 4871

The SAGE Handbook of Comparative Politics presents in one volume an authoritative overview of the theoretical, methodological, and substantive elements of comparative political science. The 28 specially commissioned chapters, written by renowned comparative scholars, guide the reader through the central issues and debates, presenting a state-of-the-art guide to the past, present, and possible futures of the field.

The Dictator's Dilemma

The Chinese Communist Party's Strategy for Survival

Author: Professor of Politcal Science Bruce Dickson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190228555

Category:

Page: 368

View: 5230

Many observers predicted the collapse of the Chinese Communist Party following the Tiananmen Square crackdown in 1989, and again following the serial collapse of communist regimes behind the Iron Curtain. Their prediction, however, never proved true. Despite minor setbacks, China has experienced explosive economic growth and relative political stability ever since 1989. In The Dictator's Dilemma, eminent China scholar Bruce Dickson provides a comprehensive explanation for regime's continued survival and prosperity. Dickson contends that the popular media narrative of the party's impending implosion ignores some basic facts. The regime's policies may generate resentment and protest, but the CCP still enjoys a surprisingly high level of popular support. Nor is the party is not cut off from the people it governs. It consults with a wide range of specialists, stakeholders, and members of the general public in a selective yet extensive manner. Further, it tolerates and even encourages a growing and diverse civil society, even while restricting access to it. Today, the majority of Chinese people see the regime as increasingly democratic even though it does not allow political competition and its leaders are not accountable to the electorate. In short, while the Chinese people may prefer change, they prefer that it occurs within the existing political framework. In reaching this conclusion, Dickson draws upon original public opinion surveys, interviews, and published materials to explain why there is so much popular support for the regime. This basic stability is a familiar story to China specialists, but not to those whose knowledge of contemporary China is limited to the popular media. The Dictator's Dilemma, an engaging synthesis of how the CCP rules and its future prospects, will enlighten both audiences, and will be essential for anyone interested in understanding China's increasing importance in world politics.

The Politics of Advanced Capitalism

Author: Pablo Beramendi,Silja Häusermann,Herbert Kitschelt,Hanspeter Kriesi

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316300757

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 8384

This book serves as a sequel to two distinguished volumes on capitalism: Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism (Cambridge, 1999) and Order and Conflict in Contemporary Capitalism (1985). Both volumes took stock of major economic challenges advanced industrial democracies faced, as well as the ways political and economic elites dealt with them. However, during the last decades, the structural environment of advanced capitalist democracies has undergone profound changes: sweeping deindustrialization, tertiarization of the employment structure, and demographic developments. This book provides a synthetic view, allowing the reader to grasp the nature of these structural transformations and their consequences in terms of the politics of change, policy outputs, and outcomes. In contrast to functionalist and structuralist approaches, the book advocates and contributes to a 'return of electoral and coalitional politics' to political economy research.

The Politics of Authoritarian Rule

Author: Milan W. Svolik

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110702479X

Category: Political Science

Page: 228

View: 3630

"What drives politics in dictatorships? Milan W. Svolik argues authoritarian regimes must resolve two fundamental conflicts. Dictators face threats from the masses over which they rule - the problem of authoritarian control. Secondly from the elites with whom dictators rule - the problem of authoritarian power-sharing. Using the tools of game theory, Svolik explains why some dictators establish personal autocracy and stay in power for decades; why elsewhere leadership changes are regular and institutionalized, as in contemporary China; why some dictatorships are ruled by soldiers, as Uganda was under Idi Amin; why many authoritarian regimes, such as PRI-era Mexico, maintain regime-sanctioned political parties; and why a country's authoritarian past casts a long shadow over its prospects for democracy, as the unfolding events of the Arab Spring reveal. Svolik complements these and other historical case studies with the statistical analysis on institutions, leaders and ruling coalitions across dictatorships from 1946 to 2008"--