The Political Psychology of War Rape

Studies from Bosnia and Herzegovina

Author: Inger Skjelsbæk

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136620915

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 1713

This book provides a conceptual framework for understanding war rape and its impact, through empirical examination of the case of Bosnia. Providing a contextual understanding of sexual violence in war, and situating Bosnian war rape in relation to subsequent conflicts, the book offers a methodological outline of how sexual violence in war can be studied from a political-psychological perspective. It presents empirical findings from the field that show what war rape can entail in the aftermath of armed conflict for victims and their communities. Through its comprehensive approach to Bosnian experiences, the volume expands the conceptualization of victimhood and challenges the assumption that sexual violence is a particularly difficult theme to study because of victim silence. Rather, the author demonstrates there are many voices that can provide insight and understandings of war rape and its impact without having to compromise the safety and privacy of individual victims. Finally, the book shows the ways in which individual experiences of war rape are shaped by national and international discourses on gender, sexuality and politics. This book will be of interest to students of political psychology, war and conflict studies, European politics, ethnic conflict, politics and IR in general.

Gender Politics and Security Discourse

Personal-Political Imaginations and Feminism in 'Post-conflict' Serbia

Author: Laura McLeod

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317635620

Category: Political Science

Page: 174

View: 3450

This book investigates competing modes of thought about gender security and aims to understand the policy implications of personal-political imaginations. The work draws upon extensive research conducted by the author in Serbia to develop a comprehensive picture of how feminist and women’s organising relates to the broader national and international contexts surrounding gender security. Through an innovative analytical framework of personal-political imaginations, the book explores the role that memories, perceptions and hopes about conflict and post-conflict have upon the logics of gender security. It investigates how contrasting and competing modes of thought about ‘gender security’ are made, paying attention to how the dynamics of gender politics in Serbia shape the security discourse and narratives of activists. The volume explores in detail how feminist and women’s organisations have responded to UNSCR 1325 by analysing two policy debates and campaigns that seek to ‘achieve’ its goals and gender security in Serbia: (1) feminist antimilitarism and (2) connecting domestic violence to the abuse of small arms and light weapons. Ultimately, the book argues that the configuration of gender security discourse is intimately linked to personal-political imaginations of conflict and post-conflict. This book will be of much interest to students of gender politics, conflict studies, critical security studies, European politics and IR in general.

Rape Culture, Gender Violence, and Religion

Biblical Perspectives

Author: Caroline Blyth,Emily Colgan,Katie B. Edwards

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319706691

Category: Religion

Page: 220

View: 3341

This book explores the Bible’s ongoing relevance in contemporary discussions around rape culture and gender violence. Each chapter considers the ways that biblical texts and themes engage with various forms of gender violence, including the subjective, physical violence of rape, the symbolic violence of misogynistic and heteronormative discourses, and the structural violence of patriarchal power systems. The authors within this volume attempt to name (and shame) the multiple forms of gender violence present within the biblical traditions, contesting the erasure of this violence within both the biblical texts themselves and their interpretive traditions. They also consider the complex connections between biblical gender violence and the perpetuation and validation of rape culture in contemporary popular culture. This volume invites new and ongoing conversations about the Bible’s complicity in rape-supportive cultures and practices, challenging readers to read these texts in light of the global crisis of gender violence.

Rape, Sexual Violence and Transitional Justice Challenges

Lessons from Bosnia Herzegovina

Author: Janine Natalya Clark

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351718576

Category: Law

Page: 243

View: 9620

It is estimated that 20,000 people were subjected to rape and other forms of sexual violence during the 1992–1995 Bosnian war. Today, these men and women have been largely forgotten. Where are they now? To what extent do their experiences continue to affect and influence their lives, and the lives of those around them? What are the principal problems that these individuals face? Such questions remain largely unanswered. More broadly, the long-term consequences of conflict-related rape and sexual violence are often overlooked. Based on extensive interviews with male and female survivors from all ethnic groups in Bosnia-Herzegovina (BiH), this interdisciplinary book addresses a critical gap in the current literature on rape and sexual violence in conflict situations. In so doing, it uniquely situates and explores the legacy of these crimes within a transitional justice framework. Demonstrating that transitional justice processes in BiH have neglected the long-term effects of rape and sexual violence, it develops and operationalizes a new holistic approach to transitional justice that is based on an expanded conception of ‘legacy’ and has a wider application beyond BiH.

Researching War

Feminist Methods, Ethics and Politics

Author: Annick T. R. Wibben

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131741831X

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

View: 9530

Researching War provides a unique overview of varied feminist contributions to the study of war through case studies from around the world. Written by well-respected scholars, each chapter explicitly showcases the role of feminist methodological, ethical and political commitments in the research process. Designed to be useful for teaching also, the book provides insight into feminist research practices for students and scholars wanting to further their understanding what it means to study war (and other issues) from a feminist perspective. To this end, every author follows a four-part structure in the presentation of their case study: outlining a research puzzle, explaining the chosen approach, describing the findings and, finally, offering a reflection on the feminist commitments that guided the research. This book: Provides a multi-disciplinary perspective on war by drawing on disciplines such as anthropology, history, literature, peace research, postcolonial theory, queer studies, security studies, and women’s studies; Showcases a multiplicity of experiences with war and violence, emphasizing everyday experiences of war and violence with accounts from around the world; Challenges stereotypical accounts of women, violence, and war by pointing to contradictions and unexpected continuities as well as unexpected findings made possible by adopting a feminist perspective; Teases out linkages between various forms of political violence (against women, but increasingly also by women); Discusses theoretical and methodological innovation in feminist research on war. This book will be essential reading for advanced students and scholars of Security Studies, Gender and Conflict, Women and War, Feminist International Relations and Research Methods.

Transitional Justice and Reconciliation

Lessons from the Balkans

Author: Martina Fischer,Olivera Simic

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317529561

Category: Law

Page: 272

View: 3776

Scholars and practitioners alike agree that somehow the past needs to be addressed in order to enable individuals and collectives to rebuild trust and relationships. However, they also continue to struggle with critical questions. When is the right moment to address the legacies of the past after violent conflict? How can societies address the past without deepening the pain that arises from memories related to the violence and crimes committed in war? How can cultures of remembrance be established that would include and acknowledges the victims of all sides involved in violent conflict? How can various actors deal constructively with different interpretations of facts and history? Two decades after the wars, societies in Bosnia, Serbia and Croatia – albeit to different degrees – are still facing the legacies of the wars of the 1990s on a daily basis. Reconciliation between and within these societies remains a formidable challenge, given that all three countries are still facing unresolved disputes either at a cross-border level or amongst parallel societies that persist at a local community level. This book engages scholars and practitioners from the regions of former Yugoslavia, as well as international experts, to reflect on the achievements and obstacles that characterise efforts to deal with the past. Drawing variously on empirical studies, theoretical discussions, and practical experience, their contributions offer invaluable insights into the complex relationship between transitional justice and conflict transformation.

Sexuality after War Rape

From Narrative to Embodied Research

Author: Nena Mo?nik

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 135186663X

Category: Social Science

Page: 162

View: 8634

This book examines the potential impact of rape survivors’ traumatic experiences in post-conflict zones. With specific attention given to the experiences of women who were sexually abused during the breakup of the former Yugoslavia, it addresses the sexuality of survivors, which has so far been inadequately researched, and challenges the stereotypical and victimized images and narrations that have so far prevailed in academic and public discourse about women survivors while exploring the effects of those narratives on the political, social and economic status of the survivors themselves. Methodologically innovative, the book questions the processes of re-victimization that can follow fieldwork with survivors and introduces the theoretical and practical foundations of applied drama and community theater as a research approach in this field, revealing its potential as a means of expressing a range of ethnographic, anthropological and case-study research findings. Based on the narratives of advocates, scholars and different social stakeholders, together with new drama-based methodologies employed directly with survivors,?Sexuality after War Rape: From Narrative to Embodied Research?offers a sensitive and ethically-responsible research approach to contesting assumptions about the sexualities of survivors of sexual violence and revealing the emancipatory potential of testifying. This book will appeal to scholars of sociology and gender studies, victimology and sexuality.

Gender, Peace and Conflict

Author: Inger Skjelsboek,Dan Smith

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761968535

Category: Social Science

Page: 228

View: 7307

Gender is increasingly recognized as central to the study and analysis of the traditionally male domains of war and international relations. The book explores the key role of gender in peace research, conflict resolution and international politics. Rather than simply add gender and stir the aim is to transcend different disciplinary boundaries and conceptual approaches to provide a more integrated basis for research and study. To this end Gender, Peace & Conflict uniquely combines theoretical chapters alongside empirical case studies, to demonstrate the importance of a gender perspective to both theory and practice in conflict resolution and peace research.

Gender, Violence and Politics in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Author: Jane Freedman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317129857

Category: Political Science

Page: 176

View: 7761

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been called the ’worst place in the world’ for women, with reports of widespread and horrific incidents of rape and sexual violence and almost complete impunity for the perpetrators of such violence. However, despite the high profile media reporting on sexual violence in the DRC, and the widely publicized responses of the international community, there is still very little real analysis of the real situation of women in the country. This book provides such detailed analysis of gender relations in the DRC, and goes beyond the usual explanations of sexual violence as a product of conflict, to examine the complex and socially constructed gender norms and roles which underlie incidences of violence. The book benefits from a comprehensive account of men’s and women’s roles in conflict, violence, peace building and reconstruction, and evaluates the impacts of national and international political responses. In doing so, this book provides valuable new evidence and analysis of the complex and multilayered conflicts in the DRC.

Sexual Violence Against Men in Global Politics

Author: Marysia Zalewski,Paula Drumond,Elisabeth Prugl,Maria Stern

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315456486

Category: Political Science

Page: 278

View: 5118

Sexual violence against men is an under-theorised and under-noticed topic, though it is becoming increasingly apparent that this form of violence is widespread. Yet despite emerging evidence documenting its incidence, especially in conflict and post-conflict zones, efforts to understand its causes and develop strategies to reduce it are hampered by a dearth of theoretical engagement. One of the reasons that might explain its empirical invisibility and theoretical vacuity is its complicated relationship with sexual violence against women. The latter is evident empirically, theoretically, and politically, but the relationship between these violences conjures a range of complex and controversial questions about the ways they might be different, and why and how these differences matter. It is the case that sexual violence (when noticed at all) has historically been understood to happen largely, if not only, to women, allegedly because of their gender and their ensuing place in gender orders. This begs important questions regarding the impact of increasing knowledge about sexual violence against men, including the impact on resources, on understandings about, and experiences of masculinity, and whether the idea and practice of gender hierarchy is outdated. This book engages this diverse set of questions and offers fresh analysis on the incidences of sexual violence against men using both new and existing data. Additionally, the authors pay close attention to some of the controversial debates in the context of sexual violence against men, revisiting and asking new questions about the vexed issue of masculinities and related theories of gender hierarchy. The book will be of great interest to students and scholars of sex, gender, masculinities, corporeality, violence, and global politics, as well as to practitioners and activists.

Rape

Weapon of War and Genocide

Author: John K. Roth

Publisher: Paragon House

ISBN: 9781557788986

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 6683

"Its chapters by experts in genocide studies, this book, which includes key documents and discussion questions, concentrates on diverse historic and contemporary atrocities to focus the challenges to male behavior, international law, and political action that arise from the agony of rape used as a weapon of war and genocide"--Provided by publisher.

The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Conflict

Author: Fionnuala Ní Aoláin,Naomi Cahn,Nahla Valji,Dina Francesca Haynes

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199300984

Category: Political Science

Page: 672

View: 2227

Traditionally, much of the work studying war and conflict has focused on men. Men commonly appear as soldiers, commanders, casualties, and civilians. Women, by contrast, are invisible as combatants, and, when seen, are typically pictured as victims. The field of war and conflict studies is changing: more recently, scholars of war and conflict have paid increasing notice to men as a gendered category and given sizeable attention to women's multiple roles in conflict and post-conflict settings. The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Conflict focuses on the multidimensionality of gender in conflict, yet it also prioritizes the experience of women, given both the changing nature of war and the historical de-emphasis on women's experiences. Today's wars are not staged encounters involving formal armies, but societal wars that operate at all levels, from house to village to city. Women are necessarily involved at each level. Operating from this basic intellectual foundation, the editors have arranged the volume into seven core sections: the theoretical foundations of the role of gender in violent conflicts; the sources for studying contemporary conflict; the conflicts themselves; the post-conflict process; institutions and actors; the challenges presented by the evolving nature of war; and, finally, a substantial set of case studies from across the globe. Genuinely comprehensive, this Handbook will not only serve as an authoritative overview of this massive topic, it will set the research agenda for years to come.

War and Rape

Law, Memory, and Justice

Author: Nicola Henry

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415564727

Category: Law

Page: 169

View: 4166

Wartime rape has been virulent in wars of sovereignty, territory, conquest, religion, ideology and liberation, yet attention to this crime has been sporadic throughout history. Rape remains âe~unspeakableâe(tm), particularly within law. Moreover, rape has not featured prominently in post-conflict collective memory. And even when rape is âe~rememberedâe(tm), it is often the subject of political controversy and heated debate. In this book, Henry asks some critical questions about the relationship between mass rape, politics and law. In what ways does law contribute to the collective memory of wartime rape? How do âe~counter-memoriesâe(tm) of victims compete with the denialism of wartime rape? The text specifically analyses the historical silencing of rape throughout international legal history and the potential of law to restore these silenced histories, it also examines the violence of law and the obstacles to individual and collective redemption. Tracing the prosecution of rape crimes within contemporary courts, Henry seeks to argue that politics underscores the way rape is dealt with by the international community in the aftermath of armed conflict. Providing a comprehensive overview of the politics of wartime rape and the politics of prosecuting such crimes within international humanitarian law, this text will be of great interest to scholars of gender and security, war crimes and law and society.

Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War?

Perceptions, Prescriptions, Problems in the Congo and Beyond

Author: Maria Eriksson Baaz,Professor Maria Stern

Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.

ISBN: 178032166X

Category: Social Science

Page: 168

View: 7430

All too often in conflict situations, rape is referred to as a 'weapon of war', a term presented as self-explanatory through its implied storyline of gender and warring. In this provocative but much-needed book, Eriksson Baaz and Stern challenge the dominant understandings of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings. Reading with and against feminist analyses of the interconnections between gender, warring, violence and militarization, the authors address many of the thorny issues inherent in the arrival of sexual violence on the global security agenda. Based on original fieldwork in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as research material from other conflict zones, Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War? challenges the recent prominence given to sexual violence, bravely highlighting various problems with isolating sexual violence from other violence in war. A much-anticipated book by two acknowledged experts in the field, on an issue that has become an increasingly important security, legal and gender topic.

Gender, Conflict, and Development

Author: Tsjeard Bouta,Georg Frerks,Ian Bannon

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821359686

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 9823

This publication focuses on the gender dimensions of intrastate conflicts (civil wars), organised around eight key themes of gender and warfare, sexual violence, formal and informal peace processes, post-conflict legal frameworks, work issues, rehabilitation of social services and community-driven development. For each theme, the authors examine the impact on gender roles of conflict situations, the development challenges involved, and the policy options available to help build more inclusive and gender balanced post-conflict societies.

What Every Person Should Know About War

Author: Chris Hedges

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9781416583141

Category: History

Page: 192

View: 394

Acclaimed New York Times journalist and author Chris Hedges offers a critical -- and fascinating -- lesson in the dangerous realities of our age: a stark look at the effects of war on combatants. Utterly lacking in rhetoric or dogma, this manual relies instead on bare fact, frank description, and a spare question-and-answer format. Hedges allows U.S. military documentation of the brutalizing physical and psychological consequences of combat to speak for itself. Hedges poses dozens of questions that young soldiers might ask about combat, and then answers them by quoting from medical and psychological studies. • What are my chances of being wounded or killed if we go to war? • What does it feel like to get shot? • What do artillery shells do to you? • What is the most painful way to get wounded? • Will I be afraid? • What could happen to me in a nuclear attack? • What does it feel like to kill someone? • Can I withstand torture? • What are the long-term consequences of combat stress? • What will happen to my body after I die? This profound and devastating portrayal of the horrors to which we subject our armed forces stands as a ringing indictment of the glorification of war and the concealment of its barbarity.

Surviving the Bosnian Genocide

The Women of Srebrenica Speak

Author: Selma Leydesdorff

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 0253356695

Category: History

Page: 242

View: 9575

In July 1995, the Army of the Serbian Republic killed some 8,000 Bosnian men and boys in and around the town of Srebrenica—the largest mass murder in Europe since World War II. Surviving the Bosnian Genocide is based on the testimonies of 60 female survivors of the massacre who were interviewed by Dutch historian Selma Leydesdorff. The women, many of whom still live in refugee camps, talk about their lives before the Bosnian war, the events of the massacre, and the ways they have tried to cope with their fate. Drawing on their memories, though fragmented by trauma, the women tell of life and survival under extreme conditions, while recalling a time before the war when Muslims, Croats, and Serbs lived together peaceably. By giving them a voice, this book looks beyond the rapes, murders, and atrocities of that dark time to show the agency of these women during and after the war and their fight to uncover the truth of what happened at Srebrenica and why.

Western Intervention in the Balkans

The Strategic Use of Emotion in Conflict

Author: Roger D. Petersen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139503308

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 6704

Conflicts involve powerful experiences. The residue of these experiences is captured by the concept and language of emotion. Indiscriminate killing creates fear; targeted violence produces anger and a desire for vengeance; political status reversals spawn resentment; cultural prejudices sustain ethnic contempt. These emotions can become resources for political entrepreneurs. A broad range of Western interventions are based on a view of human nature as narrowly rational. Correspondingly, intervention policy generally aims to alter material incentives ('sticks and carrots') to influence behavior. In response, poorer and weaker actors who wish to block or change this Western implemented 'game' use emotions as resources. This book examines the strategic use of emotion in the conflicts and interventions occurring in the Western Balkans over a twenty-year period. The book concentrates on the conflicts among Albanian and Slavic populations (Kosovo, Montenegro, Macedonia, South Serbia), along with some comparisons to Bosnia.

The Kosovo Report

Conflict, International Response, Lessons Learned

Author: Independent International Commission on Kosovo

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199243093

Category: Political Science

Page: 372

View: 4620

This ground-breaking report on the Kosovo conflict, by a group of 12 renowned social scientists, international lawyers, journalists, and politicians, seeks to attribute political responsibility of the key dimensions of the crises and analyses the key players in the conflict. The report outlines the implications for the future and lessons that are to be learnt for Kosovo and for the international community.

The Oxford Handbook of the Economics of Peace and Conflict

Author: Michelle R. Garfinkel,Stergios Skaperdas

Publisher: OUP USA

ISBN: 0195392779

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 874

View: 9243

This Handbook brings together contributions from leading scholars who take an economic perspective to study peace and conflict. Some chapters are largely empirical, exploring the correlates and quantifying the costs of conflict. Others are more theoretical, examining the mechanisms that lead to war or are more conducive to peace.