The Phonology of Norwegian

Author: Gjert Kristoffersen

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0198237650

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 366

View: 2249

A the end of the fourteenth century, Norway, having previously been an independent kingdom, became by conquest a province of Denmark and remained so for three centuries. In1814, as part of the fall-out from the Napoleonic wars, the country became a largely independent nation within the monarchy of Sweden. By this time, however, Danish had become the language of government, commerce, and education, as well as of the middle and upper classes. Nationalistic Norwegians sought to reestablish native identity by creating and promulgating a new language based partly on rural dialects and partly on Old Norse. The upper and middle classes sought to retain a form of Norwegian close to Danish that would be intelligible to themselves and to their neighbours in Sweden and Denmark. The controversy has gone on ever since. One result is that the standard dictionaries of Norwegian ignore pronunciation, for no version can be counted as 'received'. Another is that there has been considerable variety and change in Norwe

The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese

Author: Kristján Árnason

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199229317

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 349

View: 7502

This book presents a comprehensive, contrastive account of the phonological structures and characteristics of Icelandic and Faroese. It is written for Nordic linguists and theoretical phonologists interested in what the languages reveal about phonological structure and phonological change and the relation between morphology, phonology, and phonetics. The book is divided into five parts. In the first Professor Árnason provides the theoretical and historical context of his investigation. Icelandic and Faroese originate from the West-Scandinavian or Norse spoken in Norway, Iceland and part of the Scottish Isles at the end of the Viking Age. The modern spoken languages are barely intelligible to each other and, despite many common phonological characteristics, exhibit differences that raise questions about their historical and structural relation and about phonological change more generally. Separate parts are devoted to synchronic analysis of the sounds of the languages, their phonological oppositions, syllabic structure and phonotactics, lexical morphophonemics, rhythmic structure, intonation and postlexical variation. The book draws on the author's and others' published work and presents the results of original research in Faroese and Icelandic phonology.

The Oxford Handbook of Corpus Phonology

Author: Jacques Durand,Ulrike Gut,Gjert Kristoffersen

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191669261

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 704

View: 5010

This handbook presents the first systematic account of corpus phonology - the employment of corpora for studying speakers' and listeners' acquisition and knowledge of the sound system of their native languages and the principles underlying those systems. The first part of the book discusses the design, compilation, and use of phonological corpora, while the second looks at specific applications. Part 3 presents the tools and methods used, while the final part examines a number of currently available phonological corpora in various languages. It will appeal not only to those working with phonological corpora, but also to researchers and students of phonology and phonetics more generally, as well as to all those interested in language variation, dialectology, language acquisition, and sociolinguistics.

The Phonology of Swedish

Author: Tomas Riad

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199543577

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 338

View: 3136

This book presents a comprehensive account of the phonology of Swedish, describes its history, segmental phonology, lower prosodic phonology, stress and tone, morphology-phonology interactions, higher prosodic phonology, and intonation, Its approach is data-oriented and, insofar as possible, theory-neutral.

The Sounds of the World's Languages

Author: Peter Ladefoged,Ian Maddieson

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9780631198154

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 450

View: 3421

This book describes all the known ways in which the sounds of the world's languages differ. Encapsulating the work of two leading figures in the field, it will be a standard work of reference for researchers in phonetics, linguistics and speech science for many years to come. The scope of the book is truly global, with data drawn from nearly 400 languages, many of them investigated at first hand by the authors.

The Phonology of Danish

Author: Hans Basbøll

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198242689

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 596

View: 3603

The book is the most comprehensive account of the phonology of Danish ever published in any language. It gives a clear analysis of the sound patterns of modern Danish and examines the relations between its speech sounds and grammar. The author develops new models for the analysis of phonology and morphology-phonology interactions, and shows how these may be applied to Danish and to other languages.Danish has an unusually rich vowel system and exhibits radical reduction processes that make it difficult for foreigners to understand. The sound pattern is equally challenging for the analyst. Professor Basbøll develops a non-circular model for the sonority syllable and applies it to Danish phonotactics. He presents a radically new and insightful analysis of stød, a syllable accent which has a complex grammatical distribution and is unique among the world's languages. Healso describes syllabic and word structures, and stress and intonation.The book is fully referenced and indexed. It will be widely welcomed by phonologists and scholars of Danish, and is likely to become the standard account of Danish phonology.

The Phonology of German

Author: Richard Wiese

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198299509

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 358

View: 4703

Featuring the most complete and up-to-date description of the phonology of German presently available, this book applies recent models of phonological theory, putting particular emphasis on the interaction of morphology and phonology. It focuses on the present-day standard language, but includes discussions of other variants and registers.

The Phonology of Dutch

Author: Geert Booij

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198238690

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 205

View: 1894

In this, the first comprehensive survey of the phonological system of Dutch, Geert Booij lays particular stress on the relation between morphology, syntax, and prosodic structure at both word- and sentence-level. His primary aim is to provide an overview of the system as a whole, based in part on a number of more detailed studies of particular aspects of Dutch phonology. As a reference work, the book directs the reader to the available literature. The book is not primarily intended as a contribution to phonological theory; however, it is couched in terms of present-day non-linear generative phonology, and the author's analyses are relevant for a number of current issues in phonological theory such as the principles of syllable structure, the interaction of phonology and morphology, underspecification, rule typology, the domain specification of phonological rules, cliticization, and the role of rhythm in word stress.

The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic

Author: Janet C. E. Watson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191607754

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 336

View: 8412

This book is the first comprehensive account of the phonology and morphology of Arabic. It is a pioneering work of scholarship, based on the author's research in the region. Arabic is a Semitic language spoken by some 250 million people in an area stretching from Morocco in the West to parts of Iran in the East. Apart from its great intrinsic interest, the importance of the language for phonological and morphological theory lies, as the author shows, in its rich root-and-pattern morphology and its large set of guttural consonants. Dr Watson focuses on two eastern dialects, Cairene and San'ani. Cairene is typical of an advanced urban Mediterranean dialect and has a cultural importance throughout the Arab world; it is also the variety learned by most foreign speakers of Arabic. San'ani, spoken in Yemen, is representative of a conservative peninsula dialect. In addition the book makes extensive reference to other dialects as well as to classical and Modern Standard Arabic. The volume opens with an overview of the history and varieties of Arabic, and of the study of phonology within the Arab linguistic tradition. Successive chapters then cover dialectal differences and similarities, and the position of Arabic within Semitic; the phoneme system and the representation of phonological features; the syllable and syllabification; word stress; derivational morphology; inflectional morphology; lexical phonology; and post-lexical phonology. The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic will be of great interest to Arabists and comparative Semiticists, as well as to phonologists, morphologists, and linguists more generally.

The Phonology of Japanese

Author: Laurence Labrune

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199545839

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 296

View: 7781

This book is the fullest account of the phonology of Japanese and its major dialects ever published. It presents original analyses of every aspect of the Japanese sound system, including its segment inventory, prosodic units, mora and syllable, prosody, and accent. Its clear presentation will appeal to phonologists throughout the world.

The Phonology of Chichewa

Author: Laura J. Downing,Al Mtenje

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198724748

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 352

View: 3774

This book provides thorough descriptive and theory-neutral coverage of the full range of phonological phenomena of Chichewa, a Malawian Bantu language. Bantu languages have played and continue to play an important role as a source of data illustrating core phonological processes such as vowel harmony, nasal place assimilation, postnasal laryngeal alternations, tonal phenomena such as High tone spread and the OCP, prosodic morphology, and the phonology-syntax interface. Chichewa, in particular, has been a key language in the development of theoretical approaches to these phenomena. In this volume, Laura Downing and Al Mtenje examine not only these well-known features of Chichewa but also less well-studied phonological topics such as positional asymmetries in the distribution of segments, the phonetics of tone, and intonation. They survey important recent theoretical approaches to phonological problems such as focus prosody, reduplication, and vowel harmony, where Chichewa data is routinely referred to in the literature. The book will serve as a resource for all phonologists interested in these processes, regardless of their theoretical background, as well as Bantu scholars and linguists working on interface issues.

The Phonology of Standard Chinese

Author: San Duanmu

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199258314

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 308

View: 3098

Chinese phonology has been studied for over 1700 years. Before the twentieth century the focus of such scholarship was on the rhyming categories of syllables for the purposes of composing proper literary works and of preserving what was felt to be proper Chinese. During the first half of thiscentury phonological research was directed towards the production of a simplified, national, 'standard' Chinese sound system. The academic study of Chinese linguistics, including phonology, dates from the 1960s. This has produced substantial literature, mainly in Chinese.This is a comprehensive account of and introduction to Chinese phonology. It covers several areas that are either not dealt with in previous books or only superficially touched upon, such as the large amount of missing syllable patterns (Chapter 3), stress (Chapter 6), the word length problem (Chapter 7), and the word order problem (Chapter 8). It also offers new analyses of several traditional topics, such as the phonemic inventory (Chapter 2), allophonic variation (Chapter 3), syllable structure (Chapter 4), the [r] suffix (Chapter 9), tone (Chapter 10), and Tone 3 Sandhi (Chapter 11). The book pays attention to both factual description and theoretical analyses, and works well as a textbook for students. Efforts have been made to avoid unnecessary jargon and to introduce relevant theories in a non-technical way, so that the contents are accessible to a broader audience.

The Phonetics and Phonology of Geminate Consonants

Author: Haruo Kubozono

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191071102

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 416

View: 5642

This book is the first volume specifically devoted to the phonetics and phonology of geminate consonants, a feature of many of the world's languages including Arabic, Bengali, Finnish, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Malayalam, Persian, Saami, Swiss German, and Turkish. While the contrast between geminate and singleton consonants has been widely studied, the phonetic manifestation and phonological nature of geminate consonants, as well as their cross-linguistic similarities and differences, are not fully understood. The volume brings together original data and novel analyses of geminate consonants in a variety of languages across the world. Experts in the field present a wide range of approaches to the study of phonological contrasts in general by introducing various experimental and non-experimental methodologies; they also discuss phonological contrasts in a wider context and examine the behaviour of geminate consonants in loanword phonology and language acquisition. The volume takes an interdisciplinary approach, drawing on experimental phonetics, theoretical phonology, speech processing, neurolinguistics, and language acquisition.

The Phonology of Italian

Author: Martin Kramer

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199290792

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 286

View: 6900

This book provides an overview of the phonology of Italian. It covers the different levels of analysis from individual sounds up to the phrasal level. It focuses on the most widely dispersed features of the language reflecting its significant regional and social variation and its most prominent regionally restricted patterns.Martin Krämer provides a critical survey of the generative literature on Italian phonology. He reports on current debates in the field, considers their particular and general theoretical interest, and provides both syntheses and original analyses. His accounts of the main aspects and characteristics of Italian phonology are couched in the framework of Optimality Theory, but he keeps formal aspects and theory-internal matters to a minimum and separate from the presentation and descriptionof the data. His exposition is thus fully accessible to students and researchers who are not familiar with or do not subscribe to the tenets of the theory. Individual chapters may thus serve as starting points for in-depth investigations into particular aspects of Italian phonology in whatever frameworkthe reader chooses to employ.The Phonology of Italian is the first fully comprehensive account of its subject for many years. It will interest scholars and advanced students of Italian, Romance phonology, and phonology as a system.

The Phonology of Portuguese

Author: Maria Helena Mateus,Ernesto d'Andrade

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191590504


Page: 172

View: 5769

Portuguese emerged from vulgar Latin during the course of the third century. Influential in its development were successive invasions by Germanic peoples, Visigoths, and Moors, the latter of whom were finally evicted in the thirteenth century. As a consequence of the newly-independent kingdoms imperial achievements, Portuguese is the national language of Brazil and the official language of several African countries. Maria Helena Mateus and Ernesto dAndrade present a broad description and comparative analysis of the phonetics and phonology of European and Brazilian Portuguese. They begin by introducing the history of Portuguese and its principal varieties. Chapter 2 describes the phonetic characteristics of consonants, vowels, and glides, and Chapter 3 looks at prosodic structure. Chapters 4 and 5 present the general characteristics of Portuguese nominal and verbal systems, the former considering inflectional and the latter derivational processes. Chapter 6 examines stress, main, secondary, and echo, and Chapter 7 describes phonological processes that are not related to the morphological structure of the word, including the peculiar process of nazalization. The authors deploy current theoretical models to explain the rich variety of Portuguese phonology and interrelated aspects of morphology. This is by far the most comprehensive account of the subject to have appeared in English, and the most up-to-date in any language.

The Phonology of Welsh

Author: S. J. Hannahs

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199601232

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 183

View: 4502

The first comprehensive account of Welsh phonology opens with a concise history of the language and its relation to the other Celtic languages. Six chapters then explore its sound system, including the phonetic background, syllables, feet, phonotactics, and stress, and the characteristics of the dialects.

The Routledge Handbook of Phonological Theory

Author: S.J. Hannahs,Anna Bosch

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317382129

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 646

View: 2277

The Routledge Handbook of Phonological Theory provides a comprehensive overview of the major contemporary approaches to phonology. Phonology is frequently defined as the systematic organisation of the sounds of human language. For some, this includes aspects of both the surface phonetics together with systematic structural properties of the sound system; for others, phonology is seen as distinct from, and autonomous from, phonetics. The Routledge Handbook of Phonological Theory surveys the differing ways in which phonology is viewed, with a focus on current approaches to phonology. Divided into two parts, this handbook: covers major conceptual frameworks within phonology, including: rule-based phonology; Optimality Theory; Government Phonology; Dependency Phonology; and connectionist approaches to generative phonology; explores the central issue of the relationship between phonetics and phonology; features 23 chapters written by leading academics from around the world. The Routledge Handbook of Phonological Theory is an authoritative survey of this key field in linguistics, and is essential reading for students studying phonology.

The Phonology of Tone and Intonation

Author: Carlos Gussenhoven

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521012003

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 355

View: 681

Tone and Intonation are two types of pitch variation, which are used by speakers of all languages in order to give shape to utterances. More specifically, tone encodes segments and morphemes, and intonation gives utterances a further discoursal meaning that is independent of the meanings of the words themselves. In this comprehensive survey, Carlos Gussenhoven provides an overview of research into tone and intonation, discussing why speakers vary their pitch, what pitch variations mean, and how they are integrated into our grammars. He also explains why intonation in part appears to be universally understood, while at other times it is language-specific and can lead to misunderstandings. After eight chapters on general topics relating to pitch modulation, the book's central arguments are illustrated with comprehensive phonological descriptions - partly in Optimality Theory - of the tonal and intonational systems of six languages, including Japanese, Dutch, and English.

Compendium of the World's Languages

Author: George L. Campbell,Gareth King

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136258450

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 1984

View: 5664

This third edition of Compendium of the World’s Languages has been thoroughly revised to provide up-to-date and accurate descriptions of a wide selection of natural language systems. All cultural and historical notes as well as statistical data have been checked, updated and in many cases expanded. Presenting an even broader range of languages and language families, including new coverage of Australian aboriginal languages and expanded treatment of North American and African languages, this new edition offers a total of 342 entries over nearly 2000 pages. Key features include: Complete rewriting, systematization and regularisation of the phonology sections Provision of IPA symbol grids arranged by articulatory feature and by alphabetic resemblance to facilitate use of the new phonology sections Expansion of morphology descriptions for most major languages Provision of new illustrative text samples Addition of a glossary of technical terms and an expanded bibliography Comparative tables of the numerals 1-10 in a representative range of languages, and also grouped by family Drawing upon a wealth of recent developments and research in language typology and broadened availability of descriptive data, this new incarnation of George Campbell’s astounding Compendium brings a much-loved survey emphatically into the twenty-first century for a new generation of readers. Scholarly, comprehensive and highly accessible, Compendium of the World’s Languages remains the ideal reference for all interested linguists and professionals alike.

The Phonology of English : A Prosodic Optimality-Theoretic Approach

A Prosodic Optimality-Theoretic Approach

Author: Michael Hammond

Publisher: Oxford University Press, UK

ISBN: 0191583553


Page: 384

View: 9319

The Phonology of English introduces the subject from an Optimality-Theoretic perspective. Written by a high-profile American phonologist, the book presents an analysis of new generalizations about the surface shapes of English words. It will not only be the most up to date introduction to English phonology, but will also provide the clearest available account of Optimality Theory. Its combination of accessibility, originality and clear analysis make this essential reading for all those interested in the sounds of English words and some of the latest developments in linguistics theory. - ;The Phonology of English offers a new approach to English phonology. It focuses on the prosody of the language, i.e. syllable and foot structure, and does so from an optimality-theoretic (OT) perspective. The focus is on surface distributional regularities and the results presented are based on extensive searches through various computerized lexicons. The outcome is a number of new generalizations about the phonology of English, along with confirmation of some familiar regularities. All of these empirical results are discussed in detail and presented in extensive charts with a plethora of examples. The Phonology of English also offers a unique OT analysis. This provides a detailed introduction to the intricacies of the theory as applied to a significant amount of data. A number of important theoretical proposals are developed in this model, and the analysis presents the idea that certain complex constraints and their ranking can be derived in restricted ways from more basic constraints. In addition, the book also develops the idea that syllables of English can contain from zero to three moras. It is suggested that the phonology of English only makes sense if partial morphemes of the cranberry sort are licensed more widely. The book is thus intended as a detailed presentation of novel empirical results about the sound system of English, along with important theoretical results about phonological theory. -