This volume of the Logica Yearbook series brings together articles presented at the annual international symposium Logica 2017, Hejnice, the Czech Republic. The articles range over mathematical and philosophical logic, history and philosophy of logic, and the analysis of natural language.
Author: Pavel Arazim,Tomas Lavicka
Publisher: College Publications
This volume of the Logica Yearbook series brings together articles presented at the annual international symposium Logica 2015, Hejnice, the Czech Republic. The articles range over mathematical and philosophical logic, history and philosophy of logic, and the analysis of natural language.
Author: Pavel Arazim,Michal Dancak
The Liar paradox arises when we consider a sentence that says of itself that it is not true. If such self-referential sentences exist – and examples like "This sentence is not true" certainly suggest this –, then our logic and standard notion of truth allow to infer a contradiction: The Liar sentence is true and not true. What has gone wrong? Must we revise our notion of truth and our logic? Or can we dispel the common conviction that there are such self-referential sentences? The present study explores the second path. After comparing the Liar reasoning in formal and informal logic and showing that there are no Gödelian Liar sentences, the study moves on from the semantics of self-reference to the metaphysics of expressions and proposes a novel solution to the Liar paradox: Meaningful expressions are distinct from their syntactic bases and exist only relative to contexts. Detailed semantico-metaphysical arguments show that in this dynamic setting, an object can be referred to only after it has started to exist. Hence the circular reference needed in the Liar paradox cannot occur, after all. As this solution is contextualist, it evades the expressibility problems of other proposals.
Author: Martin Pleitz
Publisher: mentis Verlag GmbH
Edited in collaboration with FoLLI, the Association of Logic, Language and Information this book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 25th Workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Communication, WoLLIC 2018, held inBogota, Colombia, in July 2018. The 16 full papers together with 3 short papers and 3 invited talks presented were fully reviewed and selected from 30 submissions. The vision for the conference is to provide an annual forum which is large enough to provide meaningful interactions between logic and the sciences related to information and computation.
25th International Workshop, WoLLIC 2018, Bogota, Colombia, July 24-27, 2018, Proceedings
Author: Lawrence S. Moss,Ruy de Queiroz,Maricarmen Martinez
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Foundations of Information and Knowledge Systems, FoIKS 2018, held in Budapest, Hungary, in May 2018.The 20 revised full papers presented together with 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from 40 submissions. The papers address various topics such as big data; database design; dynamics of information; information fusion; integrity and constraint management; intelligent agents; knowledge discovery and information retrieval; knowledge representation, reasoning and planning; logics in databases and AI; mathematical foundations; security in information and knowledge systems; semi-structured data and XML; social computing; the semantic web and knowledge management; and the world wide web.
10th International Symposium, FoIKS 2018, Budapest, Hungary, May 14–18, 2018, Proceedings
Author: Flavio Ferrarotti,Stefan Woltran
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 40th Annual German Conference on Artificial Intelligence, KI 2017 held in Dortmund, Germany in September 2017. The 20 revised full technical papers presented together with 16 short technical communications were carefully reviewed and selected from 73 submissions. The conference cover a range of topics from, e. g., agents, robotics, cognitive sciences, machine learning, planning, knowledge representation, reasoning, and ontologies, with numerous applications in areas like social media, psychology, transportation systems and reflecting the richness and diversity of their field.
40th Annual German Conference on AI, Dortmund, Germany, September 25–29, 2017, Proceedings
Author: Gabriele Kern-Isberner,Johannes Fürnkranz,Matthias Thimm
This monograph proposes a new way of implementing interaction in logic. It also provides an elementary introduction to Constructive Type Theory (CTT). The authors equally emphasize basic ideas and finer technical details. In addition, many worked out exercises and examples will help readers to better understand the concepts under discussion. One of the chief ideas animating this study is that the dialogical understanding of definitional equality and its execution provide both a simple and a direct way of implementing the CTT approach within a game-theoretical conception of meaning. In addition, the importance of the play level over the strategy level is stressed, binding together the matter of execution with that of equality and the finitary perspective on games constituting meaning. According to this perspective the emergence of concepts are not only games of giving and asking for reasons (games involving Why-questions), they are also games that include moves establishing how it is that the reasons brought forward accomplish their explicative task. Thus, immanent reasoning games are dialogical games of Why and How.
A Plaidoyer for the Play Level
Author: Shahid Rahman,Zoe McConaughey,Ansten Klev,Nicolas Clerbout
During his scientific life Albert Visser has contributed to a great variety of disciplines in logic, ranging from provability logics, interpretability, and formal arithmetic to philosophy, linguistics and formal language semantics. This Liber Amicorum is in honour of his long and distinguised career, and nicely bears tribute to the diversity of Albert Visser's interests. Filled with contriubitons from his colleagues, the book illustrates the important role that Albert Visser plays and has played as a logician in the Netherlands and abroad.
Author: Rosalie Iemhoff,Jan Van Eijck,Joost J Joosten
Logic deals with the fundamental notions oftruth and falsity. Modal logic arose from the philosophical study of "modes of truth" with the two most common modes being "necessarily true" and "possibly true." Research in modal logic now spans the spectrum from philosophy, computer science and mathematics using techniques from relational structures, universal algebra, topology, and proof theory. These proceedings record the papers presented at the 2016 conference on Advances in Modal Logic, a biennial conference series with an aim to report on important new developments in pure and applied modal logic. As indicated above, there are new developments in using modal logic to reason about obligations, about programs, about time, about combinations of modal logics and even about negation itself.
Author: Lev Beklemishev,Stephane Demri,Andras Mate
Arguments have often been a topic of interest in the psychology of communication, typically with an emphasis on their persuasive features - an emphasis largely shared by at least one of the classical disciplines in argumentation studies, namely, rhetoric. Nonetheless, contemporary argumentation theory has mostly steered clear of psychological contributions, with only few (albeit notable) exceptions. While there are both historical and theoretical reasons for this lack of interaction, many nowadays seem to think it is past time we bury the hatchet for good, and recent years have witnessed a flourish of cognitive approaches to the study of argument. This volume aims to take stock of these recent developments, as well as paving the way to new promising directions of inquiry. In doing so, it also manages to organize this rich landscape around five main sub-themes: socio-cognitive models of argumentation, issues of rationality (or lack thereof), the study of biases and fallacies, the role of argumentation in persuasion (and vice versa), and how learning and development affect our argumentative attitudes.
Author: Laura Bonelli,Fabio Paglieri,Silvia Felletti
This volume of the Logica Yearbook series brings together articles presented at the annual international symposium Logica 2012, Hejnice, the Czech Republic. The articles range over mathematical and philosophical logic, history and philosophy of logic, and the analysis of natural language.
Author: Vit Puncochar,Petr Svarny
This text aims to convey some of the interest and charm of modal logic, and to put a reader new to the subject in a position to have an informed opinion as to its applicability to each of several areas of philosophical concern (belief, knowledge, obligation ...) in which the merits of a modal approach' have been controversial. he main focus, for these purposes, is on normal modal logics, though some attention is given to the non-normal side of the picture.
Author: Lloyd Humberstone
Since antiquity, opposed concepts such as the One and the Many, the Finite and the Infinite, and the Absolute and the Relative, have been a driving force in philosophical, scientific, and mathematical thought. Yet they have also given rise to perplexing problems and conceptual paradoxes which continue to haunt scientists and philosophers. In Oppositions and Paradoxes, John L. Bell explains and investigates the paradoxes and puzzles that arise out of conceptual oppositions in physics and mathematics. In the process, Bell not only motivates abstract conceptual thinking about the paradoxes at issue, but he also offers a compelling introduction to central ideas in such otherwise-difficult topics as non-Euclidean geometry, relativity, and quantum physics. These paradoxes are often as fun as they are flabbergasting. Consider, for example, the famous Tristram Shandy paradox: an immortal man composing an autobiography so slowly as to require a year of writing to describe each day of his life — he would, if he had infinite time, presumably never complete the work, although no individual part of it would remain unwritten. Or think of an office mailbox labelled “mail for those with no mailbox”—if this is a person’s mailbox, how can they possibly have “no mailbox”? These and many other paradoxes straddle the boundary between physics and metaphysics, and demonstrate the hidden difficulty in many of our most basic concepts.
Philosophical Perplexities in Science and Mathematics
Author: John L. Bell
Publisher: Broadview Press
This is Volume II of the proceedings of the 1st European Conference on Argumentation: Argumentation and Reasoned Action, held at the Argumentation Lab in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 2015. The European Conference on Argumentation (ECA) is a new pan-European initiative aiming to consolidate and advance various streaks of research into argumentation and reasoning: philosophy, communication, linguistics, discourse analysis, computer science, psychology, cognitive studies, legal theory, etc. The proceedings comprise what we think is the most complete statement of the state of the art of argumentation studies today across these disciplines. From ancient rhetoric to Artificial Intelligence, and from analytic philosophy to detailed empirical research, the contributors examine argumentation theory and practice with a special focus on argumentation aimed at reasoned action. It's gratifying to have all this research collected in one source and realise the breadth and depth of the lively debates in argumentation studies.
Author: Marcin Lewinski,Dima Mohammed
Advances in Modal Logic is a unique forum for presenting the latest results and new directions of research in modal logic. The topics dealt with are of interdisciplinary interest and range from mathematical, computational, and philosophical problems to applications in knowledge representation and formal linguistics.Volume 3 presents substantial advances in the relational model theory and the algorithmic treatment of modal logics. It contains invited and contributed papers from the third conference on OC Advances in Modal LogicOCO, held at the University of Leipzig (Germany) in October 2000. It includes papers on dynamic logic, description logic, hybrid logic, epistemic logic, combinations of modal logics, tense logic, action logic, provability logic, and modal predicate logic."
Author: Frank Wolter
Publisher: World Scientific
Like every other walk of modern life, the law has embraced digital technology, and is increasingly reliant on information systems for its efficient functioning. This book presents papers from the 30th International Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems (JURIX 2017), held in Luxembourg City, Luxembourg, in December 2017. In the three decades since they began, the JURIX conferences have been held under the auspices of the Dutch Foundation for Legal Knowledge Based Systems, and have become a fully European conference series which addresses familiar topics and extends known techniques, as well as exploring newer topics such as question answering and the use of data mining and machine learning. Of the 42 submissions received for this edition, 12 have been selected for publication as full papers and 13 as short papers, with an acceptance rate of around 59%. The papers address a wide range of topics in artificial intelligence and law, such as argumentation, norms, evidence, belief revision, citations, case-based reasoning and ontologies. Diverse techniques such as information retrieval and extraction, machine learning, semantic web, and network analysis were applied, among others, and textual sources include legal cases, bar examinations, and legislative/regulatory documents. The book will be of interest to all those working in the legal system who wish to keep abreast of the latest developments in information systems.
JURIX 2017: The Thirtieth Annual Conference
Author: A. Wyner,G. Casini
Publisher: IOS Press
This book puts forward new logical systems suitable for modelling Talmudic and Biblical reasoning and argumentation. The Talmud is very logical. It is said that when God gave Moses the Ten Commandments, He also gave him additional laws and rules of logic to enable human beings to derive more laws. Together with colleagues the authors have already written 8 books on the logic of the Talmud and the project will involve 15-20 volumes. The authors have discovered principles which can be exported to current research in scientific communities, as well as human common sense reasoning and laws as tackled by religious thinking. Topics in this book include: 1 Non-deductive Inference in the Talmud: The book includes a new topological matrix method for analogical reasoning, completely new to existing AI methods which rely on metric distances. 2 The Textual Inference Rules Klal uPrat. How the Bible Defines Sets: Traditional set theoretic methods for defining sets are either by enumeration of its elements or by a predicate formula. The biblical way is a common sense combination of the two, approximating the set from above and from below by predicates, supplemented by a small number of typical members of the set. 3 Talmudic Deontic Logic: The Talmud has its own Deontic Logic, free of the traditional paradoxes. 4 Temporal Logic in the Talmud: The Talmud allows for special conditionals with antecedents depending on the future and consequents valid in the present. This new type of logic allows for backwards causality and connects with aspects of Quantum Logic. 5 Resolution of Conflicts and Normative Loops in the Talmud: The book deals with Talmudic loop checking methods that can be widely applied to handling loops in AI and logic. 6 Delegation and Representation in Talmudic Logic: Talmudic systems of delegation are innovative and apply to modern day to day computer delegation and access control. This book is of great interest to researchers in AI and Law, in Argumentation theory, and in Pure and Applied logical systems, as well as students of Talmudic reasoning and debate.
Author: Michael Abraham,Dov M. Gabbay,Uri Schild
The global developments in Information Technology Enabled Services have transformed customer service encounters which were until recently face-to-face. The major business areas of healthcare, insurance, banking and media are increasingly moving their customer processes to call centres, web based interaction, and email. ITES is set for explosive growth over the next decade, alongside being increasingly outsourced to non-English speaking destinations. The need for good English language communication skills is becoming ever more acute.This book looks closely at interactive communication in customer-facing services, featuring the voices of both academics and those in industry. It aims to integrate the work of applied linguists, teachers, trainers and businesses. After an initial discussion on the value of research to applied training, the major issues of ITES communications are addressed with either an academic analysis being followed by a training example derived from it, or with an analysis of a workplace problem followed by a research-based solution proposal. This volume should appeal to a wide readership in academic, business training and HR departments.
Talking Across The World
Author: Gail Forey,Jane Lockwood
Publisher: A&C Black
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Inferences with Ignorance focuses on two formal logic systems that employ the type of inferences in which questions are used in addition to statements. Not merely capturing questions as part of a logical apparatus, Michal Peliš also emphasizes the role of question-asking in communication. The book presents options for formalizing questions using sets of “direct answers,” demonstrates where questions are used in inferences, and explores asking questions and seeking answers as important components of everyday communication, proposing ways of using questions within a formal system that can capture a change in knowledge during this simple communication.
Author: Peliš, Michal
Publisher: Charles University in Prague, Karolinum Press