The Logic of Violence in Civil War

Author: Stathis N. Kalyvas

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139456920

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 5083

By analytically decoupling war and violence, this book explores the causes and dynamics of violence in civil war. Against the prevailing view that such violence is an instance of impenetrable madness, the book demonstrates that there is logic to it and that it has much less to do with collective emotions, ideologies, and cultures than currently believed. Kalyvas specifies a novel theory of selective violence: it is jointly produced by political actors seeking information and individual civilians trying to avoid the worst but also grabbing what opportunities their predicament affords them. Violence, he finds, is never a simple reflection of the optimal strategy of its users; its profoundly interactive character defeats simple maximization logics while producing surprising outcomes, such as relative nonviolence in the 'frontlines' of civil war.

Von Wien nach Kalavryta

die blutige Spur der 117. Jäger-Division durch Serbien und Griechenland

Author: Hermann Frank Meyer

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783933925220

Category: World War, 1939-1945

Page: 556

View: 2814


Violence as a Generative Force

Identity, Nationalism, and Memory in a Balkan Community

Author: Max Bergholz

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 1501706438

Category: Social Science

Page: 456

View: 9450

During two terrifying days and nights in early September 1941, the lives of nearly two thousand men, women, and children were taken savagely by their neighbors in Kulen Vakuf, a small rural community straddling today's border between northwest Bosnia and Croatia. This frenzy—in which victims were butchered with farm tools, drowned in rivers, and thrown into deep vertical caves—was the culmination of a chain of local massacres that began earlier in the summer. In Violence as a Generative Force, Max Bergholz tells the story of the sudden and perplexing descent of this once peaceful multiethnic community into extreme violence. This deeply researched microhistory provides provocative insights to questions of global significance: What causes intercommunal violence? How does such violence between neighbors affect their identities and relations? Contrary to a widely held view that sees nationalism leading to violence, Bergholz reveals how the upheavals wrought by local killing actually created dramatically new perceptions of ethnicity—of oneself, supposed "brothers," and those perceived as "others." As a consequence, the violence forged new communities, new forms and configurations of power, and new practices of nationalism. The history of this community was marked by an unexpected explosion of locally executed violence by the few, which functioned as a generative force in transforming the identities, relations, and lives of the many. The story of this largely unknown Balkan community in 1941 provides a powerful means through which to rethink fundamental assumptions about the interrelationships among ethnicity, nationalism, and violence, both during World War II and more broadly throughout the world.

Ethnic Politics and State Power in Africa

Author: Philip Roessler

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107176077

Category: Political Science

Page: 420

View: 8871

This book models the trade-off that rulers of weak, ethnically-divided states face between coups and civil war. Drawing evidence from extensive field research in Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo combined with statistical analysis of most African countries, it develops a framework to understand the causes of state failure.

Geschichte der Universität in Europa

Author: Walter Rüegg,Asa Briggs

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 9783406369537

Category: Education, Higher

Page: 542

View: 5154

Dieses auf vier Bände angelegte Werk ist eine Geschichte der "Institution Universität" in Europa von ihrer Entstehung im Mittelalter bis in die heutige Zeit und zugleich eine vergleichende Geschichte der europäischen Universitäten sowie der außereuropäischen Universitäten, die nach europäischem Muster gegründet worden sind. Es wird auf Initiative der europäischen Rektorenkonferenz (CRE), der über 500 wissenschaftliche Hochschulen in 27 europäischen Staaten angehören, von einem internationalen Komitee namhafter Wissenschaftler unter dem Vorsitz von Walter Rüegg (Schweiz) herausgegeben. Absicht dieses Gemeinschaftswerkes ist es, die gesellschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen und Aufgaben, die Merkmale geistiger und institutioneller Identität, die Strukturen, Gestaltungen und Hauptprobleme der europäischen Universitäten in ihren geschichtlichen Grundlagen und Veränderungen, aber auch in ihren regionalen Unterschieden, auf dem heutigen Forschungsstand vergleichend und zusammenfassend darzustellen.

Votes and Violence

Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots in India

Author: Steven I. Wilkinson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521536059

Category: Political Science

Page: 293

View: 1953

This book explains the relationship between Hindu-Muslim riots and elections in India.

Leviathan

Author: Thomas Hobbes

Publisher: Felix Meiner Verlag

ISBN: 3787332391

Category: Philosophy

Page: 674

View: 6826

Vom "Leviathan", einem der bedeutendsten theoretischen Werke über die Ursprünge und Grundlagen der Idee des Staates und der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft, liegt nun erstmalig eine deutschsprachige Ausgabe vor, die den Text der englischen Erstausgabe von 1651 vollständig und nach den allgemein anerkannten philologischen Kriterien textgetreu darbietet. Die Ausgabe enthält die umfangreichen Marginalien der Erstausgabe und ist quellenkritisch kommentiert. Mit einer Einführung, Chronologie, Literaturverzeichnis, Register und umfangreiche Anmerkungen.

Inside the Politics of Self-Determination

Author: Kathleen Gallagher Cunningham

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190243333

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 5179

There are currently over 100 stateless nations pressing for greater self-determination around the globe. The vast majority of these groups will never achieve independence. Many groups will receive some accommodation over self-determination, many will engage in civil war over self-determination, and in many cases, internecine violence will plague these groups. This book examines the dynamic internal politics of states and self-determination groups. The internal structure and political dynamics of states and self-determination groups significantly affect information and credibility problems faced by these actors, as well as the incentives and opportunities for states to pursue partial accommodation of these groups. Using new data on the internal structure of all self-determination groups and their states and on all accommodation in self-determination disputes, this book shows that states with some, but not too many, internal divisions are best able to accommodate self-determination groups and avoid civil war. When groups are more internally divided, they are both much more likely to be accommodated and to get into civil war with the state, and also more likely to have fighting within the group. Detailed comparison of three self-determination disputes in the conflict-torn region of northeast India reveals that internal divisions in states and groups affect when these groups get the accommodation they seek, which groups violently rebel, and whether actors target violence against their own co-ethnics. The argument and evidence in this book reveal the dynamic effect that internal divisions within SD groups and states have on their ability to bargain over self-determination. Kathleen Gallagher Cunningham demonstrates that understanding the relations between states and SD groups requires looking at the politics inside these actors.

Armed Groups in Cambodian Civil War

Territorial Control, Rivalry, and Recruitment

Author: Y. Kubota

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137364092

Category: Political Science

Page: 205

View: 7413

In civil war the causal mechanism on recruitment of combatants is complicated because armed groups interact for context-based strategic. This book argues that a group will adopt varying mobilization strategies depending upon the difference in a group's influence between the stronghold and contested areas, using as examples two Cambodian civil wars.

Understanding Peace Research

Methods and Challenges

Author: Kristine Hoglund,Magnus Oberg

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136809139

Category: Political Science

Page: 228

View: 2817

This textbook provides a comprehensive overview of different methods and sources of information-gathering for peace and conflict students and researchers, as well as the challenges presented by such work. Research on conflict-ridden societies carries special challenges for the collection and evaluation of information about the conflict and its actors. First, due to the nature of information emerging, incentives to misrepresent and propaganda is common. News coverage is sometimes poor and reporting is often incomplete, selective and biased. Second, the sensitivity of the topic and the questions posed in peace and conflict research means that access to and the security of informants can be a problem. Peace and conflict research as a discipline encompasses a number of different approaches for obtaining empirical information which serve as a basis for analyzing various research topics. This book provides a comprehensive overview of different methods and sources of information-gathering for students and researchers, as well as the challenges presented by such work. It offers: tools for evaluating sources and information suggestions on where different types of information can be found advice on using different types of sources, including news reports and written narratives practical guidelines for constructing large-scale datasets insights and guidelines for comparative fieldwork, in-depth interviews, focus groups, and surveys reflection and discussion on important ethical concerns in peace research This book will be of much interest for students and researchers of peace and conflict studies, conflict resolution, war and conflict studies, development studies, security studies and IR, as well as for NGO workers/researchers. Kristine Höglund is Associate Professor at the Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University. She has a PhD in Peace and Conflict Research from Uppsala University Sweden (2004). She is author of Peacemaking in the Shadow of Violence. Magnus Öberg is Associate Professor at the Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, and Associate Editor of the Journal of Peace Research (since 2006). He has a PhD in Peace and Conflict Research from Uppsala University (2003) and is co-editor of Resources, Governance, and Civil Conflict (Routledge, 2008).

Understanding Civil Wars

Continuity and change in intrastate conflict

Author: Edward Newman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134715420

Category: Political Science

Page: 206

View: 9831

This volume explores the nature of civil war in the modern world and in historical perspective. Civil wars represent the principal form of armed conflict since the end of the Second World War, and certainly in the contemporary era. The nature and impact of civil wars suggests that these conflicts reflect and are also a driving force for major societal change. In this sense, Understanding Civil Wars: Continuity and change in intrastate conflict argues that the nature of civil war is not fundamentally changing in nature. The book includes a thorough consideration of patterns and types of intrastate conflict and debates relating to the causes, impact, and ‘changing nature’ of war. A key focus is on the political and social driving forces of such conflict and its societal meanings, significance and consequences. The author also explores methodological and epistemological challenges related to studying and understanding intrastate war. A range of questions and debates are addressed. What is the current knowledge regarding the causes and nature of armed intrastate conflict? Is it possible to produce general, cross-national theories on civil war which have broad explanatory relevance? Is the concept of ‘civil wars’ empirically meaningful in an era of globalization and transnational war? Has intrastate conflict fundamentally changed in nature? Are there historical patterns in different types of intrastate conflict? What are the most interesting methodological trends and debates in the study of armed intrastate conflict? How are narratives about the causes and nature of civil wars constructed around ideas such as ethnic conflict, separatist conflict and resource conflict? This book will be of much interest to students of civil wars, intrastate conflict, security studies and international relations in general.

The Afghan Way of War

How and Why They Fight

Author: Robert Johnson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199912564

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 8127

Focusing on key episodes in Afghanistan's long history of conflict with foreign forces from the early nineteenth century to the present, this book sheds new light on the Afghan "Way of War." Robert Johnson shows that, contrary to the stereotypes of primitive warriors enflamed with religious fanaticism, Afghan warfare has been marked by constant change as Afghani methods evolved to face new threats. From the dynastic struggles and popular resistance movements of the nineteenth century to the ideological confrontations of recent decades, Afghans have long resisted political coercion, military intervention, and foreign influence. To do so, they have developed sophisticated strategic approaches to deal with both internal unrest and foreign intrusion, while at the tactical level outthinking and outfighting their opponents at every step. The final part of the book, which deals with how the Taliban has contested Western intervention by borrowing from traditions in Afghan history and culture, will be of considerable topical interest in light of the ongoing conflict in Afghanistan.

Vergleichen in der Politikwissenschaft

Author: Sabine Kropp,Michael Minkenberg

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322804410

Category: Political Science

Page: 322

View: 4477

Im vorliegenden Band werden quantitative und qualitative Perspektiven sowie aktuelle Forschungsfragen der vergleichenden Politikwissenschaft zusammengeführt und anhand verschiedener Anwendungsfälle diskutiert.

Darfur

der "uneindeutige" Genozid

Author: Gérard Prunier

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783936096668

Category:

Page: 274

View: 2355