History of Science in United States

An Encyclopedia

Author: Marc Rothenberg

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135583188

Category: Reference

Page: 640

View: 4481

This Encyclopedia examines all aspects of the history of science in the United States, with a special emphasis placed on the historiography of science in America. It can be used by students, general readers, scientists, or anyone interested in the facts relating to the development of science in the United States. Special emphasis is placed in the history of medicine and technology and on the relationship between science and technology and science and medicine.

Advances in Marine Biology

Author: Michael Lesser

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123942829

Category: Science

Page: 276

View: 2816

Advances in Marine Biology has been providing in-depth and up-to-date reviews on all aspects of marine biology since 1963 -- over 40 years of outstanding coverage! The series is well known for both its excellence of reviews and editing. Now edited by Michael Lesser (University of New Hampshire, USA), with an internationally renowned Editorial Board, the serial publishes in-depth and up-to-date content on a wide range of topics that will appeal to postgraduates and researchers in marine biology, fisheries science, ecology, zoology, and biological oceanography. Advances in Marine Biology has been providing in-depth and up-to-date reviews on all aspects of marine biology since 1963

Measurement of the Thermodynamic Properties of Single Phases

Author: Anthony Goodwin,KN Marsh,WA Wakeham

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080531441

Category: Science

Page: 576

View: 6619

This title is a revision of Experimental Thermodynamics Volume II, published in 1975, reflecting the significant technological developments and new methods introduced into the study of measurement of thermodynamic quantities. The editors of this volume were assigned the task of assembling an international team of distinguished experimentalists, to describe the current state of development of the techniques of measurement of the thermodynamic quantities of single phases. The resulting volume admirably fulfils this brief and contains a valuable summary of a large variety of experimental techniques applicable over a wide range of thermodynamic states with an emphasis on the precision and accuracy of the results obtained. Those interested in the art of measurements, and in particular engaged in the measurement of thermodynamic properties, will find this material invaluable for the guidance it provides towards the development of new and more accurate techniques. · Provides detailed descriptions of experimental chemical thermodynamic methods · Strong practical bias and includes both detailed working equations and figures for the experimental methods · Most comprehensive text in this field since the publication of Experimental Thermodynamics II

Handbook of Virtual Environments

Design, Implementation, and Applications, Second Edition

Author: Kelly S. Hale,Kay M. Stanney

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466511842

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1458

View: 3154

A Complete Toolbox of Theories and Techniques The second edition of a bestseller, Handbook of Virtual Environments: Design, Implementation, and Applications presents systematic and extensive coverage of the primary areas of research and development within VE technology. It brings together a comprehensive set of contributed articles that address the principles required to define system requirements and design, build, evaluate, implement, and manage the effective use of VE applications. The contributors provide critical insights and principles associated with their given areas of expertise to provide extensive scope and detail on VE technology and its applications. What’s New in the Second Edition: Updated glossary of terms to promote common language throughout the community New chapters on olfactory perception, avatar control, motion sickness, and display design, as well as a whole host of new application areas Updated information to reflect the tremendous progress made over the last decade in applying VE technology to a growing number of domains This second edition includes nine new, as well as forty-one updated chapters that reflect the progress made in basic and applied research related to the creation, application, and evaluation of virtual environments. Contributions from leading researchers and practitioners from multidisciplinary domains provide a wealth of theoretical and practical information, resulting in a complete toolbox of theories and techniques that you can rely on to develop more captivating and effective virtual worlds. The handbook supplies a valuable resource for advancing VE applications as you take them from the laboratory to the real-world lives of people everywhere.

Ultrasonic Guided Waves in Solid Media

Author: Joseph L. Rose

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113991698X

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 8814

Ultrasonic guided waves in solid media have become a critically important subject in nondestructive testing and structural health monitoring, as new faster, more sensitive, and more economical ways of looking at materials and structures have become possible. This book will lead to fresh creative ideas for use in new inspection procedures. Although the mathematics is sometimes sophisticated, the book can also be read by managers without detailed understanding of the concepts as it can be read from a 'black box' point of view. Overall, the material presented on wave mechanics - in particular, guided wave mechanics - establishes a framework for the creative data collection and signal processing needed to solve many problems using ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring. The book can be used as a reference in ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation by professionals and as a textbook for seniors and graduate students. This work extends the coverage of Rose's earlier book Ultrasonic Waves in Solid Media.

Worship Space Acoustics

Author: Mendel Kleiner,David Lloyd Klepper,Rendell R. Torres

Publisher: J. Ross Publishing

ISBN: 1604270373

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 1729

Worship Space Acoustics is a unique guide to the design, construction, and use of religious facilities for optimum acoustics. The book is divided into two parts: Part 1 discusses methods and techniques of room optimization – how the acoustics of large and small spaces are designed, implemented, and adjusted, and how acoustical privacy is attained; noise and its control as well as sound reinforcement and numerical and physical modeling techniques. Part 2 provides the architect, student, and lay-person a review of the characteristics of the religious services pertinent to various beliefs and how these are provided for in the acoustic design of spaces in synagogues, churches, and mosques.Key Features • Covers the design, construction, and use of religious facilities for optimum acoustics • Presents the historical background to existing practice, problems, and solutions, to deepen understanding for those involved in design, construction and use • Illustrates both the similarities and differences between facilities for different religious groups • Offers a unique reference for those who teach and study, both in architecture and in religious education

Proceedings of the First International Conference on Interfaces in Medicine and Mechanics

Proceedings of the International Conference held at the University College, Swansea 12th – 15th April, 1988

Author: K. R. Williams

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401174776

Category: Science

Page: 398

View: 2317

The thirty nine papers accepted for pub1 ication in the First International Conference on 'Interfaces in Medicine & Meehani cs' at Swansea in Apri 1, 1988 represent the current state of the art in the science of implant surgery. This initial venture was planned and undertaken when the present editors and their colleagues realised the need for a closer interaction and dialogue between the clinician and. those basic scientists working in the area of implant surgery. Thi s interface, together with the real interface at the material/tissue borders, thus forms the basis of the present conference. These two ideas, we felt, were nicely and effectively captured in the drawing by Edgar Rubins (1915), a perception psycho 1 ogi st, used on the book cover and elsewhere in our 1 iterature. The Proceedings were planned with some difficulty, due to the wi de scope of the conference. However, we felt the best format was to follow the logical progression of implant development. The introductory papers and talks therefore demonstrate the scope of surgical implants in current use. The development of an implant starts with modelling of the proposed implant and its potential environment and the proceedings follow the same format. Following this, materials in current use are discussed.

Physical Foundations of Technical Acoustics

Author: I. Malecki

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483158713

Category: Science

Page: 770

View: 9557

Physical Foundations of Technical Acoustics discusses theoretical foundations of acoustical engineering. It is not so much a technical compendium as a systematic statement of physical laws so conceived that technologists might find in it all the information they need to become acquainted with the physical meaning and mathematical expression of phenomena they encounter in their work. To facilitate the acquirement of notions, which lie beyond a layman's grasp, the plan of narration adopted consists in beginning with the simplest idealized cases and then gradually moving on to the truest possible picture of real phenomena. Thus, the first part of the book, dealing with the acoustic field, begins with lossless fluid media, and passes then through perfectly elastic solid media to the real ones, showing losses and relaxations. In the second part, discussing the acoustical systems, the reader is led up from the simplest vibrating system with one degree of freedom to inhomogeneous spatial systems. Classical problems of theoretical acoustics are linked to the questions which appeared still to be the subjects of research. A special chapter has been written to deal with nonlinear acoustics, in consideration of continually growing applications of the acoustic fields of high intensity.

The Soundscape of Modernity

Architectural Acoustics and the Culture of Listening in America, 1900-1933

Author: Emily Ann Thompson

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262701068

Category: Architecture

Page: 500

View: 9183

A vibrant history of acoustical technology and aural culture in early-twentieth-century America.

Issues in Acoustic and Ultrasound Technology: 2012 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 148164677X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 210

View: 8037

Issues in Acoustic and Ultrasound Technology: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Ultrasound Technology. The editors have built Issues in Acoustic and Ultrasound Technology: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Ultrasound Technology in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Acoustic and Ultrasound Technology: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

The Collected Essays of Milton Babbitt

Author: Milton Babbitt

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400841224

Category: Music

Page: 544

View: 2314

Like his compositions, Milton Babbitt's writings about music have exerted an extraordinary influence on postwar music and thinking about music. In essays and public addresses spanning fifty years, Babbitt has grappled profoundly with central questions in the composition and apprehension of music. These writings range from personal memoirs and critical reviews to closely reasoned metatheoretical speculations and technical exegesis. In the history of music theory, there has been only a small handful of figures who have produced work of comparable stature. Taken as a whole, Babbitt's writings are not only an invaluable testimony to his thinking--a priceless primary source for the intellectual and cultural history of the second half of the twentieth century--but also a remarkable achievement in their own right. Prior to this collection, Babbitt's writings were scattered through a wide variety of journals, books, and magazines--many hard to find and some unavailable--and often contained typographical errors and editorial corruptions of various kinds. This volume of almost fifty pieces gathers, corrects, and annotates virtually everything of significance that Babbitt has written. The result is complete, authoritative, and fully accessible--the definitive source of Babbitt's influential ideas.

Technology for a Quieter America

Author: Committee on Technology for a Quieter America,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309156327

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 216

View: 1125

Exposure to noise at home, at work, while traveling, and during leisure activities is a fact of life for all Americans. At times noise can be loud enough to damage hearing, and at lower levels it can disrupt normal living, affect sleep patterns, affect our ability to concentrate at work, interfere with outdoor recreational activities, and, in some cases, interfere with communications and even cause accidents. Clearly, exposure to excessive noise can affect our quality of life. As the population of the United States and, indeed, the world increases and developing countries become more industrialized, problems of noise are likely to become more pervasive and lower the quality of life for everyone. Efforts to manage noise exposures, to design quieter buildings, products, equipment, and transportation vehicles, and to provide a regulatory environment that facilitates adequate, cost-effective, sustainable noise controls require our immediate attention. Technology for a Quieter America looks at the most commonly identified sources of noise, how they are characterized, and efforts that have been made to reduce noise emissions and experiences. The book also reviews the standards and regulations that govern noise levels and the federal, state, and local agencies that regulate noise for the benefit, safety, and wellness of society at large. In addition, it presents the cost-benefit trade-offs between efforts to mitigate noise and the improvements they achieve, information sources available to the public on the dimensions of noise problems and their mitigation, and the need to educate professionals who can deal with these issues. Noise emissions are an issue in industry, in communities, in buildings, and during leisure activities. As such, Technology for a Quieter America will appeal to a wide range of stakeholders: the engineering community; the public; government at the federal, state, and local levels; private industry; labor unions; and nonprofit organizations. Implementation of the recommendations in Technology for a Quieter America will result in reduction of the noise levels to which Americans are exposed and will improve the ability of American industry to compete in world markets paying increasing attention to the noise emissions of products.

Techniques in Speech Acoustics

Author: J. Harrington,S. Cassidy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401146578

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 319

View: 6911

Techniques in Speech Acoustics provides an introduction to the acoustic analysis and characteristics of speech sounds. The first part of the book covers aspects of the source-filter decomposition of speech, spectrographic analysis, the acoustic theory of speech production and acoustic phonetic cues. The second part is based on computational techniques for analysing the acoustic speech signal including digital time and frequency analyses, formant synthesis, and the linear predictive coding of speech. There is also an introductory chapter on the classification of acoustic speech signals which is relevant to aspects of automatic speech and talker recognition. The book intended for use as teaching materials on undergraduate and postgraduate speech acoustics and experimental phonetics courses; also aimed at researchers from phonetics, linguistics, computer science, psychology and engineering who wish to gain an understanding of the basis of speech acoustics and its application to fields such as speech synthesis and automatic speech recognition.

Ocean Acoustic Propagation by Finite Difference Methods

Author: D. Lee,S.T. McDaniel

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483295699

Category: Science

Page: 127

View: 7420

A concise guide to the theory and application of numerical methods for predicting ocean acoustic propagation, also providing an introduction to numerical methods, with an overview of those methods presently in use. An in-depth development of the implicit-finite-difference technique is presented together with bench-mark test examples included to demonstrate its application to realistic ocean environments. Other applications include atmospheric acoustics, plasma physics, quantum mechanics, optics and seismology.

Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography

Author: Herman Medwin,Clarence S. Clay

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080532165

Category: Science

Page: 712

View: 6978

The developments in the field of ocean acoustics over recent years make this book an important reference for specialists in acoustics, oceanography, marine biology, and related fields. Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography also encourages a new generation of scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs to apply the modern methods of acoustical physics to probe the unknown sea. The book is an authoritative, modern text with examples and exercises. It contains techniques to solve the direct problems, solutions of inverse problems, and an extensive bibliography from the earliest use of sound in the sea to present references. Written by internationally recognized scientists, the book provides background to measure ocean parameters and processes, find life and objects in the sea, communicate underwater, and survey the boundaries of the sea. Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography explains principles of underwater sound propagation, and describes how both actively probing sonars and passively listening hydrophones can reveal what the eye cannot see over vast ranges of the turbid ocean. This book demonstrates how to use acoustical remote sensing, variations in sound transmission, in situ acoustical measurements, and computer and laboratory models to identify the physical and biological parameters and processes in the sea. * Offers an integrated, modern approach to passive and active underwater acoustics * Contains many examples of laboratory scale models of ocean-acoustic environments, as well as descriptions of experiments at sea * Covers remote sensing of marine life and the seafloor * Includes signal processing of ocean sounds, physical and biological noises at sea, and inversions * resents sound sources, receivers, and calibration * Explains high intensities; explosive waves, parametric sources, cavitation, shock waves, and streaming * Covers microbubbles from breaking waves, rainfall, dispersion, and attenuation * Describes sound propagation along ray paths and caustics * Presents sound transmissions and normal mode methods in ocean waveguides

The Science and Psychology of Music Performance

Creative Strategies for Teaching and Learning

Author: Richard Parncutt,Gary McPherson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195350173

Category: Music

Page: 400

View: 8891

What type of practice makes a musician perfect? What sort of child is most likely to succeed on a musical instrument? What practice strategies yield the fastest improvement in skills such as sight-reading, memorization, and intonation? Scientific and psychological research can offer answers to these and other questions that musicians face every day. In The Science and Psychology of Music Performance, Richard Parncutt and Gary McPherson assemble relevant current research findings and make them accessible to musicians and music educators. This book describes new approaches to teaching music, learning music, and making music at all educational and skill levels. Each chapter represents the collaboration between a music researcher (usually a music psychologist) and a performer or music educator. This combination of expertise results in excellent practical advice. Readers will learn, for example, that they are in the majority (57%) if they experience rapid heartbeat before performances; the chapter devoted to performance anxiety will help them decide whether beta-blocker medication, hypnotherapy, or the Alexander Technique of relaxation might alleviate their stage fright. Another chapter outlines a step-by-step method for introducing children to musical notation, firmly based on research in cognitive development. Altogether, the 21 chapters cover the personal, environmental, and acoustical influences that shape the learning and performance of music.

The Acoustics of Crime

The New Science of Forensic Phonetics

Author: Harry Hollien

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1489906738

Category: Psychology

Page: 370

View: 6494

There are many reasons for writing a book; this one was conceived and devel oped mainly for two. First, a new area has emerged from within the forensic sciences-that of forensic phonetics. As with all new specialties, it is necessary to define it, identify its boundaries, justify its importance and compile a list of the elements it encompasses. This book attempts to outline these several rela tionships. Second, over the past decade I have become fascinated with forensics in general and the rapidly expanded subarea of forensic phonetics in particular. Admittedly, the latter field is one that is not as yet sufficiently appreciated-and much more needs to be known about its nature and extent. Yet, I have found it to be a most enjoyable area of study and my attempts to describe its domains were quite informative. It was especially interesting to struggle with the interfaces between forensic phonetics and related fields, and discover how they overlap. Only a few comments will be made about the book's contents here in the preface. For one thing, they are described in some detail in the first chapter.

Practical Food Rheology

An Interpretive Approach

Author: Ian T. Norton,Fotios Spyropoulos,Philip Cox

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444391053

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 320

View: 9867

Rheology is fundamentally important in food manufacturing in two major senses. Understanding the way in which a substance moves and behaves is essential in order to be able to transport and mix it during processing. Secondly, the rheology of a product dictates much of the consumer experience, e.g. in relation to texture and mouthfeel. This book doesn’t overwhelm the reader with complex mathematical equations but takes a simple and practically-focused approach, interpreting the implications of rheological data for use in different food systems. Through this approach industry-based food developers / rheologists, students, and academics are given clear, concise interpretation of rheological data which directly relates to actual perceived functionality in the food. The functionality may relate to texture, structure and mouthfeel, and may result as a function of temperature, pH, flocculation, concentration effects, and mixing. The interpretative view is based on the principle that the food rheologist will produce a graph, for example of viscosity or gelation profiling, and then have to extract a practical meaning from it. For example, if viscosity falls with time as a function of pH, this knowledge can be used to tell the customer that the viscosity can be followed with just a pH meter and a stopwatch. Rheological measurements have shown that once the pH has dropped 1 unit after 10 minutes, the viscosity has been halved. This is the type of practical and valuable information for customers of the industrial food rheologist which the book will enable readers to access. Key features: A uniquely practical approach to the often difficult science of food rheology Includes chapters introducing the basics of food rheology before moving on to how data can be usefully and easily interpreted by the food scientist Can be used as a teaching aid on academic or industry-based courses