Places the struggle between the Russian government and insurgents in Chechnya and the Northern Caucusus in historical context, and argues that Russian efforts to control it have failed because they see it as a fight against terrorism.
From Gazavat to Jihad
Author: Robert W. Schaefer
Mathias Rust und die Folgen eines Abenteuers
Author: Ed Stuhler
Publisher: Ch. Links Verlag
Category: Cold War
This is a print on demand edition of a hard to find publication. Besides the apparently frequent small-scale attacks against government targets in several regions of the North Caucasus (NC), many ethnic Russian and other non-native civilians have been murdered or have disappeared, which has spurred the migration of most of the non-native population from the NC. Russian authorities argue that foreign terrorist groups continue to operate in the NC and to receive outside financial and material assistance. Contents of this report: (1) Intro.; (2) Impact of the Aug. 2008 Russia-Georgia Conflict; (3) Recent Developments in the NC: Chechnya; Ingushetia; Dagestan; Other Areas of the NC; (4) Contributions to Instability; (5) Implications for Russia; (6) International Response; (7) Implications for U.S. Interests. Map.
Author: Jim Nichol
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
Neun Jahre alt war Polina Scherebzowa, als in Grosny Krieg ausbrach. In diesem Jahr, 1994, begann sie ihr Tagebuch, das sie zehn Jahre lang und über einen zweiten Konflikt hinaus führte. Es ist eine fesselnde Chronik vom Leben in Zeiten des Krieges, von der Schönheit und Grausamkeit des Daseins, die Polina stilistisch glänzend und mit der tiefen Lakonie eines Kindes, später einer jungen Frau beschreibt. Und mit ganz eigenem Blick: Polina ist Tochter einer Russin und eines Tschetschenen; sie wird von einer russischen Bombe verletzt, in der Schule beschimpft man sie dennoch als «Russenschwein». Zugleich bleibt Polina ein Kind, sucht Salamander, ärgert sich, weil sie das einzige verkleidete Rotkäppchen unter lauter Schneeflocken ist. Sie lernt, mit dem Schrecklichen umzugehen – den Angriffen und Anfeindungen; der kleinen tschetschenischen Kämpferin mit dem MG; dem verwundeten Soldaten, der ein Kind bittet, ihn zu erlösen. Währenddessen erlebt Polina den Alltag eines Teenagers, Streit mit der Mutter, die erste Liebe. Der düstere Hintergrund lässt die Poesie dieser Jugend nur umso stärker leuchten. Ein Dokument von großer Wahrhaftigkeit, eine Geschichte vom Erwachsenwerden in schwieriger Zeit, ein berührendes, hochliterarisches Tagebuch – eine Entdeckung.
Author: Polina Scherebzowa
Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH
Category: Literary Collections
This expert's view into the strategic directions, tactics, leaders, and significant attacks connected to Chechen and North Caucasus terrorists examines the network's operations as well as the success of Russia's counterterrorist responses. • Discusses different strands of terrorist movements that emerged over time in the North Caucasus • Includes tables, maps, and charts to help support content and reinforce visual learning • Analyzes the significance of the jihadi ideology in the North Caucasus • Examines the structural dynamics behind terrorist attacks over time
Author: Elena E. Pokalova
Category: Political Science
die Wahrheit über den Krieg
Author: Anna S. Politkovskaja
The sheer scale and brutality of the hostilities between Russia and Chechnya stand out as an exception in the mostly peaceful breakup of the Soviet Union. Chechnya: From Nationalism to Jihad provides a fascinating analysis of the transformation of secular nationalist resistance in a nominally Islamic society into a struggle that is its antithesis, jihad. Hughes locates Chechen nationalism within the wider movement for national self-determination that followed the collapse of the Soviet empire. When negotiations failed in the early 1990s, political violence was instrumentalized to consolidate opposing nationalist visions of state-building in Russia and Chechnya. The resistance in Chechnya also occurred in a regional context where Russian hegemony over the Caucasus, especially the resources of the Caspian basin, was in retreat, and in an international context of rising Islamic radicalism. Alongside Bosnia, Kashmir, and other conflicts, Chechnya became embedded in Osama Bin Laden's repertoire of jihadist rhetoric against the "West." It was not simply Russia's destruction of a nationalist option for Chechnya, or "Wahabbist" infiltration from without, that created the political space for Islamism. Rather, we must look also at how the conflict was fought. The lack of proportionality and discrimination in the use of violence, particularly by Russia, accelerated and intensified the Islamic radicalization and thereby transformed the nature of the conflict. This nuanced and balanced study provides a much-needed antidote to the mythologizing of Chechen resistance before, and its demonization after, 9/11. The conflict in Chechnya involves one of the most contentious issues in contemporary international politics—how do we differentiate between the legitimate use of violence to resist imperialism, occupation, and misgovernment, and the use of terrorism against legitimate rule? This book sets out indispensable lessons for understanding conflicts involving the volatile combination of nationalist insurgency, jihad, and terrorism, most notably for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
From Nationalism to Jihad
Author: James Hughes
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
Category: Political Science
Drawing on unique first-hand data from Russia's North Caucasus, this study is the first of its kind to detail the causes and contexts of individual disengagement of various types of militants: avengers, nationalists, and jihadists. It aims to considerably enhance our theoretical understanding of individual militants' incentives to abandon violence.
Why Ex-Militants Choose to Abandon Violence in the North Caucasus
Author: E. Souleimanov,H. Aliyev
Category: Political Science
This book offers a multifaceted, analytical account of counterterrorism argumentative speech. Traditionally, existing scholarship in this field of research has taken a selective focus on issues and actors, concentrating mainly on US state discourse after 9/11. However, this approach ignores the fact that there was counterterrorism speech before 9/11, and that there are other countries and other actors who also actively engage in the counterterrorism discursive field, both within and outside of the Western world. Addressing several thematic, chronological and methodological gaps in the current literature, Arguing Counterterrorism offers a dynamic perspective on counterterrorism argumentative speech. Over the course of the volume, the authors tackle the following key issues: first, historical and cultural continuity and change. Second, the phenomenology of counterterrorism speech: its nature, instrumentalisation, implications and interactions between the various actors involved. The third theme is the anatomy of counterterrorism speech; namely its political, cultural and linguistic constitutive elements. Employing a multi-disciplinary framework, the authors explore these issues through a geographically and historically diverse range of case studies, resulting in a book that broadens the perspective of counterterrorism argumentation analysis. This book will be of much interest to students of critical terrorism studies, counterterrorism, discourse analysis, security studies and IR.
Author: Daniela Pisoiu
Category: Political Science
Development Strategies, Identities, and Conflict in Asia explores the links between Asian governments' development strategies and the nature and dynamics of inter-group violence, analyzing variations in strategies and their impacts through broad comparative analyses, as well as case studies focused on eight countries.
Author: William Ascher,N. Mirovitskaya
Category: Political Science
Tschetschenien und seine Kinder
Author: Åsne Seierstad
Political transitions often create new law enforcement challenges. This Brief provides an examination of such special law enforcement challenges in the Northern Caucasas, both due to the unique structure of the crime groups that are active in the region, and to the unique social and political environment in which they operate. In 2002, Russian President Vladamir Putin declared the end of the war in Chechnya. In 2006, he announced the insurgency was defeated. Yet today, Russia maintains a significant Internal Police presence in the Northern Caucasus to contain approximately 700 insurgents at a cost estimated to be more than the equivalent of $1 billion per year. Russian law enforcement, armed forces, and their local proxies are fighting irregular forces that operate in a manner akin to organized crime groups or terrorist cells. These groups have formed flexible networks which can sustain heavy losses, including the “decapitation” of their leaders, only to reconstitute themselves ready to fight another day. Beginning with a historical overview of the police and military structures in the region, this Brief provides a case study into the origins, structures, and unique strategies for counter-terrorism policing in these complex conditions. It also provides recommendations for the future, and a framework for understanding similar cases of terrorist operations in areas of political unrest, an increasing global threat.
The Case of Russia's Northern Caucasus
Author: Ethan S. Burger,Serguei Cheloukhine
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Social Science
Like other majority Muslim regions of the former Soviet Union, the republic of Dagestan, on Russia's southern frontier, has become contested territory in a hegemonic competition between Moscow and resurgent Islam. In this authoritative book the leading experts on Dagestan provide a path breaking study of this volatile state far from the world's gaze. The largest and most populous of the North Caucasian republics, bordered on the west by Chechnya and on the east by the Caspian Sea, Dagastan is almost completely mountainous. With no majority nationality, the republic developed a distinctive system of calibrated power relations among ethnic groups and with Moscow, a system that has been undermined by the spillover of the wars in Chechnya, Wahhabi and Islamist recruiting efforts targeting youth, and Moscow's reassertion of the 'power vertical'. Underdevelopment, high birthrates, transiting pipelines, and the rising incidence of terrorist violence and assassinations add to the explosive potential of the region. Authors Ware and Kisriev combine analysis of the dynamics of domination and resistance, and the distinctive forms of social organization characteristic of mountain societies that may be applicable to other areas such as Afghanistan. They draw on decades of field research, interviews, and data to offer unique perspective on the civilizational collision course under way in the Caucasus today.
Russian Hegemony and Islamic Resistance in the North Caucasus
Author: Bruce Ware Robert,Robert Bruce Ware
Category: Business & Economics
"Gordon Hahn has provided an outstanding analysis of the Islamist insurrection of the Caucasus, a conflict which reached out and took innocent lives in Boston, as well as in many Russian, Chechen and Dagestani cities and villages. His thorough scholarship sets a new benchmark in the study of religiously motivated terrorism in the former Soviet area."--Ariel Cohen, Senior Research Fellow, The Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies "In this important book, Hahn masterfully moves beyond arid structural explanations to explore the contingent historical, ideological and leadership factors that have made the Caucasus Emirate a major, if often under-recognized, node in the current global jihadist landscape."--Dr. Gary Ackerman, Director, National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) "In this important book, Hahn has thoroughly documented the extent to which the earlier ethno-nationalist conflict in Chechnya has been progressively “jihadized” ideologically and internationalized, a crucial transformation that has largely gone unrecognized."--Jeffrey M. Bale, Ph.D., Senior Researcher, Monterey Terrorism Research and Education Program "Gordon Hahn lays out how groups and individuals from the Northern Caucasus and elsewhere in Russia have evolved and strengthened links with like-minded non-Russia-based terrorist networks around the world, including Syria. This is a security threat that directly affects the United States and its allies, and Gordon Hahn's book is THE source to get up to speed on the topic."--Andrew Kuchins, Director and Senior Fellow of the Russia and Eurasia Program at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington D.C. Russia's North Caucasus mujahedin of the self-declared Caucasus Emirate and the history thereof is part and parcel of the global jihadi revolutionary movement which includes but is no longer led by Al Qaeda. This book corrects the inadequate previous treatments of the violence in the Caucasus, almost 1all of which explain what ought to be called the rise of jihadism in the Caucasus solely in terms of Russian actions. The author brings the international jihadist and local North Caucasian causes back into the picture, detailing the global Jihadist/Islamist revolutionary movement's propagation of the "jihadi method" and material support to nationalist and Islamic extremists in Chechnya and the Caucasus since the mid-1990s. Like jihadi groups in Afghanistan and Pakistan, Iraq, Syria, and Africa, the Caucasus Emirate is an Al Qaeda ally and de facto affiliate. It represents a threat to Russian, U.S., and international security as evidenced by terrorist plots perpetrated or inspired by it in Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Spain, Azerbaijan, and Boston.
Global Jihadism in Russia's North Caucasus and Beyond
Author: Gordon M. Hahn
Since the end of the Cold War, conventional militaries and their political leaders have confronted a new, brutal type of warfare in which non-state armed groups use asymmetrical tactics to successfully fight larger, technologically superior forces. In order to prevent future bloodshed and political chaos, it is crucial to understand how these unconventional armed groups think and to adapt to their methods of combat. Richard H. Shultz Jr. and Andrea J. Dew investigate the history and politics of modern asymmetrical warfare. By focusing on four specific hotbeds of instability—Somalia, Chechnya, Afghanistan, and Iraq—Shultz and Dew conduct a careful analysis of tribal culture and the value of clan associations. They examine why these "traditional" or "tribal" warriors fight, how they recruit, where they find sanctuary, and what is behind their strategy. Traveling across two centuries and several continents, Shultz and Dew examine the doctrinal, tactical, and strategic advantages and consider the historical, cultural, and anthropological factors behind the motivation and success of the warriors of contemporary combat. In their provocative argument, Shultz and Dew propose that war in the post-Cold War era cannot be waged through traditional Western methods of combat, especially when friendly states and outside organizations like al-Qaeda serve as powerful allies to the enemy. Thoroughly researched and highly readable, Insurgents, Terrorists, and Militias examines how non-state armies fight, identifies the patterns and trends of their combat, and recommends how conventional militaries can defeat these irregular yet highly effective organizations.
The Warriors of Contemporary Combat
Author: Richard H. Shultz Jr.,Andrea J. Dew
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Political Science
The authors of the bestseller The Age of Sacred Terror show how the United States is losing the war on terror and what we need to do if we're serious about winning it. We are losing. Four years and two wars after September 11, 2001, the United States is no closer to victory in the "war on terror." In fact, we are unwittingly clearing the way for the next attack. In this provocative new book, Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon show how the terrorist threat is evolving, with a broadening array of tactics, an army of new fighters and, most ominously, a widening base of support in the global Muslim community. The jihadist movement has been galvanized by the example of 9/11 and the missteps of the U.S. government, which has consistently failed to understand the nature of the new terror. Left on this trajectory, much worse faces us in the near future. It doesn't have to be this way. The Next Attack makes the case that America has the capacity to stem the tide of Islamic terrorism, but Benjamin and Simon caution that this will require a far-reaching and creative new strategy, one that recognizes that the struggle has been over-militarized and that a campaign for reform must be more than rhetoric and less than bayonets. And they point out how America's increasing tendency to frame the conflict in religious terms has undermined our ability to advance our interests. Is America is truly equipped to do what is necessary to combat Islamist terrorism, or are we too blinded by our own ideology? The answer to that question will determine how secure we will truly be, in the years and decades to come.
The Failure of the War on Terror and a Strategy for Getting it Right
Author: Daniel Benjamin,Steven Simon
Category: Political Science
Category: Military art and science
From the KGB to the Kremlin: a multidimensional portrait of the man at war with the West. Where do Vladimir Putin's ideas come from? How does he look at the outside world? What does he want, and how far is he willing to go? The great lesson of the outbreak of World War I in 1914 was the danger of misreading the statements, actions, and intentions of the adversary. Today, Vladimir Putin has become the greatest challenge to European security and the global world order in decades. Russia's 8,000 nuclear weapons underscore the huge risks of not understanding who Putin is. Featuring five new chapters, this new edition dispels potentially dangerous misconceptions about Putin and offers a clear-eyed look at his objectives. It presents Putin as a reflection of deeply ingrained Russian ways of thinking as well as his unique personal background and experience. Praise for the first edition If you want to begin to understand Russia today, read this book. —Sir John Scarlett, former chief of the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) For anyone wishing to understand Russia's evolution since the breakup of the Soviet Union and its trajectory since then, the book you hold in your hand is an essential guide.—John McLaughlin, former deputy director of U.S. Central Intelligence Of the many biographies of Vladimir Putin that have appeared in recent years, this one is the most useful. —Foreign Affairs This is not just another Putin biography. It is a psychological portrait. —The Financial Times Q: Do you have time to read books? If so, which ones would you recommend? "My goodness, let's see. There's Mr. Putin, by Fiona Hill and Clifford Gaddy. Insightful." —Vice President Joseph Biden in Joe Biden: The Rolling Stone Interview.
Operative in the Kremlin
Author: Fiona Hill,Clifford G. Gaddy
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
Category: Political Science