Polinas Tagebuch

Author: Polina Scherebzowa

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3644119619

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 576

View: 6680

Neun Jahre alt war Polina Scherebzowa, als in Grosny Krieg ausbrach. In diesem Jahr, 1994, begann sie ihr Tagebuch, das sie zehn Jahre lang und über einen zweiten Konflikt hinaus führte. Es ist eine fesselnde Chronik vom Leben in Zeiten des Krieges, von der Schönheit und Grausamkeit des Daseins, die Polina stilistisch glänzend und mit der tiefen Lakonie eines Kindes, später einer jungen Frau beschreibt. Und mit ganz eigenem Blick: Polina ist Tochter einer Russin und eines Tschetschenen; sie wird von einer russischen Bombe verletzt, in der Schule beschimpft man sie dennoch als «Russenschwein». Zugleich bleibt Polina ein Kind, sucht Salamander, ärgert sich, weil sie das einzige verkleidete Rotkäppchen unter lauter Schneeflocken ist. Sie lernt, mit dem Schrecklichen umzugehen – den Angriffen und Anfeindungen; der kleinen tschetschenischen Kämpferin mit dem MG; dem verwundeten Soldaten, der ein Kind bittet, ihn zu erlösen. Währenddessen erlebt Polina den Alltag eines Teenagers, Streit mit der Mutter, die erste Liebe. Der düstere Hintergrund lässt die Poesie dieser Jugend nur umso stärker leuchten. Ein Dokument von großer Wahrhaftigkeit, eine Geschichte vom Erwachsenwerden in schwieriger Zeit, ein berührendes, hochliterarisches Tagebuch – eine Entdeckung.

Russia's Homegrown Insurgency

Jihad in the North Caucasus

Author: U.s. Army War College

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781500749859

Category: Political Science

Page: 158

View: 7491

The United States has had a bitter set of experiences with insurgencies and counterinsurgency operations, but it is by no means alone in having to confront such threats and challenges. Indeed, according to Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, the greatest domestic threat to Russia's security is the ongoing insurgency in the North Caucasus. This insurgency grew out of Russia's wars in Chechnya and has gone on for several years, with no end in sight. Yet it is hardly known in the West and barely covered even by experts. In view of this insurgency's strategic importance and the fact that the U.S. military can and must learn for other contemporary wars, the Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) felt the need to bring this war to our readers' attention and shed more light upon both sides, the Islamist (an nationalist) rebels and Russia, as they wage either an insurgency or counterinsurgency campaign. While the evident and primary cause of this current war is Russian misrule in the North Caucasus in the context of the Chechen wars, it also is true that Russia is now facing a self-proclaimed fundamentalist, Salafi-oriented, Islamist challenge, that openly proclaims its links to al-Qaeda and whose avowed aim is the detachment of the North Caucasus from the Russian Federation. Therefore, we should have a substantial interest in scrutinizing the course of this war both for its real-world strategic implications and for the lessons that we can garner by close analysis of it. The three papers presented here are by well-known experts and were delivered at SSI's third annual conference on Russia that took place at Carlisle, PA, on September 26-27, 2011. This conference, like its predecessors, had as its goal the assemblage of Russian, European, and American experts to engage in a regular, open, and candid dialogue on critical issues in contemporary security; this panel realized that ambition, as Dr. Hahn is American, Dr. Markedonov is Russian, and Dr. Cornell is Swedish.

Stability in Russia's Chechnya and Other Regions of the North Caucasus

Recent Developments

Author: Jim Nichol

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1437929400

Category:

Page: 16

View: 9020

This is a print on demand edition of a hard to find publication. Besides the apparently frequent small-scale attacks against government targets in several regions of the North Caucasus (NC), many ethnic Russian and other non-native civilians have been murdered or have disappeared, which has spurred the migration of most of the non-native population from the NC. Russian authorities argue that foreign terrorist groups continue to operate in the NC and to receive outside financial and material assistance. Contents of this report: (1) Intro.; (2) Impact of the Aug. 2008 Russia-Georgia Conflict; (3) Recent Developments in the NC: Chechnya; Ingushetia; Dagestan; Other Areas of the NC; (4) Contributions to Instability; (5) Implications for Russia; (6) International Response; (7) Implications for U.S. Interests. Map.

Chechnya

From Nationalism to Jihad

Author: James Hughes

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812202317

Category: Political Science

Page: 296

View: 2872

The sheer scale and brutality of the hostilities between Russia and Chechnya stand out as an exception in the mostly peaceful breakup of the Soviet Union. Chechnya: From Nationalism to Jihad provides a fascinating analysis of the transformation of secular nationalist resistance in a nominally Islamic society into a struggle that is its antithesis, jihad. Hughes locates Chechen nationalism within the wider movement for national self-determination that followed the collapse of the Soviet empire. When negotiations failed in the early 1990s, political violence was instrumentalized to consolidate opposing nationalist visions of state-building in Russia and Chechnya. The resistance in Chechnya also occurred in a regional context where Russian hegemony over the Caucasus, especially the resources of the Caspian basin, was in retreat, and in an international context of rising Islamic radicalism. Alongside Bosnia, Kashmir, and other conflicts, Chechnya became embedded in Osama Bin Laden's repertoire of jihadist rhetoric against the "West." It was not simply Russia's destruction of a nationalist option for Chechnya, or "Wahabbist" infiltration from without, that created the political space for Islamism. Rather, we must look also at how the conflict was fought. The lack of proportionality and discrimination in the use of violence, particularly by Russia, accelerated and intensified the Islamic radicalization and thereby transformed the nature of the conflict. This nuanced and balanced study provides a much-needed antidote to the mythologizing of Chechen resistance before, and its demonization after, 9/11. The conflict in Chechnya involves one of the most contentious issues in contemporary international politics—how do we differentiate between the legitimate use of violence to resist imperialism, occupation, and misgovernment, and the use of terrorism against legitimate rule? This book sets out indispensable lessons for understanding conflicts involving the volatile combination of nationalist insurgency, jihad, and terrorism, most notably for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Der Kreml-Flieger

Mathias Rust und die Folgen eines Abenteuers

Author: Ed Stuhler

Publisher: Ch. Links Verlag

ISBN: 3861536668

Category: Cold War

Page: 190

View: 1077


Das digitale Kalifat

Die geheime Macht des Islamischen Staates

Author: Abdel Bari Atwan

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406697283

Category: Political Science

Page: 299

View: 3064

Der "Islamische Staat“ beruht auf zwei Pfeilern: auf seinem Territorium und auf einer digitalen Infrastruktur, mit der er hocheffizient organisiert wird. Abdel Bari Atwan, der das IS-Gebiet bereist und zahllose Interviews mit Jihadisten geführt hat, bietet in seinem Buch erstmals Einblicke in die digitalen Institutionen und Kommandostrukturen des IS und stellt dessen führende Köpfe vor. Viele Computerspiele faszinieren durch die Verbindung von mittelalterlichem Ambiente und Hightech. Genau hier liegt für viele Jihadisten auch die Faszination des IS, der eine "mittelalterliche“ Ordnung mit Hilfe des Internets aufrechterhält. Das Steuersystem orientiert sich am Koran, wird aber digital organisiert. Das Finanzwesen beruht auf dem Zinsverbot, verwaltet aber den Staatshaushalt und die Einnahmen aus Ölexport, Antiquitätenhandel und Entführung mit elektronischen Krypto-Währungen. Das Bildungswesen sorgt für Koranlektüre, aber auch für digital kompetenten Nachwuchs – auch weiblichen. Der Propagandaapparat setzt auf die Inszenierung von Gewalt und beschäftigt dafür eine ganze Armee von Fotografen, Video-Filmern und Spiele-Entwicklern. Atwan beschreibt die Rolle des Darknet und erklärt, warum die Cyber-Jihadisten dem elektronischen "Counter-Jihad“ immer eine Nasenlänge voraus sein werden. Sein alarmierender Bericht sollte allen zu denken geben, die den IS mit militärischen Mitteln besiegen wollen.

Chechnya's Terrorist Network: The Evolution of Terrorism in Russia's North Caucasus

Author: Elena Pokalova

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1440831556

Category: Political Science

Page: 259

View: 6837

This expert's view into the strategic directions, tactics, leaders, and significant attacks connected to Chechen and North Caucasus terrorists examines the network's operations as well as the success of Russia's counterterrorist responses. • Discusses different strands of terrorist movements that emerged over time in the North Caucasus • Includes tables, maps, and charts to help support content and reinforce visual learning • Analyzes the significance of the jihadi ideology in the North Caucasus • Examines the structural dynamics behind terrorist attacks over time

Ethno-Nationalism, Islam and the State in the Caucasus

Post-Soviet Disorder

Author: Moshe Gammer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134098537

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 1339

With the region of the Caucasus with its ongoing, and even deteriorating, crisis and instability and its strategic and economic importance increasingly at the front of the world's attention, this volume presents and discusses some of the complexities and problems arising in the region such as Islamic terrorists and al-Qaida. Scholars from different disciplines who specialise in the Caucasus analyze key topics such as: discussions of grass root perceptions the influence of informal power structures on ethnic conflicts in the Caucasus Russian policies towards Islam and their destabilising influence the influence of Islamic revival on the legal and social situations nationalism and the revival of pre- and sub-national identities shifts in identity as reflected in demography reasons for the Chechen victory in the first Chechen war the involvement of Islamic volunteers in Chechnya. With the situation in Chechnia likely to spread across the entire North Caucasus, this cutting edge work will be of great value in the near future and will interest political scientists and regional experts of Russia, Central Asia, Caucasus, Middle East and Turkey, as well as NGOs, government agencies and think tanks.

The Individual Disengagement of Avengers, Nationalists, and Jihadists

Why Ex-Militants Choose to Abandon Violence in the North Caucasus

Author: E. Souleimanov,H. Aliyev

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137498838

Category: Political Science

Page: 104

View: 8328

Drawing on unique first-hand data from Russia's North Caucasus, this study is the first of its kind to detail the causes and contexts of individual disengagement of various types of militants: avengers, nationalists, and jihadists. It aims to considerably enhance our theoretical understanding of individual militants' incentives to abandon violence.

Arguing Counterterrorism

New perspectives

Author: Daniela Pisoiu

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136179348

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 3992

This book offers a multifaceted, analytical account of counterterrorism argumentative speech. Traditionally, existing scholarship in this field of research has taken a selective focus on issues and actors, concentrating mainly on US state discourse after 9/11. However, this approach ignores the fact that there was counterterrorism speech before 9/11, and that there are other countries and other actors who also actively engage in the counterterrorism discursive field, both within and outside of the Western world. Addressing several thematic, chronological and methodological gaps in the current literature, Arguing Counterterrorism offers a dynamic perspective on counterterrorism argumentative speech. Over the course of the volume, the authors tackle the following key issues: first, historical and cultural continuity and change. Second, the phenomenology of counterterrorism speech: its nature, instrumentalisation, implications and interactions between the various actors involved. The third theme is the anatomy of counterterrorism speech; namely its political, cultural and linguistic constitutive elements. Employing a multi-disciplinary framework, the authors explore these issues through a geographically and historically diverse range of case studies, resulting in a book that broadens the perspective of counterterrorism argumentation analysis. This book will be of much interest to students of critical terrorism studies, counterterrorism, discourse analysis, security studies and IR.

Development Strategies, Identities, and Conflict in Asia

Author: William Ascher,N. Mirovitskaya

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137331763

Category: Political Science

Page: 347

View: 6839

Development Strategies, Identities, and Conflict in Asia explores the links between Asian governments' development strategies and the nature and dynamics of inter-group violence, analyzing variations in strategies and their impacts through broad comparative analyses, as well as case studies focused on eight countries.

Counterterrorism in Areas of Political Unrest

The Case of Russia's Northern Caucasus

Author: Ethan S. Burger,Serguei Cheloukhine

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146145140X

Category: Social Science

Page: 61

View: 941

​​Political transitions often create new law enforcement challenges. This Brief provides an examination of such special law enforcement challenges in the Northern Caucasas, both due to the unique structure of the crime groups that are active in the region, and to the unique social and political environment in which they operate. In 2002, Russian President Vladamir Putin declared the end of the war in Chechnya. In 2006, he announced the insurgency was defeated. Yet today, Russia maintains a significant Internal Police presence in the Northern Caucasus to contain approximately 700 insurgents at a cost estimated to be more than the equivalent of $1 billion per year. Russian law enforcement, armed forces, and their local proxies are fighting irregular forces that operate in a manner akin to organized crime groups or terrorist cells. These groups have formed flexible networks which can sustain heavy losses, including the “decapitation” of their leaders, only to reconstitute themselves ready to fight another day. Beginning with a historical overview of the police and military structures in the region, this Brief provides a case study into the origins, structures, and unique strategies for counter-terrorism policing in these complex conditions. It also provides recommendations for the future, and a framework for understanding similar cases of terrorist operations in areas of political unrest, an increasing global threat.​

Dagestan: Russian Hegemony and Islamic Resistance in the North Caucasus

Russian Hegemony and Islamic Resistance in the North Caucasus

Author: Bruce Ware Robert,Robert Bruce Ware

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317473450

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 367

View: 8671

Like other majority Muslim regions of the former Soviet Union, the republic of Dagestan, on Russia's southern frontier, has become contested territory in a hegemonic competition between Moscow and resurgent Islam. In this authoritative book the leading experts on Dagestan provide a path breaking study of this volatile state far from the world's gaze. The largest and most populous of the North Caucasian republics, bordered on the west by Chechnya and on the east by the Caspian Sea, Dagastan is almost completely mountainous. With no majority nationality, the republic developed a distinctive system of calibrated power relations among ethnic groups and with Moscow, a system that has been undermined by the spillover of the wars in Chechnya, Wahhabi and Islamist recruiting efforts targeting youth, and Moscow's reassertion of the 'power vertical'. Underdevelopment, high birthrates, transiting pipelines, and the rising incidence of terrorist violence and assassinations add to the explosive potential of the region. Authors Ware and Kisriev combine analysis of the dynamics of domination and resistance, and the distinctive forms of social organization characteristic of mountain societies that may be applicable to other areas such as Afghanistan. They draw on decades of field research, interviews, and data to offer unique perspective on the civilizational collision course under way in the Caucasus today.

The Caucasus Emirate Mujahedin

Global Jihadism in Russia's North Caucasus and Beyond

Author: Gordon M. Hahn

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 0786479523

Category: History

Page: 344

View: 3215

"Gordon Hahn has provided an outstanding analysis of the Islamist insurrection of the Caucasus, a conflict which reached out and took innocent lives in Boston, as well as in many Russian, Chechen and Dagestani cities and villages. His thorough scholarship sets a new benchmark in the study of religiously motivated terrorism in the former Soviet area."--Ariel Cohen, Senior Research Fellow, The Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies "In this important book, Hahn masterfully moves beyond arid structural explanations to explore the contingent historical, ideological and leadership factors that have made the Caucasus Emirate a major, if often under-recognized, node in the current global jihadist landscape."--Dr. Gary Ackerman, Director, National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) "In this important book, Hahn has thoroughly documented the extent to which the earlier ethno-nationalist conflict in Chechnya has been progressively “jihadized” ideologically and internationalized, a crucial transformation that has largely gone unrecognized."--Jeffrey M. Bale, Ph.D., Senior Researcher, Monterey Terrorism Research and Education Program "Gordon Hahn lays out how groups and individuals from the Northern Caucasus and elsewhere in Russia have evolved and strengthened links with like-minded non-Russia-based terrorist networks around the world, including Syria. This is a security threat that directly affects the United States and its allies, and Gordon Hahn's book is THE source to get up to speed on the topic."--Andrew Kuchins, Director and Senior Fellow of the Russia and Eurasia Program at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington D.C. Russia's North Caucasus mujahedin of the self-declared Caucasus Emirate and the history thereof is part and parcel of the global jihadi revolutionary movement which includes but is no longer led by Al Qaeda. This book corrects the inadequate previous treatments of the violence in the Caucasus, almost 1all of which explain what ought to be called the rise of jihadism in the Caucasus solely in terms of Russian actions. The author brings the international jihadist and local North Caucasian causes back into the picture, detailing the global Jihadist/Islamist revolutionary movement's propagation of the "jihadi method" and material support to nationalist and Islamic extremists in Chechnya and the Caucasus since the mid-1990s. Like jihadi groups in Afghanistan and Pakistan, Iraq, Syria, and Africa, the Caucasus Emirate is an Al Qaeda ally and de facto affiliate. It represents a threat to Russian, U.S., and international security as evidenced by terrorist plots perpetrated or inspired by it in Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Spain, Azerbaijan, and Boston.

Insurgents, Terrorists, and Militias

The Warriors of Contemporary Combat

Author: Richard H. Shultz Jr.,Andrea J. Dew

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231503423

Category: Political Science

Page: 328

View: 4870

Since the end of the Cold War, conventional militaries and their political leaders have confronted a new, brutal type of warfare in which non-state armed groups use asymmetrical tactics to successfully fight larger, technologically superior forces. In order to prevent future bloodshed and political chaos, it is crucial to understand how these unconventional armed groups think and to adapt to their methods of combat. Richard H. Shultz Jr. and Andrea J. Dew investigate the history and politics of modern asymmetrical warfare. By focusing on four specific hotbeds of instability—Somalia, Chechnya, Afghanistan, and Iraq—Shultz and Dew conduct a careful analysis of tribal culture and the value of clan associations. They examine why these "traditional" or "tribal" warriors fight, how they recruit, where they find sanctuary, and what is behind their strategy. Traveling across two centuries and several continents, Shultz and Dew examine the doctrinal, tactical, and strategic advantages and consider the historical, cultural, and anthropological factors behind the motivation and success of the warriors of contemporary combat. In their provocative argument, Shultz and Dew propose that war in the post-Cold War era cannot be waged through traditional Western methods of combat, especially when friendly states and outside organizations like al-Qaeda serve as powerful allies to the enemy. Thoroughly researched and highly readable, Insurgents, Terrorists, and Militias examines how non-state armies fight, identifies the patterns and trends of their combat, and recommends how conventional militaries can defeat these irregular yet highly effective organizations.