The Formation of the Jewish Canon

Author: Timothy H. Lim

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300164343

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 6448

DIVThe discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls provides unprecedented insight into the nature of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament before its fixation. Timothy Lim here presents a complete account of the formation of the canon in Ancient Judaism from the emergence of the Torah in the Persian period to the final acceptance of the list of twenty-two/twenty-four books in the Rabbinic period./divDIV /divDIVUsing the Hebrew Bible, the Scrolls, the Apocrypha, the Letter of Aristeas, the writings of Philo, Josephus, the New Testament, and Rabbinic literature as primary evidence he argues that throughout the post-exilic period up to around 100 CE there was not one official “canon” accepted by all Jews; rather, there existed a plurality of collections of scriptures that were authoritative for different communities. Examining the literary sources and historical circumstances that led to the emergence of authoritative scriptures in ancient Judaism, Lim proposes a theory of the majority canon that posits that the Pharisaic canon became the canon of Rabbinic Judaism in the centuries after the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple./div

The Formation of the Jewish Canon

Author: Timothy H. Lim

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300164955

Category: Religion

Page: 224

View: 713

The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls provides unprecedented insight into the nature of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament before its fixation. Timothy Lim here presents a complete account of the formation of the canon in Ancient Judaism from the emergence of the Torah in the Persian period to the final acceptance of the list of twenty-two/twenty-four books in the Rabbinic period. Using the Hebrew Bible, the Scrolls, the Apocrypha, the Letter of Aristeas, the writings of Philo, Josephus, the New Testament, and Rabbinic literature as primary evidence he argues that throughout the post-exilic period up to around 100 CE there was not one official "canon" accepted by all Jews; rather, there existed a plurality of collections of scriptures that were authoritative for different communities. Examining the literary sources and historical circumstances that led to the emergence of authoritative scriptures in ancient Judaism, Lim proposes a theory of the majority canon that posits that the Pharisaic canon became the canon of Rabbinic Judaism in the centuries after the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple.

The Formation of the Christian Biblical Canon

Author: Lee Martin McDonald

Publisher: Hendrickson Pub

ISBN: 9781565630529

Category: Religion

Page: 340

View: 7816

"Lee McDonald has written a lucid and accessible account of the formation of the Christian Bible, clearly marshalling the major evidence, working through the main problems, and reaching persuasive conclusions. Treating separately the canons of the Old and New Testaments, he provides translations of most of the ancient primary sources, good summaries of scholarly debates, and a useful guide to the extensive scholarly literature on the subject. This book will find an appreciative readership among students, pastors, and inquiring laypersons." " Harry Gamble, Professor and Chair of Religious Studies, University of Virginia "This is a remarkable book in that it tackles the question of the formation of the Christian biblical canon in its full sense, that is, both testaments. . . . McDonald has produced a timely study, considerably improved in the sections of the OT canon and generally more comprehensive for both testaments than in his first edition, that should command wide attention for years to come. He has, in my opinion, come to the right conclusions on the essential questions." " James A. Sanders, Professor of Biblical and Intertestamental Studies, School of Theology at Claremont

The Old Testament Canon of the New Testament Church

and its Background in Early Judaism

Author: Roger T. Beckwith

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 1606082493

Category: Religion

Page: 541

View: 4166

This new study of the Old Testament canon by Roger Beckwith is on a scale to match H. E. Ryle's classic work, which was first published in 1892. But Beckwith has the advantage of writing after the Qumran (and other) discoveries; and he has also made full use of all the available sources, including biblical manuscripts and rabbinical and patristic literature, taking into account the seldom studied Syriac material as well as the Greek and Latin material. The result of many years of study, this book is a major work of scholarship on a subject which has been neglected in recent times. It is both historical and theological, but Beckwith's first consideration has been to make a thorough and unprejudiced historical investigation. One of his most important concerns - and one that is crucial for all students of Judaism, and Christians in particular - is to decide when the limits of the Jewish canon were settled. In the answer to this question lies an important key to the teaching of Jesus and his apostles, and the resultant beliefs of the New Testament church. Furthermore, any answers to questions about the state of the canon in the New Testament period would help to open a way through the present ecumenical (and interfaith) impasse on the subject. With its meticulous research and evenhanded approach, this book is sure to become the starting point for study of the Old Testament canon in the years to come.

The Origin of the Bible: A Guide For the Perplexed

Author: Lee Martin McDonald

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 0567040968

Category: Religion

Page: 272

View: 1757

Just how did the Jewish and Christian Bibles come together? Why were some ancient texts excluded? Or included and later rejected? What were the criteria? This volume deals with a significant issue in light of the many and significant discoveries of ancient sacred or religious texts that were not included in the Jewish or Christian Bibles. Because of the focus in the news media in recent years on those extra-canonical books that have come to light in the last century - and even more recently, there is need for clarification of the processes involved in the formation of the Jewish and Christian Bibles. Why were some books included and others excluded? Why were some included initially and subsequently rejected? Was there a church cover-up as some in the media have suggested? As a result of all of this and more, considerable attention is now focused on the use and function of the so-called non-canonical religious texts that are not now a part of the Bibles of various religious communities. Why did the Bible come together? What criteria were used in making decisions about inclusion and exclusion? The proposed volume addresses these questions and others that are critical to a careful understanding of the Jewish and Christian Bibles. The methodology employed in the writing of this book is described below. It is important to take this discussion outside of the scholars' guild and into the hands of the laity, especially those educated college graduates and undergraduates whose interest in this subject has grown over the past twenty or more years. Currently there are no useful volumes on this subject that is geared to them. Scholars continue to talk past them and all too often only to each other about these matters. This volume is designed to fill this void and make the topic more clear for those without the technical academic skills to explore these matters in the ancient languages. Continuum's Guides for the Perplexed are clear, concise and accessible introductions to thinkers, writers and subjects that students and readers can find especially challenging - or indeed downright bewildering. Concentrating specifically on what it is that makes the subject difficult to grasp, these books explain and explore key themes and ideas, guiding the reader towards a thorough understanding of demanding material.

Exploring the Origins of the Bible (Acadia Studies in Bible and Theology)

Canon Formation in Historical, Literary, and Theological Perspective

Author: Craig A. Evans,Emanuel Tov

Publisher: Baker Academic

ISBN: 9781585588145

Category: Religion

Page: 272

View: 3072

How did the Bible we have come to be? What do biblical scholars mean when they talk about canon, the Septuagint, the Apocrypha, or the Masoretic Text? All this biblical study is interesting, but does it really matter? Leading international scholars explain that it does. This thought-provoking and cutting-edge collection will help you go deeper in your understanding of the biblical writings, how those writings became canonical Scripture, and why canon matters. Beginning with an explanation of the different versions of the Hebrew Bible, scholars in different areas of expertise explore the complexities and issues related to the Old and New Testament canons, why different Jewish and Christian communities have different collections, and the importance of canon to theology.

The Formation and Significance of the Christian Biblical Canon

A Study in Text, Ritual and Interpretation

Author: Tomas Bokedal

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 056707546X

Category: Religion

Page: 352

View: 8616

This book offers a fresh cross-disciplinary approach to the current discussion on the Christian canon formation process. By carefully integrating historical, hermeneutical and theological aspects to account for the emergence of the canon, it seeks to offer a more comprehensive picture of the canon development than has previously been achieved. The formation and continuous usage of the Christian biblical canon is here viewed as an act of literary preservation and actualization of the church's apostolic normative tradition - 'the Scriptures and the Lord' - addressing, first of all, the church, but also the wider society. In order to grasp the complex phenomenon of the biblical canon, the study is divided into four parts, focusing respectively on linguistic and effective-historical, textual and material, performative, and ideational aspects of the canon. Attention is given to the scribal nomina sacra convention, the codex format, oral and written Gospel, early Christian liturgical praxis and the Rule of Faith. Bokedal argues that the canon was formed in a process, with its own particular intention, history, and direction. Throughout the study, history and theology, past and present are considered alongside each other. By using a Gadamerian hermeneutics of tradition, the reader's attention is directed to historical dimensions of the canon and its interpretative possibilities for our time. The notion of effective history (Wirkungsgeschichte), as well as the interaction between text, community and reader are crucial to the argument. The canonical text as text, its interpretation and ritual contextualization are highlighted as unifying elements for the communities being addressed.

The Formation of the Babylonian Talmud

Author: David Weiss Halivni

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199876487

Category: Religion

Page: 352

View: 4751

David Weiss Halivni's The Formation of the Babylonian Talmud, originally published in Hebrew and here translated by Jeffrey L. Rubenstein, is widely regarded as the most comprehensive scholarly examination of the processes of composition and editing of the Babylonian Talmud. Halivni presents the summation of a lifetime of scholarship and the conclusions of his multivolume Talmudic commentary, Sources and Traditions (Meqorot umesorot). Arguing against the traditional view that the Talmud was composed c. 450 CE by the last of the named sages in the Talmud, the Amoraim, Halivni proposes that its formation took place over a much longer period of time, not reaching its final form until about 750 CE. The Talmud consists of many literary strata or layers, with later layers commenting upon and reinterpreting earlier layers. The later layers differ qualitatively from the earlier layers, and were composed by anonymous sages whom Halivni calls Stammaim. These sages were the true author-editors of the Talmud. They reconstructed the reasons underpinning earlier rulings, created the dialectical argumentation characteristic of the Talmud, and formulated the literary units that make up the Talmudic text. Halivni also discusses the history and development of rabbinic tradition from the Mishnah through the post-Talmudic legal codes, the types of dialectical analysis found in the different rabbinic works, and the roles of reciters, transmitters, compilers, and editors in the composition of the Talmud. This volume contains an introduction and annotations by Jeffrey L. Rubenstein.

From Text to Tradition

A History of Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism

Author: Lawrence H. Schiffman

Publisher: KTAV Publishing House, Inc.

ISBN: 9780881253726

Category: Religion

Page: 299

View: 7205


People of the Book

Canon, Meaning, and Authority

Author: Moshe Halbertal

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674661110

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 185

View: 5270

The author examines the crucial "commitment to certain texts and their role in shaping many aspects of Jewish life and endowing the tradition with coherence."--Introduction, p. [1].

Scribal Culture and the Making of the Hebrew Bible

Author: Karel Van der Toorn

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674032543

Category: Religion

Page: 401

View: 6835

The scribes of ancient Israel are indeed the main figures behind the Hebrew Bible, and this book tells their story for the first time. Drawing comparisons with the scribal practices of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, van der Toorn details the methods, assumptions, and material means that gave rise to biblical texts. Traditionally seen as the copycats of antiquity, the scribes emerge here as the literate elite who held the key to the production and the transmission of texts.

When Texts Are Canonized

Author: Timothy H. Lim

Publisher: SBL Press

ISBN: 1930675992

Category: Religion

Page: 188

View: 8661

How did canonization take place, and what difference does it make? Essays in this collection probe the canonical process: Why were certain books, but not others, included in the canon? What criteria were used to select the books of the canon? Was canonization a divine fiat or human act? What was the nature of the authority of the laws and narratives of the Torah? How did prophecy come to be included in the canon? Others reflect on the consequences of canonization: What are the effects in elevating certain writings to the status of “Holy Scriptures”? What happens when a text is included in an official list? What theological and hermeneutical questions are at stake in the fact of the canon? Should the canon be unsealed or reopened to include other writings? Features: Essays that contribute to our understanding of the complex processes of canonization Exploration of early concepts of canonicity Discussion of reopening the New Testament canon

The Canon Debate

Author: Lee Martin McDonald,James A. Sanders

Publisher: Baker Academic

ISBN: 1441241639

Category: Religion

Page: 700

View: 8457

What does it mean to speak of a "canon" of scripture? How, when, and where did the canon of the Hebrew Bible come into existence? Why does it have three divisions? What canon was in use among the Jews of the Hellenistic diaspora? At Qumran? In Roman Palestine? Among the rabbis? What Bible did Jesus and his disciples know and use? How was the New Testament canon formed and closed? What role was played by Marcion? By gnostics? By the church fathers? What did the early church make of the apocrypha and pseudepigrapha? By what criteria have questions of canonicity been decided? Are these past decisions still meaningful faith communities today? Are they open to revision? These and other debated questions are addressed by an international roster of outstanding experts on early Judaism and early Christianity, writing from diverse affiliations and perspectives, who present the history of discussion and offer their own assessments of the current status. Contributors William Adler, Peter Balla, John Barton, Joseph Blenkinsopp, François Bovon, Kent D. Clarke, Philip R. Davies, James D. G. Dunn, Eldon Jay Epp, Craig A. Evans, William R. Farmer, Everett Ferguson, Robert W. Funk, Harry Y. Gamble, Geoffrey M. Hahneman, Daniel J. Harrington, Everett R. Kalin, Robert A. Kraft, Jack P. Lewis, Jack N. Lightstone, Steve Mason, Lee M. McDonald, Pheme Perkins, James A. Sanders, Daryl D. Schmidt, Albert C. Sundberg Jr., Emanuel Tov, Julio Trebolle-Barrera, Eugene Ulrich, James C. VanderKam, Robert W. Wall.

The Making of the New Testament

Origin, Collection, Text & Canon

Author: Arthur G. Patzia

Publisher: InterVarsity Press

ISBN: 0830827218

Category: Religion

Page: 302

View: 7852

The Story of the Making of the New Testament is one in which scrolls bumped across cobbled Roman roads and pitched through rolling Mediterranean seas, finally finding their destinations in stuffy, dimly lit Christian house churches in Corinth or Colossae. There they were read aloud and reread, handled and copied, forwarded and collected, studied and treasured. And eventually they were brought together to make up our New Testament. Their everyday, gritty story rings true to their extraordinary message: the palpable mystery of the Word made flesh. This revised and expanded edition of The Making of the New Testament is a textbook introduction to the origin, collection, copying and canonizing of the New Testament documents. Like shrewd detectives reading subtle whispers of evidence, biblical scholars have studied the trail of clues and pieced together the story of these books. Arthur Patzia tells the story, answering our many questions

The Biblical Canon Lists from Early Christianity

Texts and Analysis

Author: Edmon L. Gallagher,John D. Meade

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192511033

Category: Religion

Page: 384

View: 3268

The Bible took shape over the course of centuries, and today Christian groups continue to disagree over details of its contents. The differences among these groups typically involve the Old Testament, as they mostly accept the same 27-book New Testament. An essential avenue for understanding the development of the Bible are the many early lists of canonical books drawn up by Christians and, occasionally, Jews. Despite the importance of these early lists of books, they have remained relatively inaccessible. This comprehensive volume redresses this unfortunate situation by presenting the early Christian canon lists all together in a single volume. The canon lists, in most cases, unambiguously report what the compilers of the lists considered to belong to the biblical canon. For this reason they bear an undeniable importance in the history of the Bible. The Biblical Canon Lists from Early Christianity provides an accessible presentation of these early canon lists. With a focus on the first four centuries, the volume supplies the full text of the canon lists in English translation alongside the original text, usually Greek or Latin, occasionally Hebrew or Syriac. Edmon L. Gallagher and John D. Meade orient readers to each list with brief introductions and helpful notes, and they point readers to the most significant scholarly discussions. The book begins with a substantial overview of the history of the biblical canon, and an entire chapter is devoted to the evidence of biblical manuscripts from the first millennium. This authoritative work is an indispensable guide for students and scholars of biblical studies and church history.

Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture

Author: Brevard S. Childs

Publisher: Fortress Press

ISBN: 9780800605322

Category: Religion

Page: 688

View: 5898

This Introduction attempts to offer a different model for the discipline from that currently represented. It seeks to describe the form and function of the Hebrew Bible in its role as sacred scripture for Israel. It argues the case that the biblical literature has not been correctly understood or interpreted because its role as religious literature has not been correctly assessed.

From Jesus to Christ

The Origins of the New Testament Images of Jesus

Author: Paula Fredriksen

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300164106

Category: Religion

Page: 288

View: 9021


The Compilational History of the Megilloth

Canon, Contoured Intertextuality and Meaning in the Writings

Author: Timothy J. Stone

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161523755

Category: Religion

Page: 0

View: 4091

"Are the books of the 'Megilloth' an anthology of unrelated writings? Timothy J. Stone explores the canonical shape of the third part of the Hebrew canon, the Writings, and concludes that the codification of the 'Megilloth' into a collection is integral to the canonical process."--Back cover.

Writing on the Tablet of the Heart

Origins of Scripture and Literature

Author: David M. Carr

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195346695

Category: Religion

Page: 338

View: 3684

This book explores a new model for the production, revision, and reception of Biblical texts as Scripture. Building on recent studies of the oral/written interface in medieval, Greco-Roman and ancinet Near Eastern contexts, David Carr argues that in ancient Israel Biblical texts and other texts emerged as a support for an educational process in which written and oral dimensions were integrally intertwined. The point was not incising and reading texts on parchment or papyrus. The point was to enculturate ancient Israelites - particularly Israelite elites - by training them to memorize and recite a wide range of traditional literature that was seen as the cultural bedorck of the people: narrative, prophecy, prayer, and wisdom.