The Formation of the Jewish Canon

Author: Timothy H. Lim

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300164343

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 4906

DIVThe discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls provides unprecedented insight into the nature of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament before its fixation. Timothy Lim here presents a complete account of the formation of the canon in Ancient Judaism from the emergence of the Torah in the Persian period to the final acceptance of the list of twenty-two/twenty-four books in the Rabbinic period./divDIV /divDIVUsing the Hebrew Bible, the Scrolls, the Apocrypha, the Letter of Aristeas, the writings of Philo, Josephus, the New Testament, and Rabbinic literature as primary evidence he argues that throughout the post-exilic period up to around 100 CE there was not one official “canon” accepted by all Jews; rather, there existed a plurality of collections of scriptures that were authoritative for different communities. Examining the literary sources and historical circumstances that led to the emergence of authoritative scriptures in ancient Judaism, Lim proposes a theory of the majority canon that posits that the Pharisaic canon became the canon of Rabbinic Judaism in the centuries after the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple./div

The Formation of the Jewish Canon

Author: Timothy H. Lim

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300164955

Category: Religion

Page: 224

View: 7440

The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls provides unprecedented insight into the nature of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament before its fixation. Timothy Lim here presents a complete account of the formation of the canon in Ancient Judaism from the emergence of the Torah in the Persian period to the final acceptance of the list of twenty-two/twenty-four books in the Rabbinic period. Using the Hebrew Bible, the Scrolls, the Apocrypha, the Letter of Aristeas, the writings of Philo, Josephus, the New Testament, and Rabbinic literature as primary evidence he argues that throughout the post-exilic period up to around 100 CE there was not one official "canon" accepted by all Jews; rather, there existed a plurality of collections of scriptures that were authoritative for different communities. Examining the literary sources and historical circumstances that led to the emergence of authoritative scriptures in ancient Judaism, Lim proposes a theory of the majority canon that posits that the Pharisaic canon became the canon of Rabbinic Judaism in the centuries after the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple.

The Origins of the Canon of the Hebrew Bible

An Analysis of Josephus and 4 Ezra

Author: Juan Carlos Ossandón Widow

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004381619

Category: Religion

Page: 284

View: 6788

In Origins of the Canon, Ossandón offers an analysis of Josephus’ Against Apion and 4 Ezra—the two earliest testimonies of the number of books of the Hebrew Bible—and proposes factors to explain the birth of the canon.

The Old Testament Canon of the New Testament Church

and its Background in Early Judaism

Author: Roger T. Beckwith

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 1606082493

Category: Religion

Page: 541

View: 2717

This new study of the Old Testament canon by Roger Beckwith is on a scale to match H. E. Ryle's classic work, which was first published in 1892. But Beckwith has the advantage of writing after the Qumran (and other) discoveries; and he has also made full use of all the available sources, including biblical manuscripts and rabbinical and patristic literature, taking into account the seldom studied Syriac material as well as the Greek and Latin material. The result of many years of study, this book is a major work of scholarship on a subject which has been neglected in recent times. It is both historical and theological, but Beckwith's first consideration has been to make a thorough and unprejudiced historical investigation. One of his most important concerns - and one that is crucial for all students of Judaism, and Christians in particular - is to decide when the limits of the Jewish canon were settled. In the answer to this question lies an important key to the teaching of Jesus and his apostles, and the resultant beliefs of the New Testament church. Furthermore, any answers to questions about the state of the canon in the New Testament period would help to open a way through the present ecumenical (and interfaith) impasse on the subject. With its meticulous research and evenhanded approach, this book is sure to become the starting point for study of the Old Testament canon in the years to come.

Exploring the Origins of the Bible (Acadia Studies in Bible and Theology)

Canon Formation in Historical, Literary, and Theological Perspective

Author: Craig A. Evans,Emanuel Tov

Publisher: Baker Academic

ISBN: 9781585588145

Category: Religion

Page: 272

View: 6850

How did the Bible we have come to be? What do biblical scholars mean when they talk about canon, the Septuagint, the Apocrypha, or the Masoretic Text? All this biblical study is interesting, but does it really matter? Leading international scholars explain that it does. This thought-provoking and cutting-edge collection will help you go deeper in your understanding of the biblical writings, how those writings became canonical Scripture, and why canon matters. Beginning with an explanation of the different versions of the Hebrew Bible, scholars in different areas of expertise explore the complexities and issues related to the Old and New Testament canons, why different Jewish and Christian communities have different collections, and the importance of canon to theology.

The Formation of the Babylonian Talmud

Author: David Weiss Halivni

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199876487

Category: Religion

Page: 352

View: 2249

David Weiss Halivni's The Formation of the Babylonian Talmud, originally published in Hebrew and here translated by Jeffrey L. Rubenstein, is widely regarded as the most comprehensive scholarly examination of the processes of composition and editing of the Babylonian Talmud. Halivni presents the summation of a lifetime of scholarship and the conclusions of his multivolume Talmudic commentary, Sources and Traditions (Meqorot umesorot). Arguing against the traditional view that the Talmud was composed c. 450 CE by the last of the named sages in the Talmud, the Amoraim, Halivni proposes that its formation took place over a much longer period of time, not reaching its final form until about 750 CE. The Talmud consists of many literary strata or layers, with later layers commenting upon and reinterpreting earlier layers. The later layers differ qualitatively from the earlier layers, and were composed by anonymous sages whom Halivni calls Stammaim. These sages were the true author-editors of the Talmud. They reconstructed the reasons underpinning earlier rulings, created the dialectical argumentation characteristic of the Talmud, and formulated the literary units that make up the Talmudic text. Halivni also discusses the history and development of rabbinic tradition from the Mishnah through the post-Talmudic legal codes, the types of dialectical analysis found in the different rabbinic works, and the roles of reciters, transmitters, compilers, and editors in the composition of the Talmud. This volume contains an introduction and annotations by Jeffrey L. Rubenstein.

The Formation of the Christian Biblical Canon

Author: Lee Martin McDonald

Publisher: Hendrickson Pub

ISBN: 9781565630529

Category: Religion

Page: 340

View: 2593

"Lee McDonald has written a lucid and accessible account of the formation of the Christian Bible, clearly marshalling the major evidence, working through the main problems, and reaching persuasive conclusions. Treating separately the canons of the Old and New Testaments, he provides translations of most of the ancient primary sources, good summaries of scholarly debates, and a useful guide to the extensive scholarly literature on the subject. This book will find an appreciative readership among students, pastors, and inquiring laypersons." " Harry Gamble, Professor and Chair of Religious Studies, University of Virginia "This is a remarkable book in that it tackles the question of the formation of the Christian biblical canon in its full sense, that is, both testaments. . . . McDonald has produced a timely study, considerably improved in the sections of the OT canon and generally more comprehensive for both testaments than in his first edition, that should command wide attention for years to come. He has, in my opinion, come to the right conclusions on the essential questions." " James A. Sanders, Professor of Biblical and Intertestamental Studies, School of Theology at Claremont

Scribal Culture and the Making of the Hebrew Bible

Author: Karel Van der Toorn

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674032543

Category: Religion

Page: 401

View: 2239

The scribes of ancient Israel are indeed the main figures behind the Hebrew Bible, and this book tells their story for the first time. Drawing comparisons with the scribal practices of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, van der Toorn details the methods, assumptions, and material means that gave rise to biblical texts. Traditionally seen as the copycats of antiquity, the scribes emerge here as the literate elite who held the key to the production and the transmission of texts.

The Biblical Canon Lists from Early Christianity

Texts and Analysis

Author: Edmon L. Gallagher,John D. Meade

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198792492

Category: Religion

Page: 368

View: 1235

The Bible took shape over the course of centuries, and today Christian groups continue to disagree over details of its contents. The differences among these groups typically involve the Old Testament, as they mostly accept the same 27-book New Testament. An essential avenue for understanding the development of the Bible are the many early lists of canonical books drawn up by Christians and, occasionally, Jews. Despite the importance of these early lists of books, they have remained relatively inaccessible. This comprehensive volume redresses this unfortunate situation by presenting the early Christian canon lists all together in a single volume. The canon lists, in most cases, unambiguously report what the compilers of the lists considered to belong to the biblical canon. For this reason they bear an undeniable importance in the history of the Bible. The Biblical Canon Lists from Early Christianity provides an accessible presentation of these early canon lists. With a focus on the first four centuries, the volume supplies the full text of the canon lists in English translation alongside the original text, usually Greek or Latin, occasionally Hebrew or Syriac. Edmon L. Gallagher and John D. Meade orient readers to each list with brief introductions and helpful notes, and they point readers to the most significant scholarly discussions. The book begins with a substantial overview of the history of the biblical canon, and an entire chapter is devoted to the evidence of biblical manuscripts from the first millennium. This authoritative work is an indispensable guide for students and scholars of biblical studies and church history.

Ezra-Nehemiah

Author: Lester L. Grabbe

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134768079

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 2862

In this provocative study, Lester Grabbe presents a unique approach to Ezra-Nehemiah with the combination of a literary and historical approach. Lester Grabbe challenges commonly held assumptions about Joshua and Zerubbabel, the initial resettlement of land after the exile, the figure of Ezra and the activities of Nehemiah. Controversially, the challenge comes, not from radical theory but from paying careful attention to the text of the Bible itself.

Authoritative Scriptures in Ancient Judaism

Author: Mladen Popović

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004190740

Category: Religion

Page: 412

View: 4335

The notion of authoritative Scriptures plays an important part in the new paradigm of canonical process. This volume focuses on specific texts or corpora of texts, and approaches the notion of authoritative Scriptures from sociological, cultural and literary perspectives.

The Formation and Significance of the Christian Biblical Canon

A Study in Text, Ritual and Interpretation

Author: Tomas Bokedal

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 056707546X

Category: Religion

Page: 352

View: 6015

This book offers a fresh cross-disciplinary approach to the current discussion on the Christian canon formation process. By carefully integrating historical, hermeneutical and theological aspects to account for the emergence of the canon, it seeks to offer a more comprehensive picture of the canon development than has previously been achieved. The formation and continuous usage of the Christian biblical canon is here viewed as an act of literary preservation and actualization of the church's apostolic normative tradition - 'the Scriptures and the Lord' - addressing, first of all, the church, but also the wider society. In order to grasp the complex phenomenon of the biblical canon, the study is divided into four parts, focusing respectively on linguistic and effective-historical, textual and material, performative, and ideational aspects of the canon. Attention is given to the scribal nomina sacra convention, the codex format, oral and written Gospel, early Christian liturgical praxis and the Rule of Faith. Bokedal argues that the canon was formed in a process, with its own particular intention, history, and direction. Throughout the study, history and theology, past and present are considered alongside each other. By using a Gadamerian hermeneutics of tradition, the reader's attention is directed to historical dimensions of the canon and its interpretative possibilities for our time. The notion of effective history (Wirkungsgeschichte), as well as the interaction between text, community and reader are crucial to the argument. The canonical text as text, its interpretation and ritual contextualization are highlighted as unifying elements for the communities being addressed.

The ascension of authorship

attribution and canon formation in Jewish, Hellenistic, and Christian traditions

Author: Jed Wyrick

Publisher: Harvard Univ Pr

ISBN: 9780674016613

Category: Religion

Page: 508

View: 3555

The Ascension of Authorship traces the history of the idea of the author in the ancient world, beginning with the attribution practices of Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism. Jed Wyrick explores the testimony of Josephus on the succession of prophetic scribes and their superiority to Greek historiographers, and interprets the formation of the biblical canon in this light. The Ascension of Authorship also examines the Greek scholarly methodology that questioned traditional connections between names and texts, a methodology perfected by Hellenistic grammarians and inherited by early Christian scholars. Wyrick argues that the fusion of Jewish and Hellenistic approaches toward attribution helped lead to St. Augustine's reinvention of the writer of scripture as an author whose texts were governed by both divine will and human intent.

From Text to Tradition

A History of Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism

Author: Lawrence H. Schiffman

Publisher: KTAV Publishing House, Inc.

ISBN: 9780881253726

Category: Religion

Page: 299

View: 5129


People of the Book

Canon, Meaning, and Authority

Author: Moshe HALBERTAL,Moshe Halbertal

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674038142

Category: Religion

Page: 208

View: 4752

Halbertal provides a panoramic survey of Jewish attitudes toward Scripture, provocatively organized around problems of normative and formative authority, with an emphasis on the changing status and functions of Mishnah, Talmud, and Kabbalah.

A High View of Scripture? (Evangelical Ressourcement)

The Authority of the Bible and the Formation of the New Testament Canon

Author: Craig D. Allert

Publisher: Baker Academic

ISBN: 1441201599

Category: Religion

Page: 204

View: 2450

Where did the Bible come from? Author Craig D. Allert encourages more evangelicals to ask that question. In A High View of Scripture? Allert introduces his audience to the diverse history of the canon's development and what impact it has today on how we view Scripture. Allert affirms divine inspiration of the Bible and, in fact, urges the very people who proclaim the ultimate authority of the Bible to be informed about how it came to be. This book, the latest in the Evangelical Ressourcement series, will be valuable as a college or seminary text and for readers interested in issues of canon development and biblical authority.

Writing on the Tablet of the Heart

Origins of Scripture and Literature

Author: David M. Carr

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195346695

Category: Religion

Page: 338

View: 8637

This book explores a new model for the production, revision, and reception of Biblical texts as Scripture. Building on recent studies of the oral/written interface in medieval, Greco-Roman and ancinet Near Eastern contexts, David Carr argues that in ancient Israel Biblical texts and other texts emerged as a support for an educational process in which written and oral dimensions were integrally intertwined. The point was not incising and reading texts on parchment or papyrus. The point was to enculturate ancient Israelites - particularly Israelite elites - by training them to memorize and recite a wide range of traditional literature that was seen as the cultural bedorck of the people: narrative, prophecy, prayer, and wisdom.

The Law and the Prophets

A Study in Old Testament Canon Formation

Author: Stephen B. Chapman

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161471353

Category: Bible

Page: 356

View: 9506

The standard theory of Old Testament canon formation describes a literary process of linear development in three successive stages. In spite of intermittent criticism, the theory has continued to find its place in textbooks and introductions. Here Stephen B. Chapman marshals all of the important counter-arguments to the theory and proposes a fresh way to conceive of the canonical process, based upon evidence internal and external to the biblical text.He argues against the standard theory by exposing its internal inconsistencies and critiquing its methodological presuppositions, especially its assumptions about human agency and the nature of 'canonization.' Using Charles Altieri's literary application of Canadian philosopher Charles Taylor's theory of the self, the author redescribes the canonization of the Old Testament as a process of 'strong evaluation', whose goal was to provide a religious framework for the evaluation of personal and communal alternatives, rather than the imposition of ideology. He redefines the Old Testament 'canon' as the theological 'grammar' formed by the coordination of discrete scriptures into a coherent collection, but retaining their plurality as integral to canonicity.Stephen B. Chapman also demonstrates that the status of the prophetic writings prior to their canonization has remained an intractable problem for the standard theory. He shows how nomistic assumptions about canonization have sustained the view that the prophetic corpus was always subordinate to the Pentateuch, even though this view is at odds with the exegetical evidence. By detailed analysis of 'canon-conscious' editing within the Pentateuch and the prophetic corpus, he illustrates how collections of Law and Prophets developed simultaneously and mutually influenced each other.

Reading the Old Testament with the Ancient Church (Evangelical Ressourcement)

Exploring the Formation of Early Christian Thought

Author: Ronald E. Heine

Publisher: Baker Academic

ISBN: 9781441201539

Category: Religion

Page: 208

View: 1933

The contemporary church dismisses Christianity's foundational Scriptures at its own peril. However, the teachings of the Old Testament are less and less at the center of congregational preaching and conversation. The early church fathers--visionaries such as Augustine, Origen, and Tertullian--embraced the Hebrew Scriptures, allowing the Old Testament to play a central role in the formation of their beliefs. As today's Christians struggle to relate to concepts such as the Jewish law and the prophets, pastors and laypersons benefit from looking through the lenses of these thoughtful pioneers. This latest volume in the Evangelical Ressourcement series helps the Old Covenant to come alive.