The Eradication of Smallpox

Edward Jenner and the First and Only Eradication of a Human Infectious Disease

Author: H. Bazin

Publisher: N.A


Category: Medical

Page: 246

View: 1856

Simply, and with great humanity, The Eradication of Smallpox tells the story of smallpox - it's origins, the horror of the disease, and the millions of people killed or disfigured by it. During the 18th and 19th centuries, it is estimated that one out of every ten people died from the disease; some say one out of every seven. Smallpox attacked very young children in particular. The story progresses with the practice of variolation, the life of Edward Jenner who first proposed 'vaccination' with cow pox vaccine (little James Phipps was the first person ever vaccinated in this way), the years of debate about the efficacy of this novel method, and the later worldwide initiatives to rid the planet of this horrific disease. In 1979, the story culminates in the only total eradication of an infectious disease that mankind has ever accomplished. This year celebrates the 20th anniversary of this momentous achievement. In the intervening years, debate has raged about what we should do with the remaining smallpox viral stocks. Do we destroy them, so they can't fall into the hands of bioterrorists, or do we maintain them, in case they may be of use in some unexpected way, for therapeutic purposes? These questions are thoroughly discussed in the book. Key Features * Covers the background, history and origin of smallpox, and brings the story up to the present day * Gives full and interesting details of Jenner's life, and tells how this humble country doctor brought about a revolution in vaccination * Includes many quotes from historical figures * Features 120 high quality photographs, many originating from unique historical plates in the author's private collection * Includes new research data * Provides new views on the eradication and destruction of smallpox

Expunging Variola

The Control and Eradication of Smallpox in India, 1947-1977

Author: Sanjoy Bhattacharya

Publisher: Orient Blackswan

ISBN: 9788125030188

Category: Medical

Page: 327

View: 3564

As A Crucial Component Of The Global Smallpox Eradication Programme, Which Has Been Widely Hailed As One Of The Greatest Public Health Successes In The Twentieth Century, The Indian Experience Has Some Important Stories To Tell. Expunging Variola Reveals These As It Chronicles The Last Three Decades Of The Anti-Smallpox Campaigns In India.This Wide-Ranging Study, Based On Extensive Archival Research In India, Britain, Switzerland And The United States Of America, Assesses The Many Complexities In The Formulation And Implementation Of The Smallpox Eradication Programme In The Subcontinent. Rather Than Merely Cataloguing The Developments Of This Extremely Complex Exercise Within The World Health Organisation Headquarters In Geneva And The Indian Central Government In New Delhi, This Book Adopts A Much Broader Perspective: It Makes A Conscious Effort To Provide A Detailed View By Including The Accounts Of Who, Governmental And Nongovernmental Personnel On The Ground. In This Manner, Nuanced Descriptions Of Important And Often Controversial Situations Are Provided. Thus, Apart From Acknowledging The Influence Of National-, State- And District-Level Political, Economic And Social Structures In Continually Reshaping The Contours Of The Smallpox Campaigns, This Work Also Emphasises The Crucial Role Played By Field Workers In Implementing And Often Reinterpreting Health Strategies Proposed By Geneva And New Delhi.Original Not Only In Perspective But In Material, Based As It Is On A Wide Range Of Sources Which Have Never Been Exploited By Academics Before, Expunging Variola Breaks New Ground In The Historiography Of Smallpox Eradication In The Subcontinent. The Book Serves As A Companion Volume To Fractured States Which Covers The Period 1800-1947.

House on Fire

The Fight to Eradicate Smallpox

Author: William H. Foege,Milbank Memorial Fund

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520268369

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 218

View: 5981

“Bill Foege takes us inside the world's greatest public health triumph: the eradication of smallpox. It's a story of true determination, passion and courage. The story of smallpox should encourage all of us to continue the critical work of worldwide disease eradication.”--Bill Gates, Co-Chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation “Bill Foege is one of the public health giants of our times. He was responsible for the design of the campaign that eradicated smallpox—the most important global health achievement in history and possibly the greatest feat in any field of international cooperation. His insights into the nature of this major event will undoubtedly help to meet the global health challenges of the 21st century.”—Julio Frenk, M.D, PhD, Dean, Harvard School of Public Health “The eradication of a disease has long been the holy grail of global health and Bill Foege found it: more than any other person, he was responsible for the eradication of smallpox from the face of the earth. This is a story told by a remarkably humble man, about the extraordinary coalition that he helped to build, and the most impressive global health accomplishment the world has ever seen.”—Mark Rosenberg, author of Real Collaboration: What It Takes for Global Health to Succeed “I am thrilled that Bill Foege, one of the great heroes of the smallpox eradication campaign, has written this important book. It tells a beautiful human story of an incredible public health triumph, and is full of lessons that could be applied to many of the global challenges we face today.”—Helene D. Gayle MD, President and CEO, CARE USA “Bill Foege’s House on Fire is the first-hand account of how a revised strategy to eradicate smallpox was tested, validated, and applied. Without the global adoption of this new surveillance strategy, the final deathblow to this longtime global menace might never have been dealt.”—Adetokunbo O. Lucas, MD, DSc, author of It Was The Best of Times: From Local to Global Health “Smallpox is the most devastating disease the world has known, as it destroyed lives and shaped history over the centuries. House on Fire provides a day-to-day account by my friend Dr. Bill Foege of the battle required to defeat this wily and diabolic virus."--President Jimmy Carter

The Life and Death of Smallpox

Author: Ian Glynn,Jenifer Glynn

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521845427

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 278

View: 5860

Examines the history and devastating impact of smallpox, the first-ever disease to be eradicated, along with the potential implications of the disease for use in future biological warfare.

The End of a Global Pox

America and the Eradication of Smallpox in the Cold War Era

Author: Bob H. Reinhardt

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469624109

Category: Medical

Page: 288

View: 5703

By the mid-twentieth century, smallpox had vanished from North America and Europe but continued to persist throughout Africa, Asia, and South America. In 1965, the United States joined an international effort to eradicate the disease, and after fifteen years of steady progress, the effort succeeded. Bob H. Reinhardt demonstrates that the fight against smallpox drew American liberals into new and complex relationships in the global Cold War, as he narrates the history of the only cooperative international effort to successfully eliminate a disease. Unlike other works that have chronicled the fight against smallpox by offering a "biography" of the disease or employing a triumphalist narrative of a public health victory, The End of a Global Pox examines the eradication program as a complex exercise of American power. Reinhardt draws on methods from environmental, medical, and political history to interpret the global eradication effort as an extension of U.S. technological, medical, and political power. This book demonstrates the far-reaching manifestations of American liberalism and Cold War ideology and sheds new light on the history of global public health and development.

The Eradication of Infectious Diseases

Author: W. R. Dowdle,Donald Hopkins

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471980896

Category: Medical

Page: 218

View: 5703

In 1993, an International Task Force for Disease Eradication evaluated over 80 potential candidate diseases and made recommendations. However, little has been done to develop the science of eradication systematically. This book reports the findings of a multidisciplinary workshop on the eradication of infectious diseases. It reviews the history of eradication efforts and lessons from previous campaigns and distinguishes among eradication, elimination, and control programs and extinction of an etiologic agent. It addresses a wide range of related issues, including biological and socio-political criteria for eradication, costs and benefits of eradication campaigns, opportunities for strengthening primary health care in the course of eradication efforts, and other aspects of planning and implementing eradication programs. Finally, it stresses the importance of global mechanisms for formulating and implementing such programs.

Disease Eradication in the 21st Century

Implications for Global Health

Author: Stephen L. Cochi,Walter R. Dowdle

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262016737

Category: Medical

Page: 319

View: 9542

Disease eradication represents the ultimate in global equity and the definitiveoutcome of good public health practice. Thirty years ago, the elimination of smallpox defineddisease eradication as a monumental global achievement with lasting benefits for society. Today, theglobal commitment to eradicate polio and guinea worm and heightened interest in the potentialeradication of other infectious diseases, including measles/rubella, lymphatic filariasis,onchocerciasis, and malaria, dominate public health concerns. But what does it take to eradicate adisease? This book takes a fresh look at the evolving concepts of disease eradication, influenced byscientific advances, field experience, societal issues, and economic realities. A diverse group ofexperts from around the world, representing a range of disciplines, examines the biological, social,political, and economic complexities of eradicating a disease. The book details lessons learned fromthe initiatives against polio, measles/rubella, and onchocerciasis. Further chapters examine ethicalissues, the investment case, governance models, organizational and institutional arrangements,political and social factors, feasibility of eradication goals, priority setting, and theintegration of disease eradication programs with existing health systems.

Smallpox: The Death of a Disease

The Inside Story of Eradicating a Worldwide Killer

Author: D. A. Henderson, M.D.

Publisher: Prometheus Books

ISBN: 161592230X

Category: Science

Page: 334

View: 8733

For more than 3000 years, hundreds of millions of people have died or been left permanently scarred or blind by the relentless, incurable disease called smallpox. In 1967, Dr. D.A. Henderson became director of a worldwide campaign to eliminate this disease from the face of the earth. This spellbinding book is Dr. Henderson’s personal story of how he led the World Health Organization’s campaign to eradicate smallpox—the only disease in history to have been deliberately eliminated. Some have called this feat "the greatest scientific and humanitarian achievement of the past century." In a lively, engrossing narrative, Dr. Henderson makes it clear that the gargantuan international effort involved more than straightforward mass vaccination. He and his staff had to cope with civil wars, floods, impassable roads, and refugees as well as formidable bureaucratic and cultural obstacles, shortages of local health personnel and meager budgets. Countries across the world joined in the effort; the United States and the Soviet Union worked together through the darkest cold war days; and professionals from more than 70 nations served as WHO field staff. On October 26, 1976, the last case of smallpox occurred. The disease that annually had killed two million people or more had been vanquished–and in just over ten years. The story did not end there. Dr. Henderson recounts in vivid detail the continuing struggle over whether to destroy the remaining virus in the two laboratories still that held it. Then came the startling discovery that the Soviet Union had been experimenting with smallpox virus as a biological weapon and producing it in large quantities. The threat of its possible use by a rogue nation or a terrorist has had to be taken seriously and Dr. Henderson has been a central figure in plans for coping with it. New methods for mass smallpox vaccination were so successful that he sought to expand the program of smallpox immunization to include polio, measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, and tetanus vaccines. That program now reaches more than four out of five children in the world and is eradicating poliomyelitis. This unique book is to be treasured—a personal and true story that proves that through cooperation and perseverance the most daunting of obstacles can be overcome.

The Greatest Killer

Smallpox in History

Author: Donald R. Hopkins

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226351681

Category: History

Page: 380

View: 2591

Once known as the "great fire" or "spotted death," smallpox has been rivaled only by plague as a source of supreme terror. Although naturally occurring smallpox was eradicated in 1977, recent terrorist attacks in the United States have raised the possibility that someone might craft a deadly biological weapon from stocks of the virus that remain in known or perhaps unknown laboratories. In The Greatest Killer, Donald R. Hopkins provides a fascinating account of smallpox and its role in human history. Starting with its origins 10,000 years ago in Africa or Asia, Hopkins follows the disease through the ancient and modern worlds, showing how smallpox removed or temporarily incapacitated heads of state, halted or exacerbated wars, and devastated populations that had never been exposed to the disease. In Hopkins's history, smallpox was one of the most dangerous-and influential-factors that shaped the course of world events.

Advanced Biology

Author: Michael Kent

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199141951

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 624

View: 5456

Written by an experienced author and teacher of students with a wide range of abilities, Advanced Biology will spark interest and motivate A-Level students.

Public Health 101

Healthy People-Healthy Populations

Author: Richard K. Riegelman

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 9780763760441

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 232

View: 7490

Public Health 101 provides a big-picture, population perspective on the determinants of health and disease and the tools available to protect and promote health. It examines the full range of options for intervention including use of the health care system, the public health system, and society-wide interventions such as laws and taxation.Students will learn how public health affects them in their everyday lives. Using case studies, vignettes, and extensive examples, they will learn and apply frameworks for thinking about the issues of public health. They will gain a deeper understanding about the health news they hear, the web sites they visit, and the research they read.


Author: Tom Ridgway

Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc

ISBN: 9780823933464

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 64

View: 1930

Recounts the history and effects of smallpox outbreaks, describes the effort to develop a vaccine and to eradicate the disease, and discusses the possiblity of its return.


The Once and Future Threat of Smallpox

Author: Jonathan B. Tucker

Publisher: Grove Press

ISBN: 9780802139399

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 1712

A history of one of the world's deadliest diseases traces the influence of smallpox on the course of human civilization, describes Jenner's creation of a vaccine, outlines the World Health Organization's eradication efforts, and discusses the dangers it still poses today as a possible terrorist weapon.

Histories of Health in Southeast Asia

Perspectives on the Long Twentieth Century

Author: Tim Harper,Sunil S. Amrith

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 0253014956

Category: Medical

Page: 264

View: 6202

Health patterns in Southeast Asia have changed profoundly over the past century. In that period, epidemic and chronic diseases, environmental transformations, and international health institutions have created new connections within the region and the increased interdependence of Southeast Asia with China and India. In this volume leading scholars provide a new approach to the history of health in Southeast Asia. Framed by a series of synoptic pieces on the "Landscapes of Health" in Southeast Asia in 1914, 1950, and 2014 the essays interweave local, national, and regional perspectives. They range from studies of long-term processes such as changing epidemics, mortality and aging, and environmental history to detailed accounts of particular episodes: the global cholera epidemic and the hajj, the influenza epidemic of 1918, WWII, and natural disasters. The writers also examine state policy on healthcare and the influence of organizations, from NGOs such as the China Medical Board and the Rockefeller Foundation to grassroots organizations in Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines.


A History

Author: S.L. Kotar,J.E. Gessler

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 0786493275

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 432

View: 9582

Scientifically known as Variola major, the deadliest form of smallpox has plagued mankind since “time immemorial.” This text chronicles the worldwide effects of the killer disease, with particular emphasis on the 19th and 20th centuries, including the devastations of the “speckled disease” during great armed conflicts. Specific attention is paid to the development and utilization of Dr. Edward Jenner’s vaccination, chronicling the anti-vaccination movement, the evolving concept of compulsory vaccination and the global march toward eradication. Legal and moral challenges, the National Vaccine Institute, the treatment of American Indians and African Americans, immigrants, the often bloody quarantine battles, germ warfare, superstitions and home remedies are addressed from the historical perspectives of those who lived through and those who died of this scourge.