The Eradication of Smallpox

Edward Jenner and the First and Only Eradication of a Human Infectious Disease

Author: H. Bazin

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Medical

Page: 246

View: 6110

Simply, and with great humanity, The Eradication of Smallpox tells the story of smallpox - it's origins, the horror of the disease, and the millions of people killed or disfigured by it. During the 18th and 19th centuries, it is estimated that one out of every ten people died from the disease; some say one out of every seven. Smallpox attacked very young children in particular. The story progresses with the practice of variolation, the life of Edward Jenner who first proposed 'vaccination' with cow pox vaccine (little James Phipps was the first person ever vaccinated in this way), the years of debate about the efficacy of this novel method, and the later worldwide initiatives to rid the planet of this horrific disease. In 1979, the story culminates in the only total eradication of an infectious disease that mankind has ever accomplished. This year celebrates the 20th anniversary of this momentous achievement. In the intervening years, debate has raged about what we should do with the remaining smallpox viral stocks. Do we destroy them, so they can't fall into the hands of bioterrorists, or do we maintain them, in case they may be of use in some unexpected way, for therapeutic purposes? These questions are thoroughly discussed in the book. Key Features * Covers the background, history and origin of smallpox, and brings the story up to the present day * Gives full and interesting details of Jenner's life, and tells how this humble country doctor brought about a revolution in vaccination * Includes many quotes from historical figures * Features 120 high quality photographs, many originating from unique historical plates in the author's private collection * Includes new research data * Provides new views on the eradication and destruction of smallpox

House on Fire

The Fight to Eradicate Smallpox

Author: William H. Foege

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520948890

Category: Medical

Page: 240

View: 3472

A story of courage and risk-taking, House on Fire tells how smallpox, a disease that killed, blinded, and scarred millions over centuries of human history, was completely eradicated in a spectacular triumph of medicine and public health. Part autobiography, part mystery, the story is told by a man who was one of the architects of a radical vaccination scheme that became a key strategy in ending the horrible disease when it was finally contained in India. In House on Fire, William H. Foege describes his own experiences in public health and details the remarkable program that involved people from countries around the world in pursuit of a single objective—eliminating smallpox forever. Rich with the details of everyday life, as well as a few adventures, House on Fire gives an intimate sense of what it is like to work on the ground in some of the world’s most impoverished countries—and tells what it is like to contribute to programs that really do change the world.

Expunging Variola

The Control and Eradication of Smallpox in India, 1947-1977

Author: Sanjoy Bhattacharya

Publisher: Orient Blackswan

ISBN: 9788125030188

Category: Medical

Page: 327

View: 4042

As A Crucial Component Of The Global Smallpox Eradication Programme, Which Has Been Widely Hailed As One Of The Greatest Public Health Successes In The Twentieth Century, The Indian Experience Has Some Important Stories To Tell. Expunging Variola Reveals These As It Chronicles The Last Three Decades Of The Anti-Smallpox Campaigns In India.This Wide-Ranging Study, Based On Extensive Archival Research In India, Britain, Switzerland And The United States Of America, Assesses The Many Complexities In The Formulation And Implementation Of The Smallpox Eradication Programme In The Subcontinent. Rather Than Merely Cataloguing The Developments Of This Extremely Complex Exercise Within The World Health Organisation Headquarters In Geneva And The Indian Central Government In New Delhi, This Book Adopts A Much Broader Perspective: It Makes A Conscious Effort To Provide A Detailed View By Including The Accounts Of Who, Governmental And Nongovernmental Personnel On The Ground. In This Manner, Nuanced Descriptions Of Important And Often Controversial Situations Are Provided. Thus, Apart From Acknowledging The Influence Of National-, State- And District-Level Political, Economic And Social Structures In Continually Reshaping The Contours Of The Smallpox Campaigns, This Work Also Emphasises The Crucial Role Played By Field Workers In Implementing And Often Reinterpreting Health Strategies Proposed By Geneva And New Delhi.Original Not Only In Perspective But In Material, Based As It Is On A Wide Range Of Sources Which Have Never Been Exploited By Academics Before, Expunging Variola Breaks New Ground In The Historiography Of Smallpox Eradication In The Subcontinent. The Book Serves As A Companion Volume To Fractured States Which Covers The Period 1800-1947.

Smallpox

The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge

Author: David A. Koplow

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520237322

Category: Medical

Page: 265

View: 578

A former legal advisor to the Pentagon looks at the history of the smallpox virus, providing an informative overview of the political, biological, environmental, medical, and legal issues surrounding the question of whether or not the virus should be exterminated.

The Life and Death of Smallpox

Author: Ian Glynn,Jenifer Glynn

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521845427

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 278

View: 2437

Examines the history and devastating impact of smallpox, the first-ever disease to be eradicated, along with the potential implications of the disease for use in future biological warfare.

Scourge

The Once and Future Threat of Smallpox

Author: Jonathan B. Tucker

Publisher: Grove Press

ISBN: 9780802139399

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 5424

A history of one of the world's deadliest diseases traces the influence of smallpox on the course of human civilization, describes Jenner's creation of a vaccine, outlines the World Health Organization's eradication efforts, and discusses the dangers it still poses today as a possible terrorist weapon.

The Global Eradication of Smallpox

Final Report of the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication, Geneva, December 1979

Author: World Health Organization

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Smallpox

Page: 122

View: 1909

The Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication met in December 1978 to review the program in detail and to advise on subsequent activities and met again in December 1979 to assess progress and to make the final recommendations that are presented in this report. Additionally, the report contains a summary account of the history of smallpox, the clinical, epidemiological, and virological features of the disease, the efforts to control and eradicate smallpox prior to 1966, and an account of the intensified program during the 1967-79 period. The report describes the procedures used for the certification of eradication along with the findings of 21 different international commissions that visited and reviewed programs in 61 countries. These findings provide the basis for the Commission's conclusion that the global eradication of smallpox has been achieved. The Commission also concluded that there is no evidence that smallpox will return as an endemic disease. The overall development and coordination of the intensified program were carried out by a smallpox unit established at the World Health Organization (WHO) headquarters in Geneva, which worked closely with WHO staff at regional offices and, through them, with national staff and WHO advisers at the country level. Earlier programs had been based on a mass vaccination strategy. The intensified campaign called for programs designed to vaccinate at least 80% of the population within a 2-3 year period. During this time, reporting systems and surveillance activities were to be developed that would permit detection and elimination of the remaining foci of the disease. Support was sought and obtained from many different governments and agencies. The progression of the eradication program can be divided into 3 phases: the period between 1967-72 when eradication was achieved in most African countries, Indonesia, and South America; the 1973-75 period when major efforts focused on the countries of the Indian subcontinent; and the 1975-77 period when the goal of eradication was realized in the Horn of Africa. Global Commission recommendations for WHO policy in the post-eradication era include: the discontinuation of smallpox vaccination; continuing surveillance of monkey pox in West and Central Africa; supervision of the stocks and use of variola virus in laboratories; a policy of insurance against the return of the disease that includes thorough investigation of reports of suspected smallpox; the maintenance of an international reserve of freeze-dried vaccine under WHO control; and measures designed to ensure that laboratory and epidemiological expertise in human poxvirus infections should not be dissipated.

The Eradication of Smallpox: Edward Jenner and the First and Only Eradication of a Human Infectious Disease

Author: Herve Bazin

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9781483299846

Category: Medical

Page: 246

View: 6897

Simply, and with great humanity, The Eradication of Smallpox tells the story of smallpox - it's origins, the horror of the disease, and the millions of people killed or disfigured by it. During the 18th and 19th centuries, it is estimated that one out of every ten people died from the disease; some say one out of every seven. Smallpox attacked very young children in particular. The story progresses with the practice of variolation, the life of Edward Jenner who first proposed 'vaccination' with cow pox vaccine (little James Phipps was the first person ever vaccinated in this way), the years of debate about the efficacy of this novel method, and the later worldwide initiatives to rid the planet of this horrific disease. In 1979, the story culminates in the only total eradication of an infectious disease that mankind has ever accomplished. This year celebrates the 20th anniversary of this momentous achievement. In the intervening years, debate has raged about what we should do with the remaining smallpox viral stocks. Do we destroy them, so they can't fall into the hands of bioterrorists, or do we maintain them, in case they may be of use in some unexpected way, for therapeutic purposes? These questions are thoroughly discussed in the book. Key Features * Covers the background, history and origin of smallpox, and brings the story up to the present day * Gives full and interesting details of Jenner's life, and tells how this humble country doctor brought about a revolution in vaccination * Includes many quotes from historical figures * Features 120 high quality photographs, many originating from unique historical plates in the author's private collection * Includes new research data * Provides new views on the eradication and destruction of smallpox

Smallpox: The Death of a Disease

The Inside Story of Eradicating a Worldwide Killer

Author: D. A. Henderson, M.D.

Publisher: Prometheus Books

ISBN: 161592230X

Category: Science

Page: 334

View: 2147

For more than 3000 years, hundreds of millions of people have died or been left permanently scarred or blind by the relentless, incurable disease called smallpox. In 1967, Dr. D.A. Henderson became director of a worldwide campaign to eliminate this disease from the face of the earth. This spellbinding book is Dr. Henderson’s personal story of how he led the World Health Organization’s campaign to eradicate smallpox—the only disease in history to have been deliberately eliminated. Some have called this feat "the greatest scientific and humanitarian achievement of the past century." In a lively, engrossing narrative, Dr. Henderson makes it clear that the gargantuan international effort involved more than straightforward mass vaccination. He and his staff had to cope with civil wars, floods, impassable roads, and refugees as well as formidable bureaucratic and cultural obstacles, shortages of local health personnel and meager budgets. Countries across the world joined in the effort; the United States and the Soviet Union worked together through the darkest cold war days; and professionals from more than 70 nations served as WHO field staff. On October 26, 1976, the last case of smallpox occurred. The disease that annually had killed two million people or more had been vanquished–and in just over ten years. The story did not end there. Dr. Henderson recounts in vivid detail the continuing struggle over whether to destroy the remaining virus in the two laboratories still that held it. Then came the startling discovery that the Soviet Union had been experimenting with smallpox virus as a biological weapon and producing it in large quantities. The threat of its possible use by a rogue nation or a terrorist has had to be taken seriously and Dr. Henderson has been a central figure in plans for coping with it. New methods for mass smallpox vaccination were so successful that he sought to expand the program of smallpox immunization to include polio, measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, and tetanus vaccines. That program now reaches more than four out of five children in the world and is eradicating poliomyelitis. This unique book is to be treasured—a personal and true story that proves that through cooperation and perseverance the most daunting of obstacles can be overcome.

The End of Plagues

The Global Battle Against Infectious Disease

Author: John Rhodes

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 1137381310

Category: Medical

Page: 256

View: 1426

At the turn of the twentieth century, smallpox claimed the lives of two million people per year. By 1979, the disease had been eradicated and victory was declared across the globe. Yet the story of smallpox remains the exception, as today a host of deadly contagions, from polio to AIDS, continue to threaten human health around the world. Spanning three centuries, The End of Plagues weaves together the discovery of vaccination, the birth and growth of immunology, and the fight to eradicate the world's most feared diseases. From Edward Jenner's discovery of vaccination in 1796, to the early nineteenth-century foundling voyages in which chains of orphans, vaccinated one by one, were sent to colonies around the globe, to the development of polio vaccines and the stockpiling of smallpox as a biological weapon in the Cold War, world-renown immunologist John Rhodes charts our fight against these plagues, and shows how vaccinations gave humanity the upper hand. Today, aid groups including the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the World Health Organization have made the eradication of polio a priority, and Rhodes takes us behind the scenes to witness how soon we may be celebrating the eradication of polio.

Disease Eradication in the 21st Century

Implications for Global Health

Author: Stephen L. Cochi,Walter R. Dowdle

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262016737

Category: Medical

Page: 319

View: 6536

Disease eradication represents the ultimate in global equity and the definitive outcome of good public health practice. Thirty years ago, the elimination of smallpox defined disease eradication as a monumental global achievement with lasting benefits for society. Today, the global commitment to eradicate polio and guinea worm and heightened interest in the potential eradication of other infectious diseases, including measles/rubella, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, and malaria, dominate public health concerns. But what does it take to eradicate a disease? This book takes a fresh look at the evolving concepts of disease eradication, influenced by scientific advances, field experience, societal issues, and economic realities. A diverse group of experts from around the world, representing a range of disciplines, examines the biological, social, political, and economic complexities of eradicating a disease. The book details lessons learned from the initiatives against polio, measles/rubella, and onchocerciasis. Further chapters examine ethical issues, the investment case, governance models, organizational and institutional arrangements, political and social factors, feasibility of eradication goals, priority setting, and the integration of disease eradication programs with existing health systems.

The Demon in the Freezer

Author: Richard Preston

Publisher: Fawcett Books

ISBN: 0345466632

Category: Science

Page: 292

View: 1989

Now in paperback--the timely and terrifying investigation into the dark underworld of biological weapons from the #1 "New York Times" bestselling author of "The Hot Zone."

Millions Saved

New Cases of Proven Success in Global Health

Author: Amanda Glassman,Miriam Temin

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 1933286938

Category: Social Science

Page: 300

View: 3390

Over the past fifteen years, people in low- and middle-income countries have experienced a health revolution—one that has created new opportunities and brought new challenges. It is a revolution that keeps mothers and babies alive, helps children grow, and enables adults to thrive. Millions Saved: New Cases of Proven Success in Global Health chronicles the global health revolution from the ground up, showcasing twenty-two local, national, and regional health programs that have been part of this global change. The book profiles eighteen remarkable cases in which large-scale efforts to improve health in low- and middle-income countries succeeded, and four examples of promising interventions that fell short of their health targets when scaled-up in real world conditions. Each case demonstrates how much effort—and sometimes luck—is required to fight illness and sustain good health. The cases are grouped into four main categories, reflecting the diversity of strategies to improve population health in low-and middle-income countries: rolling out medicines and technologies; expanding access to health services; targeting cash transfers to improve health; and promoting population-wide behavior change to decrease risk. The programs covered also come from various regions around the world: seven from sub-Saharan Africa, six from Latin America and the Caribbean, five from East and Southeast Asia, and four from South Asia.

Eradication

Ridding the World of Diseases Forever?

Author: Nancy Leys Stepan

Publisher: Reaktion Books

ISBN: 186189967X

Category: Medical

Page: 312

View: 8586

The dream of a world completely free of disease may seem utopian. Yet eradication, used in its modern sense to mean the reduction of a disease to zero by means of purposeful public health interventions, has been pursued repeatedly. Campaigns against yellow fever, malaria, smallpox, and polio are among the largest, most costly programmes ever undertaken in international public health. Only one so far has been successful - against smallpox in 1980, though eradication campaigns against polio and Guinea Worm Disease are ongoing. Are such programmes, then, worthwhile? Does setting an absolute goal help focus efforts in the health field; or does such a project lead almost inevitably to disappointment? This book surveys the history of eradication, covering all the major eradication campaigns and bringing the story up to date. It bases its narrative on the life and times of an arch-eradicationist, Dr Fred Lowe Soper (1893-1977). Known for his forceful style in public health, and his single-minded dedication to eradication, Soper was at the centre of all the campaigns and controversies surrounding eradication in his lifetime. Eradication is, of course, only one approach to improving people's health. Debates between proponents of Primary Health Care approaches to ill-health versus the eradicationists' approach have often been intense. Nancy Leys Stepan, well-known for her authoritative books in the history of medicine, suggests that today the two approaches may be complementary, rather than incompatible. Eradication is aimed at the general reader interested in the urgent problems of health and disease around the world, as well as specialists in the field.

Viruses, Plagues, and History

Past, Present and Future

Author: Michael B. A. Oldstone M.D.

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199754845

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 6540

The story of viruses and humanity is a story of fear and ignorance, of grief and heartbreak, and of great bravery and sacrifice. Michael Oldstone tells all these stories as he illuminates the history of the devastating diseases that have tormented humanity, focusing mostly on the most famous viruses. Oldstone begins with smallpox, polio, and measles. Nearly 300 million people were killed by smallpox in this century alone and the author presents a vivid account of the long campaign to eradicate this lethal killer. Oldstone then describes the fascinating viruses that have captured headlines in more recent years: Ebola, Hantavirus, mad cow disease (a frightening illness made worse by government mishandling and secrecy), and, of course, AIDS. And he tells us of the many scientists watching and waiting even now for the next great plague, monitoring influenza strains to see whether the deadly variant from 1918--a viral strain that killed over 20 million people in 1918-1919--will make a comeback. For this revised edition, Oldstone includes discussions of new viruses like SARS, bird flu, virally caused cancers, chronic wasting disease, and West Nile, and fully updates the original text with new findings on particular viruses. Viruses, Plagues, and History paints a sweeping portrait of humanity's long-standing conflict with our unseen viral enemies. Oldstone's book is a vivid history of a fascinating field, and a highly reliable dispatch from an eminent researcher on the front line of this ongoing campaign.