The Eradication of Smallpox

Edward Jenner and the First and Only Eradication of a Human Infectious Disease

Author: H. Bazin

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Medical

Page: 246

View: 4333

Simply, and with great humanity, The Eradication of Smallpox tells the story of smallpox - it's origins, the horror of the disease, and the millions of people killed or disfigured by it. During the 18th and 19th centuries, it is estimated that one out of every ten people died from the disease; some say one out of every seven. Smallpox attacked very young children in particular. The story progresses with the practice of variolation, the life of Edward Jenner who first proposed 'vaccination' with cow pox vaccine (little James Phipps was the first person ever vaccinated in this way), the years of debate about the efficacy of this novel method, and the later worldwide initiatives to rid the planet of this horrific disease. In 1979, the story culminates in the only total eradication of an infectious disease that mankind has ever accomplished. This year celebrates the 20th anniversary of this momentous achievement. In the intervening years, debate has raged about what we should do with the remaining smallpox viral stocks. Do we destroy them, so they can't fall into the hands of bioterrorists, or do we maintain them, in case they may be of use in some unexpected way, for therapeutic purposes? These questions are thoroughly discussed in the book. Key Features * Covers the background, history and origin of smallpox, and brings the story up to the present day * Gives full and interesting details of Jenner's life, and tells how this humble country doctor brought about a revolution in vaccination * Includes many quotes from historical figures * Features 120 high quality photographs, many originating from unique historical plates in the author's private collection * Includes new research data * Provides new views on the eradication and destruction of smallpox

House on Fire

The Fight to Eradicate Smallpox

Author: William H. Foege

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520948890

Category: Medical

Page: 240

View: 3215

A story of courage and risk-taking, House on Fire tells how smallpox, a disease that killed, blinded, and scarred millions over centuries of human history, was completely eradicated in a spectacular triumph of medicine and public health. Part autobiography, part mystery, the story is told by a man who was one of the architects of a radical vaccination scheme that became a key strategy in ending the horrible disease when it was finally contained in India. In House on Fire, William H. Foege describes his own experiences in public health and details the remarkable program that involved people from countries around the world in pursuit of a single objective—eliminating smallpox forever. Rich with the details of everyday life, as well as a few adventures, House on Fire gives an intimate sense of what it is like to work on the ground in some of the world’s most impoverished countries—and tells what it is like to contribute to programs that really do change the world.

Expunging Variola

The Control and Eradication of Smallpox in India, 1947-1977

Author: Sanjoy Bhattacharya

Publisher: Orient Blackswan

ISBN: 9788125030188

Category: Medical

Page: 327

View: 4914

As A Crucial Component Of The Global Smallpox Eradication Programme, Which Has Been Widely Hailed As One Of The Greatest Public Health Successes In The Twentieth Century, The Indian Experience Has Some Important Stories To Tell. Expunging Variola Reveals These As It Chronicles The Last Three Decades Of The Anti-Smallpox Campaigns In India.This Wide-Ranging Study, Based On Extensive Archival Research In India, Britain, Switzerland And The United States Of America, Assesses The Many Complexities In The Formulation And Implementation Of The Smallpox Eradication Programme In The Subcontinent. Rather Than Merely Cataloguing The Developments Of This Extremely Complex Exercise Within The World Health Organisation Headquarters In Geneva And The Indian Central Government In New Delhi, This Book Adopts A Much Broader Perspective: It Makes A Conscious Effort To Provide A Detailed View By Including The Accounts Of Who, Governmental And Nongovernmental Personnel On The Ground. In This Manner, Nuanced Descriptions Of Important And Often Controversial Situations Are Provided. Thus, Apart From Acknowledging The Influence Of National-, State- And District-Level Political, Economic And Social Structures In Continually Reshaping The Contours Of The Smallpox Campaigns, This Work Also Emphasises The Crucial Role Played By Field Workers In Implementing And Often Reinterpreting Health Strategies Proposed By Geneva And New Delhi.Original Not Only In Perspective But In Material, Based As It Is On A Wide Range Of Sources Which Have Never Been Exploited By Academics Before, Expunging Variola Breaks New Ground In The Historiography Of Smallpox Eradication In The Subcontinent. The Book Serves As A Companion Volume To Fractured States Which Covers The Period 1800-1947.

The Life and Death of Smallpox

Author: Ian Glynn,Jenifer Glynn

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521845427

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 278

View: 5351

Examines the history and devastating impact of smallpox, the first-ever disease to be eradicated, along with the potential implications of the disease for use in future biological warfare.

Der große Ausbruch

Health, Ealth, and the Origins of Inequality

Author: Angus Deaton

Publisher: Klett-Cotta

ISBN: 3608100741

Category: Political Science

Page: 448

View: 8821

Heute sind die Menschen gesünder, wohlhabender und sie leben länger als früher. Einem Teil der Menschheit ist »Der Große Ausbruch« aus Armut, Not, Krankheit und Entbehrung in Freiheit, Bildung, Demokratie und eine freie globale Weltwirtschaft gelungen. Dennoch nimmt die Ungleichheit zwischen Nationen und Menschen unaufhaltsam zu. Das Opus Magnum des Nobelpreisträgers beschreibt, wie Lebens- und Gesundheitsstandards sich weltweit erhöhen ließen, wenn Aufrichtigkeit und neue Fairness Einzug in die globale Weltwirtschaft hielten. Aus dem »Wohlstand der Nationen« könnte ein Wohlstand aller Nationen werden. Angus Deaton, der Träger des Wirtschaftsnobelpreises 2015, schildert die Geschichte der Weltwirtschaft überraschend neu und anders. Vor 250 Jahren bescherte die Industrielle Revolution Westeuropa und den USA nachhaltigen Aufschwung und wirtschaftlicher Fortschritt, der bis heute andauert. Viele Menschen in Großbritannien, Frankreich, den USA und Deutschland überwanden ihre Armut, eigneten sich Bildung an und gestalteten ihre Staaten freiheitlich und demokratisch um. Aber bereits damals öffnete sich die Kluft zwischen Reich und Arm. Erhellend und eindringlich entwirft der Ökonom ein Panorama überwältigender Entdeckungen und phantastischer Erfindungen: Von der Überwindung von Pest, Cholera und Epidemien, von den Errungenschaften wie Impfungen, Antibiotika, Hygiene, sauberem Trinkwasser und den Erfolgen der modernen Medizin und Technik. Dennoch holen schmerzhafte Rückschläge auch die modernen Gesellschaften – vor allem aber die Ärmsten – immer wieder ein: entsetzliche Hungersnöte, Naturkatastrophen, Drogenhandel, Krebserkrankungen und die AIDS/HIV-Epidemie auf der anderen Seite. Alternativen bieten Reformen: Die Entwicklungs- und Protektionspolitik des Westens sollte eingestellt, jedenfalls grundlegend verändert werden. Dringend müssten die Handelshemmnisse aufgehoben werden, um der ganzen globalisierten Welt ihren eigenen „Großen Ausbruch“ zu eröffnen. Unser Wohlstand ist anfällig; Umdenken und anders Handeln sind dringend erforderlich. Hatten die USA noch vor 20 Jahren einen bis dahin nie gekannten Wohlstand für viele Amerikaner erreicht, wächst das einstige Vorbild der westlichen Welt heute wirtschaftlich schleppend oder gar nicht. Die Ungleichheit unter den Amerikanern hat schlagartig zugenommen. Hingegen hat sich das Wirtschaftswachstum in Indien und China vervielfacht und das Leben von mehr als zwei Milliarden Menschen unvorstellbar verbessert. »Dieses Thema bedarf einer großen Leinwand und eines kühnen Pinselstrichs, und Angus Deaton liefert auf virtuose Weise beides.« The Economist

The End of a Global Pox

America and the Eradication of Smallpox in the Cold War Era

Author: Bob H. Reinhardt

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469624109

Category: Medical

Page: 288

View: 5090

By the mid-twentieth century, smallpox had vanished from North America and Europe but continued to persist throughout Africa, Asia, and South America. In 1965, the United States joined an international effort to eradicate the disease, and after fifteen years of steady progress, the effort succeeded. Bob H. Reinhardt demonstrates that the fight against smallpox drew American liberals into new and complex relationships in the global Cold War, as he narrates the history of the only cooperative international effort to successfully eliminate a disease. Unlike other works that have chronicled the fight against smallpox by offering a "biography" of the disease or employing a triumphalist narrative of a public health victory, The End of a Global Pox examines the eradication program as a complex exercise of American power. Reinhardt draws on methods from environmental, medical, and political history to interpret the global eradication effort as an extension of U.S. technological, medical, and political power. This book demonstrates the far-reaching manifestations of American liberalism and Cold War ideology and sheds new light on the history of global public health and development.

Demosthenes

Author: Ulrich Schindel

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783534057122

Category:

Page: 474

View: 8536


Der junge Stalin

Author: Simon Sebag Montefiore

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 3104029962

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 544

View: 4931

»Eine Art ›Der Pate, Teil 1‹: Wahrscheinlich die größte historische Biographie des Jahres« The Observer Revolutionär, Bankräuber, Dichter, Priesterschüler, Ehemann, Liebhaber, Vater – all dies war der junge Stalin zugleich. Wenig war bisher bekannt über die Jugend und das so außergewöhnliche wie abenteuerliche Leben des späteren Diktators. Der Historiker und Bestsellerautor Simon Sebag Montefiore hat zahllose unbekannte Dokumente zu Tage gefördert und erzählt die packende, bisher ungeschriebene Geschichte des jungen Josef Stalin und wie aus ihm der gefürchtete Diktator und Staatsmann wurde. »Kein Historiker ist Stalin so nah auf die Haut gerückt wie Simon Sebag Montefiore.« Berliner Zeitung

Scourge

The Once and Future Threat of Smallpox

Author: Jonathan B. Tucker

Publisher: Grove Press

ISBN: 9780802139399

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 1337

A history of one of the world's deadliest diseases traces the influence of smallpox on the course of human civilization, describes Jenner's creation of a vaccine, outlines the World Health Organization's eradication efforts, and discusses the dangers it still poses today as a possible terrorist weapon.

Disease Eradication in the 21st Century

Implications for Global Health

Author: Stephen L. Cochi,Walter R. Dowdle

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262016737

Category: Medical

Page: 319

View: 4082

Disease eradication represents the ultimate in global equity and the definitiveoutcome of good public health practice. Thirty years ago, the elimination of smallpox defineddisease eradication as a monumental global achievement with lasting benefits for society. Today, theglobal commitment to eradicate polio and guinea worm and heightened interest in the potentialeradication of other infectious diseases, including measles/rubella, lymphatic filariasis,onchocerciasis, and malaria, dominate public health concerns. But what does it take to eradicate adisease? This book takes a fresh look at the evolving concepts of disease eradication, influenced byscientific advances, field experience, societal issues, and economic realities. A diverse group ofexperts from around the world, representing a range of disciplines, examines the biological, social,political, and economic complexities of eradicating a disease. The book details lessons learned fromthe initiatives against polio, measles/rubella, and onchocerciasis. Further chapters examine ethicalissues, the investment case, governance models, organizational and institutional arrangements,political and social factors, feasibility of eradication goals, priority setting, and theintegration of disease eradication programs with existing health systems.

The Eradication of Infectious Diseases

Author: W. R. Dowdle,Donald Hopkins

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471980896

Category: Medical

Page: 218

View: 2310

In 1993, an International Task Force for Disease Eradication evaluated over 80 potential candidate diseases and made recommendations. However, little has been done to develop the science of eradication systematically. This book reports the findings of a multidisciplinary workshop on the eradication of infectious diseases. It reviews the history of eradication efforts and lessons from previous campaigns and distinguishes among eradication, elimination, and control programs and extinction of an etiologic agent. It addresses a wide range of related issues, including biological and socio-political criteria for eradication, costs and benefits of eradication campaigns, opportunities for strengthening primary health care in the course of eradication efforts, and other aspects of planning and implementing eradication programs. Finally, it stresses the importance of global mechanisms for formulating and implementing such programs.

Smallpox

Author: Jim Ollhoff

Publisher: ABDO

ISBN: 1617143774

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 32

View: 1535

Discusses the history of germs, the different kinds of germs, and how to fight off germs.

The Greatest Killer

Smallpox in History

Author: Donald R. Hopkins

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226351681

Category: History

Page: 380

View: 7507

Once known as the "great fire" or "spotted death," smallpox has been rivaled only by plague as a source of supreme terror. Although naturally occurring smallpox was eradicated in 1977, recent terrorist attacks in the United States have raised the possibility that someone might craft a deadly biological weapon from stocks of the virus that remain in known or perhaps unknown laboratories. In The Greatest Killer, Donald R. Hopkins provides a fascinating account of smallpox and its role in human history. Starting with its origins 10,000 years ago in Africa or Asia, Hopkins follows the disease through the ancient and modern worlds, showing how smallpox removed or temporarily incapacitated heads of state, halted or exacerbated wars, and devastated populations that had never been exposed to the disease. In Hopkins's history, smallpox was one of the most dangerous-and influential-factors that shaped the course of world events.

Smallpox

A History

Author: S.L. Kotar,J.E. Gessler

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 0786493275

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 432

View: 1203

Scientifically known as Variola major, the deadliest form of smallpox has plagued mankind since “time immemorial.” This text chronicles the worldwide effects of the killer disease, with particular emphasis on the 19th and 20th centuries, including the devastations of the “speckled disease” during great armed conflicts. Specific attention is paid to the development and utilization of Dr. Edward Jenner’s vaccination, chronicling the anti-vaccination movement, the evolving concept of compulsory vaccination and the global march toward eradication. Legal and moral challenges, the National Vaccine Institute, the treatment of American Indians and African Americans, immigrants, the often bloody quarantine battles, germ warfare, superstitions and home remedies are addressed from the historical perspectives of those who lived through and those who died of this scourge.

Advanced Biology

Author: Michael Kent

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199141951

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 624

View: 8308

Written by an experienced author and teacher of students with a wide range of abilities, Advanced Biology will spark interest and motivate A-Level students.

Public Health 101

Healthy People-Healthy Populations

Author: Richard K. Riegelman

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 9780763760441

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 232

View: 3184

Public Health 101 provides a big-picture, population perspective on the determinants of health and disease and the tools available to protect and promote health. It examines the full range of options for intervention including use of the health care system, the public health system, and society-wide interventions such as laws and taxation.Students will learn how public health affects them in their everyday lives. Using case studies, vignettes, and extensive examples, they will learn and apply frameworks for thinking about the issues of public health. They will gain a deeper understanding about the health news they hear, the web sites they visit, and the research they read.