Aufklärung jetzt

Für Vernunft, Wissenschaft, Humanismus und Fortschritt. Eine Verteidigung

Author: Steven Pinker

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 3104030685

Category: Philosophy

Page: 736

View: 8992

Eine leidenschaftliche Antithese zum üblichen Kulturpessimismus und ein engagierter Widerspruch zu dem weitverbreiteten Gefühl, dass die Moderne dem Untergang geweiht ist. Hass, Populismus und Unvernunft regieren die Welt, Wissenschaftsfeindlichkeit macht sich breit, Wahrheit gibt es nicht mehr: Wer die Schlagzeilen von heute liest, könnte so denken. Doch Bestseller-Autor Steven Pinker zeigt, dass das grundfalsch ist. Er hat die Entwicklung der vergangenen Jahrhunderte gründlich untersucht und beweist in seiner fulminanten Studie, dass unser Leben stetig viel besser geworden ist. Heute leben wir länger, gesünder, sicherer, glücklicher, friedlicher und wohlhabender denn je, und nicht nur in der westlichen Welt. Der Grund: die Aufklärung und ihr Wertesystem. Denn Aufklärung und Wissenschaft bieten nach wie vor die Basis, um mit Vernunft und im Konsens alle Probleme anzugehen. Anstelle von Gerüchten zählen Fakten, anstatt überlieferten Mythen zu glauben baut man auf Diskussion und Argumente. Anschaulich und brillant macht Pinker eines klar: Vernunft, Wissenschaft, Humanismus und Fortschritt sind weiterhin unverzichtbar für unser Wohlergehen. Ohne sie wird die Welt auf keinen Fall zu einem besseren Ort für uns alle. »Mein absolutes Lieblingsbuch aller Zeiten.« Bill Gates

The Enlightenment

Author: Dorinda Outram

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139620126

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 1145

Debate over the meaning of 'Enlightenment' began in the eighteenth century and still continues to this day. This period saw the opening of arguments on the nature of man, truth, the place of God and the international circulation of ideas, people and gold. But did the Enlightenment mean the same for men and women, for rich and poor, for Europeans and non-Europeans? In the third edition of her acclaimed book, Dorinda Outram addresses these and other questions about the Enlightenment as controversy increases about its place at the foundation of modernity. She studies it as a global phenomenon, setting the period against broader social changes. This new edition offers a new chapter on political economy, a completely revised further reading section and a new feature on electronic sources to stimulate primary research. This accessible overview will be essential reading for students of eighteenth-century history, philosophy and the history of ideas.

The Enlightenment

Author: David Williams

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521564908

Category: History

Page: 529

View: 8653

A major new textbook presenting translated extracts from the writings of major political thinkers of the Enlightenment.

Science in the Enlightenment

An Encyclopedia

Author: William E. Burns

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1576078868

Category: Reference

Page: 355

View: 5778

Provides a look at the studies, innovations, key figures, and controversy in the world of science during the eigteenth-century, discussing astronomy, chemistry, botany, and medicine.

The Enlightenment

Author: Ronald S. Love

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 031334244X

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 1764

One of the few self-named historical movements, the Enlightenment in 18th-century Europe was a powerful intellectual reaction to the dominance of absolutist monarchies and religious authorities. Building upon the discoveries of the Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment thinkers—philosophes—set out to improve humanity through reason, knowledge, and experience of the natural world rather than religious doctrine or moral absolutes. Their emphasis on truth through observable phenomena set the standard of thought for the modern age, deeply influencing the areas of government, the modern state, science, technology, religious tolerance and social structure. The Enlightenment's legacy is particularly visible in the United States, where its ideals inspired a revolution and served as the building blocks for the Declaration of Independence and the American Constitution. Narrative chapters, photos, biographical sketches, primary document excerpts, and an extensive bibliography expand the readers' understanding of the event, providing a current perspective on this key turning point in Western ideology. Comprehensive narrative chapters explore the historical background of the movement, as well as its relationship to nature and natural philosophy, religious belief and church institutions, society and the state, and the French Revolution. Photos, biographical sketches of key figures, excerpts from important primary documents of the time, and an extensive bibliography expand the reader's understanding of the movement that ushered in the modern era.

The Enlightenment

A Very Short Introduction

Author: John Robertson

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199591784

Category: History

Page: 144

View: 1561

A foundational moment in the history of modern European thought, the Enlightenment continues to be a reference point for philosophers, scholars and opinion-formers. To many it remains the inspiration of our commitments to the betterment of the human condition. To others, it represents the elevation of one set of European values to the world, many of whose peoples have quite different values. But what is the relationship between the historical Enlightenment and the idea of 'Enlightenment', and can these two understandings be reconciled? In this Very Short Introduction, John Robertson offers a concise historical introduction to the Enlightenment as an intellectual movement of eighteenth-century Europe. Discussing its intellectual achievements, he also explores how its supporters exploited new ways of communicating their ideas to a wider public, creating a new 'public sphere' for critical discussion of the moral, economic and political issues facing their societies. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

God in the Enlightenment

Author: William J. Bulman,Robert G. Ingram

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190267089

Category: Enlightenment

Page: 344

View: 5571

We have long been taught that the Enlightenment was an attempt to free the world from the clutches of Christian civilization and make it safe for philosophy. The lesson has been well learned. In today's culture wars, both liberals and their conservative enemies, inside and outside the academy, rest their claims about the present on the notion that the Enlightenment was a secularist movement of philosophically driven emancipation. Historians have had doubts about the accuracy of this portrait for some time, but they have never managed to furnish a viable alternative to it-for themselves, for scholars interested in matters of church and state, or for the public at large. In this book, William J. Bulman and Robert G. Ingram bring together recent scholarship from distinguished experts in history, theology, and literature to make clear that God not only survived the Enlightenment but thrived within it as well. The Enlightenment was not a radical break from the past in which Europeans jettisoned their intellectual and institutional inheritance. It was, to be sure, a moment of great change, but one in which the characteristic convictions and traditions of the Renaissance and Reformation were perpetuated to the point of transformation, in the wake of the Wars of Religion and during the early phases of globalization. The Enlightenment's primary imperatives were not freedom and irreligion but peace and prosperity. As a result, Enlightenment could be Christian, communitarian, or authoritarian as easily as it could be atheistic, individualistic, or libertarian. Honing in on the intellectual crisis of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries while moving from Spinoza to Kant and from India to Peru, God in the Enlightenment takes a prism to the age of lights.

The Enlightenment

A Revolution in Reason

Author: Patrice Sherman

Publisher: Teacher Created Materials

ISBN: 9781433350139

Category: History

Page: 32

View: 6703

How did the universe work? How did the human mind learn? What kind of government was best? These are some of the questions that people asked during the Age of Ideas, or the Enlightenment. Readers will learn about some of the most important aspects, ideas, and people of this time, including John Locke, David Hume, Voltaire, Copernicus, and Romanticism. Through intriguing facts and engaging sidebars, readers will also discover the incredible outcomes of the Scientific Revolution and how scientists like Galileo, Isaac Newton, and Johannes Keplar changed the way people see the world! The colorful images and supportive text work together to help readers understand the major impact the French Revolution had on the French people, as well as the influence it had on the American Revolution.

The Enlightenment

A Beginner's Guide

Author: Kieron O'Hara

Publisher: Oneworld Publications

ISBN: 1780741537

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 1168

Blamed for the disasters of the 20th century: Auschwitz, globalisation, Islamic terrorism; heralded as the harbinger of reason, equality, and the end of arbitrary rule, the Enlightenment has been nothing if not divisive. To this day historians disagree over when, where, and what it was (and sometimes, still is). Kieron O’Hara brings to life the history, politics, science, religion, arts, and social life of the Enlightenment and shows how it spawned some of the brightest thinkers in the history of humankind, from the radical Rousseau to the conservative Burke. Dr Kieron O’Hara is a Senior Researcher at Southampton University, UK

The Enlightenment

A Genealogy

Author: Dan Edelstein

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226184494

Category: History

Page: 209

View: 6213

What was the Enlightenment? Though many scholars have attempted to solve this riddle, none has made as much use of contemporary answers as Dan Edelstein does here. In seeking to recover where, when, and how the concept of “the Enlightenment” first emerged, Edelstein departs from genealogies that trace it back to political and philosophical developments in England and the Dutch Republic. According to Edelstein, by the 1720s scholars and authors in France were already employing a constellation of terms—such as l’esprit philosophique—to describe what we would today call the Enlightenment. But Edelstein argues that it was within the French Academies, and in the context of the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns, that the key definition, concepts, and historical narratives of the Enlightenment were crafted. A necessary corrective to many of our contemporary ideas about the Enlightenment, Edelstein’s book turns conventional thinking about the period on its head. Concise, clear, and contrarian, The Enlightenment will be welcomed by all teachers and students of the period.

Origins and the Enlightenment

Aesthetic Epistemology from Descartes to Kant

Author: Catherine Labio

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801442759

Category: Philosophy

Page: 193

View: 3632

What epistemic assumptions framed eighteenth-century thinkers' speculations regarding origins? What, if anything, connected these speculations? The best way to understand the Enlightenment's obsession with origins is to study it in conjunction with the contemporary conceptualization of originality as a criterion of aesthetic value, Catherine Labio maintains. Her expansive survey of the era's thought places special emphasis on epistemology and is genuinely interdisciplinary, drawing on such fields as anthropology, geometry, historiography, literary criticism, and political economy. One of the most striking facets of Enlightenment thought, according to Labio, is the emergence of aesthetics as a master discourse that enabled its users to make sense of worlds ostensibly unrelated to the arts. In particular, once knowledge became defined as knowledge of things made by human beings, originality became valued not only for its novelty but also as a guarantee of epistemological certainty.Labio analyzes the views held by a variety of European thinkers—including Baumgarten, Condillac, Descartes, Kant, Locke, Rousseau, Adam Smith, Vico, and Edward Young—on the origins of ideas, languages, nations, nature, and wealth. Throughout, the author deals with a wide range of primary and secondary materials.

The Enlightenment

A Sourcebook and Reader

Author: Paul Hyland,Olga Gomez,Francesca Greensides

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415204491

Category: History

Page: 467

View: 8007

The Enlightenment brings together the work of major Enlightenment thinkers such as Hobbes, Rousseau, Diderot and Kant, to illustrate the full importance and achievements of this period in history. Extracts are gathered thematically into sections on such aspects of the Enlightenment as: political theory religion and belief art and nature. All essays are introduced, and a final section on 'critical reflections' provides a selection of modern critical opinions on the period by writers including Foucault, Habermas, and Lyotard. Containing illustrations from the work of artists such as Hogarth and Gainsborough, a chronology of the Enlightenment, and a detailed bibliography, The Enlightenment is a rich source of information and inspiration for all those studying this great period of change.

Historical Dictionary of the Enlightenment

Author: Harvey Chisick

Publisher: Scarecrow Press

ISBN: 9780810865488

Category: History

Page: 552

View: 3915

The Enlightenment Movement changed society forever, driving it forward through new and fresh ways of thinking about science, religion, history, politics, and culture. This dictionary offers a balanced overview and helps us to understand and appreciate the Enlightenment through its coverage of the basic assumptions and values that structured the movement; explanation of how these ideas were articulated; the paths of communication they followed; how its key ideas grew, developed and were refracted; and how new problems grew out of what were advanced as solutions to older problems. An engaging introductory essay along with hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries defines the significant persons, places, events, institutions, and literary works of the movement. A chronological table charts the progression of the movement by indicating the date, the main figures involved, the political or society events, and the science, arts, or letters that resulted. The comprehensive bibliography, with an introductory essay to the literature, categorized by subject complements this reference that will be valued by all seeking basic details about this important period.

Panorama of the Enlightenment

Author: Dorinda Outram

Publisher: Getty Publications

ISBN: 9780892368617

Category: History

Page: 319

View: 9253

Presents a comprehensive overview of the Enlightenment, discussing the intellectuals of the period who promoted the scientific method of investigation and explored such topics as nature, the universe, the human mind, the rights of women, and medicine.

Descartes and the Enlightenment

Author: Peter A. Schouls

Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP

ISBN: 077356408X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 216

View: 2430

Schouls limits himself to a discussion of these three concepts in order to escape facile and vague generalizations. For the same reason, in relating Descartes to eighteenth-century thinkers, Schouls limits his attention to a single part of the spectrum of acknowledged Enlightenment reflection, the French "philosopes." From their writings he demonstrates that they are, and acknowledge themselves to be, Descartes' progeny.

The Philosophy of the Enlightenment

Author: Ernst Cassirer

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691019635

Category: Philosophy

Page: 366

View: 7542

The present book aims to be both more and less than a monograph on the philosophy of the Enlightenment. It is much less, for the primary task of such monograph would be to offer the reader a wealth of detail and to trace the genesis and development of all the special problems of this philosophy.

Radikalaufklärung

Author: Jonathan I. Israel,Martin Mulsow

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518798103

Category: Political Science

Page: 277

View: 9610

Seit einem Jahrzehnt gibt es eine intensive Forschung zur »Radikalaufklärung« – dem atheistischen, skeptischen und materialistischen Flügel des Denkens im späten 17. und 18. Jahrhundert. Vor allem Jonathan Israel hat für die aufregende These argumentiert, dass diese radikalen Aufklärer verantwortlich sind für die Errungenschaften der Moderne, für Freiheit und Menschenrechte, Gleichheit und Toleranz, und dass der Spinozismus eine zentrale Rolle bei deren Durchsetzung gespielt hat. In diesem Band setzen sich acht führende nationale und internationale Experten mit Israels These auseinander und zeigen die Vielfalt und Deutungen der Radikalaufklärung auf. Mit Beiträgen von Silvia Berti, Wiep van Bunge, Margaret C. Jacob, Anthony McKenna u. a.

Benedict XIV and the Enlightenment

Art, Science, and Spirituality

Author: Rebecca Messbarger,Christopher Johns,Philip Gavitt

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442624752

Category: History

Page: 536

View: 8949

Benedict XIV and the Enlightenment offers a comprehensive assessment of Benedict's engagement with Enlightenment art, science, spirituality, and culture.

The Enlightenment

Author: Norman Hampson

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141937130

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 7373

Armed with the insights of the scientific revolution, the men of the Enlightenment set out to free mankind from its age-old cocoon of pessimism and superstition and establish a more reasonable world of experiment and progress. Yet by the 1760s, this optimism about man and society had almost evaporated. In the works of Rousseau, Kant and Goethe, there was discernible a new inner voice, and an awareness of individual uniqueness which had eluded their more self-confident predecessors. The stage was set for the revolutionary crisis and the rise of Romanticism. In this book, Norman Hampson follows through certain dominant themes in the Enlightenment, and describes the contemporary social and political climate, in which ideas could travel from the salons of Paris to the court of Catherine the Great - but less easily from a master to his servant. On such vexed issues as the role of ideas in the "rise of the middle class" he provides a new and realistic approach linking intellectual and social history.