The Culture of Control

Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society

Author: David Garland

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226283845

Category: Law

Page: 307

View: 4170

The United States and the United Kingdom have both become nations of stringent social control, from rapidly growing prison populations to ever increasing surveillance, curtailment of civil liberties, and restriction of the underclass. The Culture of control charts the evolution of this approach to law and order--politically, legally, and in terms of the average citizen's view of criminal "others" and their civil liberties.

Criminology and Social Theory

Author: David Garland,Richard Sparks

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198299424

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 6652

In this unique collection, a distinguished group of social theorists reflect upon the ways in which crime and its control feature in the political and cultural landscapes of contemporary societies. The book brings together for the first time some of today's most powerful social analysts in a discussion of the meaning of crime and punishment in late-modern society. The result is a stimulating and provocative volume that will be of equal interest to specialist criminologists and those working in the fields of social and cultural studies.

Unusually Cruel

Prisons, Punishment, and the Real American Exceptionalism

Author: Marc Morjé Howard

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019065936X

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 9640

The United States incarcerates far more people than any other country in the world, at rates nearly ten times higher than other liberal democracies. Indeed, while the U.S. is home to 5 percent of the world's population, it contains nearly 25 percent of its prisoners. But the extent of American cruelty goes beyond simply locking people up. At every stage of the criminal justice process-plea bargaining, sentencing, prison conditions, rehabilitation, parole, and societal reentry-the U.S. is harsher and more punitive than other comparable countries. In Unusually Cruel, Marc Morjé Howard argues that the American criminal justice and prison systems are exceptional-in a truly shameful way. Although other scholars have focused on the internal dynamics that have produced this massive carceral system, Howard provides the first sustained comparative analysis that shows just how far the U.S. lies outside the norm of established democracies. And, by highlighting how other countries successfully apply less punitive and more productive policies, he provides plausible solutions to addressing America's criminal justice quagmire.

Punishment and Modern Society

A Study in Social Theory

Author: David Garland

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226922502

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 7732

In this path-breaking book, David Garland argues that punishment is a complex social institution that affects both social relations and cultural meanings. Drawing on theorists from Durkheim to Foucault, he insightfully critiques the entire spectrum of social thought concerning punishment, and reworks it into a new interpretive synthesis. "Punishment and Modern Society is an outstanding delineation of the sociology of punishment. At last the process that is surely the heart and soul of criminology, and perhaps of sociology as well—punishment—has been rescued from the fringes of these 'disciplines'. . . . This book is a first-class piece of scholarship."—Graeme Newman, Contemporary Sociology "Garland's treatment of the theorists he draws upon is erudite, faithful and constructive. . . . Punishment and Modern Society is a magnificent example of working social theory."—John R. Sutton, American Journal of Sociology "Punishment and Modern Society lifts contemporary penal issues from the mundane and narrow contours within which they are so often discussed and relocates them at the forefront of public policy. . . . This book will become a landmark study."—Andrew Rutherford, Legal Studies "This is a superbly intelligent study. Its comprehensive coverage makes it a genuine review of the field. Its scholarship and incisiveness of judgment will make it a constant reference work for the initiated, and its concluding theoretical synthesis will make it a challenge and inspiration for those undertaking research and writing on the subject. As a state-of-the-art account it is unlikely to be bettered for many a year."—Rod Morgan, British Journal of Criminology Winner of both the Outstanding Scholarship Award of the Crime and Delinquency Division of the Society for the Study of Social Problems and the Distinguished Scholar Award from the American Sociological Association's Crime, Law, and Deviance Section

Police Culture in a Changing World

Author: Bethan Loftus

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191629723

Category: Law

Page: 258

View: 7290

This fascinating new title offers an ethnographical investigation of contemporary police culture based on extensive field work across a range of ranks and units in the UK's police force. By drawing on over 600 hours of direct observation of operational policing in urban and rural areas and interviews with over 60 officers, the author assesses what impact three decades of social, economic and political change have had on police culture. She offers new understandings of the policing of ethnicity, gender and sexuality, and the ways in which reform initiatives are accommodated and resisted within the police. The author also explores the attempts of one force to effect cultural change both to improve the working conditions of staff and to deliver a more effective and equitable service to all groups in society. Beginning with a review of the literature on police culture from 30 years ago, the author goes on to outline the new social, economic and political field of contemporary British policing. Taking this as a starting point, the remaining chapters present the main findings of the empirical research in what is a a truly comprehensive analysis of present day policing culture.

Bouncers

Violence and Governance in the Night-time Economy

Author: Dick Hobbs

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199252244

Category: Law

Page: 323

View: 3003

In recent years, the expansion of night-time leisure has emerged as a key indicator of post-industrial urban prosperity, attracting investment, creating employment, and re-generating the built environment. These leisure economies are youth-dominated, focusing upon the sale and consumption of alcohol. Unprecedented numbers of young people now flock to town centres that are crammed with bars, pubs, and clubs, and the resulting violent disorder has over run police resources that remain geared to the drinking patterns and alcohol cultures of previous generations. Post-industrial re-structuring has spawned an increasingly complex mass of night-time leisure options through which numerous licit and illicit commercial opportunities flow. Yet, regardless of the fashionable and romantic notions of many contemporary urban theorists, it is alcohol, mass intoxication, and profit rather than 'cultural regeneration,' which lies at the heart of this rapidly expanding dimension of post-industrial urbanism. Private security in the bulky form of bouncers fills the void left by the public police. These men (only 7% are women), whose activities are barely regulated by the State, are dominated by a powerful subculture rooted in routine violence and intimidation. Using ethnography, participant observation, and extensive interviews with all the main players, this controversial book charts the emergence of the bouncer as one of the most graphic symbols in the iconography of post-industrial Britain.

Policing the Waterfront

Networks, Partnerships, and the Governance of Port Security

Author: Russell Brewer

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191511250

Category: Law

Page: 272

View: 7676

Long recognised as a site where criminal elements have flourished, the waterfront has been exploited for centuries by opportunistic individuals for a whole raft of illicit purposes. Policing the Waterfront: Networks, Partnerships, and the Governance of Port Security is the first book of its kind to fully explore the intricacies of how crime is controlled on the waterfront, and in doing so, seeks to enhance current theoretical understandings of the policing partnerships that exist between state and non-state actors. Charting the complex configuration of security networks using a range of analytical techniques, this book presents new empirical data, which exposes and explains the social structures that enable policing partnerships to function on the waterfront. Particularly striking is the use of enhanced and adjusted theoretical discussions, to both shape and develop previous policing and security debates - resulting in a work that is both innovative and, yet, still routed in the traditions of empirical research. The analysis is achieved through a comparative research design, evaluating the narratives of both state and non-state security providers at the busiest ports in America and Australia: the Los Angeles/Long Beach Port Complex and the Port of Melbourne. Policing the Waterfront presents a rich and highly original account of the underlying structures that foster, facilitate, and enhance policing partnerships on the waterfront, and will be of interest to scholars in the fields of criminology, sociology, law, socio-legal and policy studies, as well as those researching and studying policing, regulation, security, mass transportation, and social capital.

Sentencing Policy and Social Justice

Author: Ralph Henham

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191029041

Category: Law

Page: 320

View: 1739

Sentencing Policy and Social Justice argues that the promotion of social justice should become a key objective of sentencing policy, advancing the argument that the legitimacy of sentencing ultimately depends upon the strength of the relationship between social morality and penal ideology. It sheds light on how shared moral values can influence sentencing policy at a time when relationships of community appear increasingly fragmented, arguing that sentencing will be better placed to make a positive contribution to social justice if it becomes more sensitive to the commonly-accepted moral boundaries that underpin adherence to the 'rule of law'. The need to reflect public opinion in sentencing has received significant attention more recently, with renewed interest in jury sentencing, 'stakeholder sentencing', and the involvement of community views when regulating policy. The author, however, advocates a different approach, combining a new theoretical focus with practical suggestions for reform, and arguing that the contribution sentencing can make to social justice necessitates a fundamental change in the way shared values about the advantages of punishment are reflected in penal ideology and sentencing policy. Using examples from international, comparative and domestic contexts to advance the moral and ethical case for challenging the existing theories of sentencing, the book develops the author's previous theoretical ideas and outlines how these changes could be given practical shape within the context of sentencing in England and Wales. It assesses the consequences for penal governance due to increased state regulation of discretionary sentencing power and examines the prospects for achieving the kind of moral transformation regarded as necessary to reverse such a move. To illustrate these issues each chapter focuses on a particularly problematic area for contemporary sentencing policy; namely, the sentencing of women; the sentencing of irregular migrants; sentencing for offences of serious public disorder; and sentencing for financial crime.

The politics of crime control

essays in honour of David Downes

Author: Tim Newburn,Paul Elliott Rock,David M. Downes

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 333

View: 8913

This book brings together ten leading British criminologists to explore the contemporary politics of crime and its control. The volume is produced in honour of Britain's most important criminological scholar - David Downes, of the London School of Economics. The essays are grouped around the three major themes that run through David Downes' work - sociological theory, crime and deviance; comparative penal policy; and, the politics of crime. The third theme also provides the overarching unifying thread for the volume. The contributions are broad ranging and cover such subjects as criminological theory and the new East End of London, the practice of comparative criminology including an analysis of variations in penal cultures within the United States, restorative justice in Colombia, New Labour's politics and policy in relation to dangerous personality-disordered offenders, the legal construction of torture, and the future for a social democratic criminology.

Social Order and the Fear of Crime in Contemporary Times

Author: Stephen D. Farrall,Jonathan Jackson,Emily Gray

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199540810

Category: Law

Page: 319

View: 4394

The fear of crime has been recognized as an important social problem, affecting a significant number of people. In this book, the authors review the findings from over 35 years of research into attitudes to crime and propose a new model, separating those who only 'expressively' fear crime from those who have actual experience of worrying about it.

Taking Care of Business

Police Detectives, Drug Law Enforcement and Proactive Investigation

Author: Matthew Bacon

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191511218

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 3504

Taking Care of Business: Police Detectives, Drug Law Enforcement and Proactive Investigation offers a rich and insightful empirical study of drug investigations, based on extensive fieldwork undertaken with the specialist detective units of two English police services. It fills a significant gap in criminological literature by providing a timely and thought-provoking ethnography of detective culture, investigative practice, and drug law enforcement. Drawing on data collected from over five hundred hours of direct observation of ordinary police work, both on and off the streets, the chapters are skilfully interwoven with fieldnotes, informal conversations, interviews and analysis of official documents. Taken together, they explore how police officers perceive the drug world and their role in it, translate policy from its written form into action, and utilise intelligence-led policing strategies to instigate covert operations and make cases. There is in-depth examination of the everyday realities of the 'war on drugs', alongside the associated working rules, tacit understandings and underlying assumptions that operate behind the public face of police organizations. The book also critically examines the most pertinent legislative initiatives, organizational reforms, and shifts in thinking concerning the values, objectives and norms of policing that have occurred over recent decades, which, between them, have contributed to significant changes in the ways that detectives are trained and investigations are controlled and carried out. With highly salient insights regarding operational policing and drug control policy in the current social, economic and political climate, Taking Care of Business is a compelling and important work on contemporary criminal investigation and the policing of drugs. It will be of interest to scholars of criminology, sociology, law, and policy studies, especially those researching and studying policing, regulation, surveillance, drug control policy and the informal economy, as well as policymakers, police practitioners, and criminal justice professionals.

Criminal Lives

Family Life, Employment, and Offending

Author: Barry S. Godfrey,David J. Cox,Stephen Farrall

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 213

View: 351

This text examines the history of crime and uses historical data to analyse modern criminological debates. Drawing on criminology, history, and social policy, the book addresses important issues about offenders' persistence in crime, and questions the current theoretical framework used to explain offending patterns.

Slim's Table

Race, Respectability, and Masculinity

Author: Mitchell Duneier

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022641356X

Category: Social Science

Page: 200

View: 9766

At the Valois "See Your Food" cafeteria on Chicago's South Side, black and white men gather over cups of coffee and steam-table food. Mitchell Duneier, a sociologist, spent four years at the Valois writing this moving profile of the black men who congregate at "Slim's Table." Praised as "a marvelous study of those who should not be forgotten" by the Wall Street Journal,Slim's Table helps demolish the narrow sociological picture of black men and simple media-reinforced stereotypes. In between is a "respectable" citizenry, too often ignored and little understood. "Slim's Table is an astonishment. Duneier manages to fling open windows of perception into what it means to be working-class black, how a caring community can proceed from the most ordinary transactions, all the while smashing media-induced stereotypes of the races and race relations."—Citation for Chicago Sun Times Chicago Book of the Year Award "An instant classic of ethnography that will provoke debate and provide insight for years to come."—Michael Eric Dyson, Chicago Tribune "Mr. Duneier sees the subjects of his study as people and he sees the scale of their lives as fully human, rather than as diminished versions of grander lives lived elsewhere by people of another color. . . . A welcome antidote to trends in both journalism and sociology."—Roger Wilkins, New York Times Book Review

The Behavior of Law

Author: Donald Black

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing

ISBN: 0857243411

Category: Philosophy

Page: 203

View: 8514

Hailed as one of the most important works in the history of sociology, and a precursor to the revolutionary theoretical approach of pure sociology, this short and lucid book is as relevant today as when it was first published in 1976. To honour this seminal book, Emerald is pleased to announce that it will publish a special edition of The Behavior of Law, including a number of additional features: bull; A new foreword from Mark Cooney bull; An interview with the author, entitled 'How Law Behaves' bull; Reflections from a number of prominent sociologists on The Behavior of Law's impact over the last thirty years. bull; An author profile written by Randall Collins

Crime and Markets

Essays in Anti-criminology

Author: Vincenzo Ruggiero

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199248117

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

View: 9999

Whereas conventional analysis of criminal behaviour highlights social disadvantage, unemployment or lack of resources, this text develops the argument that abundance of opportunities and resources may lead to specific forms of criminality.

Getting Out

Early Release in England and Wales, 1960 - 1995

Author: Thomas Guiney

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198803683

Category: Law

Page: 320

View: 1847

Getting Out: Early Release in England and Wales, 1960-1995 explores the evolution of early release in England and Wales between 1960-1995. In recent years crime has become a highly contested political issue with implications for the humanity, fairness and effectiveness of the criminal justice system. This book turns current crime debate on its head and examines the circumstances in which politicians and policy-makers have found it desirable to reduce the custodial element of a prison sentence and encourage the rehabilitation of offenders in the community. Drawing upon a period of detailed archival research this book considers three critical moments of reform which have helped to shape the historical evolution of this secretive and little understood area of public policy. It argues that early release has always been bound up with prevailing societal justifications for punishment and the appropriate use of imprisonment within our liberal democratic system. It draws attention to the uneasy constitutional balance of power between the judiciary and the executive, and reflects upon the administrative task of governing large captive populations where the hopes and expectations of inmates do not always align with the interests of prison authorities or the community at large. Getting Out: Early Release in England and Wales, 1960-1995 This book challenges widespread assumptions about policy change and shows how the historical evolution of parole in England and Wales was shaped, to a significant degree, by the legacy of past political choices and the fluid balance of power within government.

Making Sense of Penal Change

Author: Tom Daems

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780199559787

Category: Law

Page: 320

View: 8487

This book reviews the literature on contemporary punishment and examines the approaches of four leading scholars to questions of penal change, analysing the relationship between their roles as scholars in an academic environment and as citizens in a political community.

Victims, Crime and Society

An Introduction

Author: Pamela Davies,Peter Francis,Chris Greer

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1473910919

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 7042

This book provides a thorough account of victimisation across the social spectrum of class, race, age and gender. The second edition has been fully revised and expanded, with two parts now spanning the key perspectives and issues in victimology. Covering theoretical, social and political contexts, the book: Includes new chapters on defining and constructing victims, fear and vulnerability, sexuality, white collar crime and the implications of crime policy on victims Examines a global range of historical and theoretical perspectives in victimology and features a new chapter on researching victims of crime Reinforces your learning through critical thinking sections, future research suggestions, chapter summaries and a glossary of key terms Now includes a companion website, complete with links to relevant journal articles in victimology. Victims, Crime and Society is the essential text for your studies in victimology across criminology, criminal justice, community safety, youth justice and related areas.

Prisons and the Problem of Order

Author: Richard Sparks,A. E. Bottoms,Will Hay

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198258186

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 3320

This book presents a substantial new statement on the character of social life in confinement. Drawing upon extensive fieldwork in two contrasting English maximum security prisons, the authors systematically compare their institutional order, including the differing control strategies deployed in each, as seen by both custodians and captives, controllers and controlled. The authors discuss the implications of their research for the tradition of sociological concern within the`prison community'. They re-examine the resources of that rich but latterly somewhat dormant field in the light of some of the main currents in contemporary social theory, and thereby provide a new perspective on the `problem of order' in maximum custody. This book will have significant policy implications, and it will be required reading for scholars and students in criminology and criminal justice, as well as for administrators and reformers in penal system.