This series of short texts provides accessible accounts of a range of essential topics in chemistry and chemical engineering. Written with the needs of the student in mind, the Oxford Chemistry Primers offer just the right level of detail for undergraduate study, and will be invaluable as a source of material commonly presented in lecture courses yet not adequately covered in existing texts. All the basic principles and facts in a particular area are presented in a clear and straightforward style, to produce concise yet comprehensive accounts of topics covered in both core and specialist courses. Catalysis is one of the most important technologies in our modern world. We depend on it to, produce materials, such as plastics, from oil; we depend on it to produce fuel to power cars and to remove the pollutants emitted from car engines; we even depend on it for the functioning and growth of our bodies. This book concentrates on the most important type of catalysis for industry, namely heterogeneous catalysis. The book is divided into three sections, dealing with the fundamentals of adsorption and reaction at surfaces, the nature of heterogeneous catalysts and their synthesis, and the applications of this technology in the modern world. The Basis and Applications of Heterogeneous Catalysis will be useful for teachers, undergraduates, and as an introductory book for graduates specializing in catalysis and surface science.
Author: Michael Bowker
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Increasing concern about pollution, our health, and our safety has increased our tendency to monitor all aspects of our environment. In the future portable sensing systems will be available to monitor almost everything of interest to us. The heart of these sensing systems will be chemical sensors - devices which detect and measure very small amounts of chemicals. Assuming no prior knowledge of chemistry, this book explains in a clear and concise manner how these devices work.
Author: Robert W. Cattrall
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Category: Technology & Engineering
Focusing on today's major fuel resources – ethanol, biodiesel, wood, natural gas, petroleum products and coal – this book discusses the formation, composition and properties of the fuels, and the ways in which they are processed for commercial use. It examines the origin of fuels through natural processes such as photosynthesis and the geological transformation of ancient plant material; the relationships between their composition, molecular structures and physical properties; and the various processes by which they are converted or refined into the fuel products appearing on today's market. Fundamental chemical aspects such as catalysis and the behaviour of reactive intermediates are presented and global warming and anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are also discussed. The book is ideal for graduate students in energy engineering, chemical engineering, mechanical engineering and chemistry, as well as professional scientists and engineers.
Author: Harold Schobert
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
The principle of local activity explains the emergence of complex patterns in a homogeneous medium. At first defined in the theory of nonlinear electronic circuits in a mathematically rigorous way, it can be generalized and proven at least for the class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems in physics, chemistry, biology, and brain research. Recently, it was realized by memristors for nanoelectronic device applications. In general, the emergence of complex patterns and structures is explained by symmetry breaking in homogeneous media, which is caused by local activity. This book argues that the principle of local activity is really fundamental in science, and can even be identified in quantum cosmology as symmetry breaking of local gauge symmetries generating the complexity of matter and forces in our universe. Applications are considered in economic, financial, and social systems with the emergence of equilibrium states, symmetry breaking at critical points of phase transitions and risky acting at the edge of chaos./a
Author: Mainzer Klaus,Chua Leon O
Publisher: World Scientific
This book describes the principal physico-chemical techniques for characterising the catalysts used in searching for new active phases, optimising the formulation and monitoring industrial production. Based on courses given at the Institut Francias du Peole for research technicians in the fields of kinetics and catalysis, this book covers useful basic theory and provides numerous examples of industrial applications. This guide is an essential companion for technicians and chemical engineers whose work requires an understanding of the fields of application, including the capabilities and the limits of today's complex characterisation techniques.Contents: Introduction. 1. Textural characterisation of catalysts. 2. Atomic absorption spectrometry. 3. Atomic emission spectroscopy. 4. X-ray fluorescence. 5. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. 6. Ion impact analysis. 7. Scanning electron microscopy. 8. Elemental analysis in the electron microprobe. 9. Transmission electron microscopy. 10. X-ray diffraction and small-angle scattering. 11. Exafs. 12. Infrared absorption spectrometry. 13. Nuclear magnetic resonance. 14. Thermal analysis methods. Index
A Practical Guide to Characterisation
Author: John Lynch
Publisher: Editions TECHNIP
Category: Technology & Engineering
From the Introduction: Nanotechnology and its underpinning sciences are progressing with unprecedented rapidity. With technical advances in a variety of nanoscale fabrication and manipulation technologies, the whole topical area is maturing into a vibrant field that is generating new scientific research and a burgeoning range of commercial applications, with an annual market already at the trillion dollar threshold. The means of fabricating and controlling matter on the nanoscale afford striking and unprecedented opportunities to exploit a variety of exotic phenomena such as quantum, nanophotonic and nanoelectromechanical effects. Moreover, researchers are elucidating new perspectives on the electronic and optical properties of matter because of the way that nanoscale materials bridge the disparate theories describing molecules and bulk matter. Surface phenomena also gain a greatly increased significance; even the well-known link between chemical reactivity and surface-to-volume ratio becomes a major determinant of physical properties, when it operates over nanoscale dimensions. Against this background, this comprehensive work is designed to address the need for a dynamic, authoritative and readily accessible source of information, capturing the full breadth of the subject. Its six volumes, covering a broad spectrum of disciplines including material sciences, chemistry, physics and life sciences, have been written and edited by an outstanding team of international experts. Addressing an extensive, cross-disciplinary audience, each chapter aims to cover key developments in a scholarly, readable and critical style, providing an indispensible first point of entry to the literature for scientists and technologists from interdisciplinary fields. The work focuses on the major classes of nanomaterials in terms of their synthesis, structure and applications, reviewing nanomaterials and their respective technologies in well-structured and comprehensive articles with extensive cross-references. It has been a constant surprise and delight to have found, amongst the rapidly escalating number who work in nanoscience and technology, so many highly esteemed authors willing to contribute. Sharing our anticipation of a major addition to the literature, they have also captured the excitement of the field itself in each carefully crafted chapter. Along with our painstaking and meticulous volume editors, full credit for the success of this enterprise must go to these individuals, together with our thanks for (largely) adhering to the given deadlines. Lastly, we record our sincere thanks and appreciation for the skills and professionalism of the numerous Elsevier staff who have been involved in this project, notably Fiona Geraghty, Megan Palmer and Greg Harris, and especially Donna De Weerd-Wilson who has steered it through from its inception. We have greatly enjoyed working with them all, as we have with each other.
Publisher: Academic Press
Zeolites and Zeolite-like Materials offers a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the important areas of zeolite synthesis, characterization, and applications. Its chapters are written in an educational, easy-to-understand format for a generation of young zeolite chemists, especially those who are just starting research on the topic and need a reference that not only reflects the current state of zeolite research, but also identifies gaps and opportunities. The book demonstrates various applications of zeolites in heterogeneous catalysis and biomass conversion and identifies the endless possibilities that exist for this class of materials, their structures, functions, and future applications. In addition, it demonstrates that zeolite-like materials should be regarded as a living body developing towards new modern applications, thereby responding to the needs of modern technology challenges, including biomass conversion, medicine, laser techniques, and nanomaterial design, etc. The book will be of interest not only to zeolite-focused researchers, but also to a broad scientific and non-scientific audience. Provides a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to zeolites and zeolite-like materials since 2000 Covers the chemistry of novel zeolite-like materials such as Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs), Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs), hierarchical zeolite materials, new mesoporous and composite zeolite-like micro/mesoporous materials Presents essential information of the new zeolite-like structures, with a balanced coverage of the most important areas of the zeolite research (synthesis, characterization, adsorption, catalysis, new applications of zeolites and zeolite-like materials) Contains chapters prepared by known specialists who are members of the International Zeolite Association
Author: Bert Sels,Leonid Kustov
Catalysis involves just about every field of scientific study. This means that a multidisciplinary approach is needed in catalytic studies. Catalysis involves breaking and forming new bonds and this requires an under standing of either adsorption by bonding to an extended structures or bonding in a coordination sphere. Any understanding of catalytic action must necessarily involve an understanding of this bonding. Even 200 years ago scientists were aware that a properly treated mate rial, such as charcoal, could adsorb an enormous quantity of gas. In 1812, de Sassasure (English translation, Annal Philosphy, 6, 241 (1815» pro posed that the ability of a material to increase the rate of chemical reac tion was due to adsorption of the material in the fine structure of the solid so that the concentrations of the reactants were significantly increased, and this increase in concentration led to an increase in reaction rate. During the 1800s, little advance was made in the understanding of adsorp tion.
Author: John B. Moffat
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Technology & Engineering
Category: Chemical engineering
application to refining and petrochemistry
Author: Christian Marcilly
Category: Encyclopedias and dictionaries
Die Katalyse ist als grundlegendes Prinzip zur Überwindung der kinetischen Hemmung chemischer Reaktionen von fundamentaler Bedeutung in der Chemie und die metallorganische Komplexkatalyse ist ein Eckpfeiler der modernen Chemie. Das trifft gleichermaßen für die Grundlagen- und angewandte Forschung wie für industrielle Anwendungen zu. Ausgehend von den Prinzipien der Katalyse und den katalytisch relevanten metallorganischen Elementarschritten werden wichtige metallkomplexkatalysierte Reaktionen behandelt, wobei das mechanistische Verständnis im Vordergrund steht. Besonderer Wert wird dabei auf aktuelle Entwicklungen gelegt. Asymmetrische Synthesen finden ausführlich Berücksichtigung und an ausgewählten Beispielen wird die katalytische Wirkung von Metalloenzymen aufgezeigt. Am Beispiel der Stickstofffixierung werden die drei großen Gebiete der Katalyse – die homogene, die heterogene und die enzymatische Katalyse – vergleichend betrachtet. In der 2. Auflage ist ein neues Kapitel zur Stickstofffixierung hinzugekommen. In diesem werden vergleichend die heterogen katalysierte Reaktion, die enzymatisch katalysierte Reaktion (Nitrogenasen) sowie die homogen katalysierte Reaktion gegenübergestellt.
Author: Dirk Steinborn
Category: Publishers' catalogs
Environmental Applications of Ionizing Radiation brings together contributions by more than 100 leading scientists from the Americas, Europe, and Asia. The first English-language text devoted exclusively to this exciting growth area, it affords readers a unique opportunity to acquaint themselves with state-of-the-art applications of ionizing radiation for solving environmental remediation problems. Environmental Applications of Ionizing Radiation is a valuable working resource for civil, chemical, and environmental engineers and scientists involved with pollution control, water treatment, and natural and industrial waste treatment. It also belongs on the syllabuses of all graduate-level engineering courses in air and water management.
Author: William J. Cooper,Randy D. Curry,Kevin E. O'Shea
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons