Author: Michael Bowker

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198559580

Category: Science

Page: 90

View: 1727

This series of short texts provides accessible accounts of a range of essential topics in chemistry and chemical engineering. Written with the needs of the student in mind, the Oxford Chemistry Primers offer just the right level of detail for undergraduate study, and will be invaluable as a source of material commonly presented in lecture courses yet not adequately covered in existing texts. All the basic principles and facts in a particular area are presented in a clear and straightforward style, to produce concise yet comprehensive accounts of topics covered in both core and specialist courses. Catalysis is one of the most important technologies in our modern world. We depend on it to, produce materials, such as plastics, from oil; we depend on it to produce fuel to power cars and to remove the pollutants emitted from car engines; we even depend on it for the functioning and growth of our bodies. This book concentrates on the most important type of catalysis for industry, namely heterogeneous catalysis. The book is divided into three sections, dealing with the fundamentals of adsorption and reaction at surfaces, the nature of heterogeneous catalysts and their synthesis, and the applications of this technology in the modern world. The Basis and Applications of Heterogeneous Catalysis will be useful for teachers, undergraduates, and as an introductory book for graduates specializing in catalysis and surface science.

CHEMICAL SENSORS. Edition en anglais

Author: Robert W. Cattrall

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA


Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 74

View: 2901

Increasing concern about pollution, our health, and our safety has increased our tendency to monitor all aspects of our environment. In the future portable sensing systems will be available to monitor almost everything of interest to us. The heart of these sensing systems will be chemical sensors - devices which detect and measure very small amounts of chemicals. Assuming no prior knowledge of chemistry, this book explains in a clear and concise manner how these devices work.

Scientific Bases for the Preparation of Heterogeneous Catalysts

Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, July 11-15, 2010

Author: E. Gaigneaux,M Devillers,S. Hermans,P.A. Jacobs,J. Martens,P. Ruiz

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444536020

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 880

View: 1475

These meetings, held every four years, bring together researchers from academia and industry and offer a forum for discussions on the chemistry involved in the preparation of industrial heterogeneous catalysts. Contributions focus on the aspects of catalyst preparation. Reports on physico-chemical characteristics of catalysts and catalytic performances are limited to correlations with the preparation parameters. Contains a collection of the papers presented at the workshop

Concepts of Modern Catalysis and Kinetics

Author: I. Chorkendorff,J. W. Niemantsverdriet

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527691286

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 50

View: 7512

In the past 12 years since its publication, Concepts of Modern Catalysis and Kinetics has become a standard textbook for graduate students at universities worldwide. Emphasizing fundamentals from thermodynamics, physical chemistry, spectroscopy, solid state chemistry and quantum chemistry, it introduces catalysis from a molecular perspective, and stresses how it is interwoven with the field of reaction kinetics. The authors go on to explain how the world of reacting molecules is connected to the real world of industry, by discussing the various scales (nano - micro - macro) that play a role in catalysis. Reflecting the modern-day focus on energy supplies, this third edition devotes attention to such processes as gas-to-liquids, coal-to-liquids, biomass conversion and hydrogen production. From reviews of the prior editions: 'Overall, this is a valuable book that I will use in teaching undergraduates and postgraduates.' (Angewandte Chemie - I. E.) '...this excellent book is highly recommended to students at technical universities, but also entrants in chemical industry. Furthermore, this informative handbook is also a must for all professionals in the community.' (AFS) 'I am impressed by the coverage of the book and it is a valuable addition to the catalysis literature and I highly recommend purchase' (Energy Sources)

Heterogeneous Catalytic Materials

Solid State Chemistry, Surface Chemistry and Catalytic Behaviour

Author: Guido Busca

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 044459521X

Category: Science

Page: 478

View: 8112

Heterogeneous Catalytic Materials discusses experimental methods and the latest developments in three areas of research: heterogeneous catalysis; surface chemistry; and the chemistry of catalysts. Catalytic materials are those solids that allow the chemical reaction to occur efficiently and cost-effectively. This book provides you with all necessary information to synthesize, characterize, and relate the properties of a catalyst to its behavior, enabling you to select the appropriate catalyst for the process and reactor system. Oxides (used both as catalysts and as supports for catalysts), mixed and complex oxides and salts, halides, sulfides, carbides, and unsupported and supported metals are all considered. The book encompasses applications in industrial chemistry, refinery, petrochemistry, biomass conversion, energy production, and environmental protection technologies. Provides a systematic and clear approach of the synthesis, solid state chemistry and surface chemistry of all solid state catalysts Covers widely used instrumental techniques for catalyst characterization, such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and more Includes characterization methods and lists all catalytic behavior of the solid state catalysts Discusses new developments in nanocatalysts and their advantages over conventional catalysts

Heterogeneous Catalysis

Fundamentals and Applications

Author: J. R. H. Ross

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 044453363X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 222

View: 8017

Heterogeneous catalysis plays a part in the production of more than 80% of all chemical products. It is therefore essential that all chemists and chemical engineers have an understanding of the fundamental principles as well as the applications of heterogeneous catalysts. This book introduces the subject, starting at a basic level, and includes sections on adsorption and surface science, catalytic kinetics, experimental methods for preparing and studying heterogeneous catalysts, as well as some aspects of the design of industrial catalytic reactors. It ends with a chapter that covers a range of examples of important catalytic processes. The book leads the student to carrying out a series of "tasks" based on searches of the internet and also on the use of web-based search tools such as Scopus or Web of Science. These tasks are generally based on the text; they can be used entirely for self-study but they can also be tailored to the requirements of a particular course by the instructor/lecturer giving the course. The author has had over 40 years of experience in catalytic research as well as in lecturing on the principles of catalysis. He was for more than 20 years the Editor of Catalysis Today. Coverage of all aspects of catalysis in carefully organised text Inclusion of material on the historical development of the subject and the personalities involved All concepts illustrated by practical examples Inclusion of a wide range of problems and solutions, case studies, and supplementary web based material which will be regularly updated Author has over 40 years research experience of almost all covered subjects Provides companion materials webiste

Metal Oxides in Heterogeneous Catalysis

Author: Jacques C. Vedrine

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128116323

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 618

View: 8202

Metal Oxides in Heterogeneous Catalysis is an overview of the past, present and future of heterogeneous catalysis using metal oxides catalysts. The book presents the historical, theoretical, and practical aspects of metal oxide-based heterogeneous catalysis. Metal Oxides in Heterogeneous Catalysis deals with fundamental information on heterogeneous catalysis, including reaction mechanisms and kinetics approaches.There is also a focus on the classification of metal oxides used as catalysts, preparation methods and touches on zeolites, mesoporous materials and Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in catalysis. It will touch on acid or base-type reactions, selective (partial) and total oxidation reactions, and enzymatic type reactions The book also touches heavily on the biomass applications of metal oxide catalysts and environmentally related/depollution reactions such as COVs elimination, DeNOx, and DeSOx. Finally, the book also deals with future trends and prospects in metal oxide-based heterogeneous catalysis. Presents case studies in each chapter that provide a focus on the industrial applications Includes fundamentals, key theories and practical applications of metal oxide-based heterogeneous catalysis in one comprehensive resource Edited, and contributed, by leading experts who provide perspectives on synthesis, characterization and applications

Catalysis by Materials with Well-Defined Structures

Author: Zili Wu,Steven H. Overbury

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128013400

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 392

View: 6340

Catalysis by Materials with Well-Defined Structures examines the latest developments in the use of model systems in fundamental catalytic science. A team of prominent experts provides authoritative, first-hand information, helping readers better understand heterogeneous catalysis by utilizing model catalysts based on uniformly nanostructured materials. The text addresses topics and issues related to material synthesis, characterization, catalytic reactions, surface chemistry, mechanism, and theoretical modeling, and features a comprehensive review of recent advances in catalytic studies on nanomaterials with well-defined structures, including nanoshaped metals and metal oxides, nanoclusters, and single sites in the areas of heterogeneous thermal catalysis, photocatalysis, and electrocatalysis. Users will find this book to be an invaluable, authoritative source of information for both the surface scientist and the catalysis practitioner Outlines the importance of nanomaterials and their potential as catalysts Provides detailed information on synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials with well-defined structures, relating surface activity to catalytic activity Details how to establish the structure-catalysis relationship and how to reveal the surface chemistry and surface structure of catalysts Offers examples on various in situ characterization instrumental techniques Includes in-depth theoretical modeling utilizing advanced Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods


Concepts and Green Applications

Author: Gadi Rothenberg

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527808906

Category: Science

Page: 331

View: 9589

After the great success now in its 2nd Edition: This textbook covers all aspects of catalysis, including computational methods, industrial applications and green chemistry

Chemistry of Fossil Fuels and Biofuels

Author: Harold Schobert

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139618822

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: N.A

View: 6060

Focusing on today's major fuel resources – ethanol, biodiesel, wood, natural gas, petroleum products and coal – this book discusses the formation, composition and properties of the fuels, and the ways in which they are processed for commercial use. It examines the origin of fuels through natural processes such as photosynthesis and the geological transformation of ancient plant material; the relationships between their composition, molecular structures and physical properties; and the various processes by which they are converted or refined into the fuel products appearing on today's market. Fundamental chemical aspects such as catalysis and the behaviour of reactive intermediates are presented and global warming and anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are also discussed. The book is ideal for graduate students in energy engineering, chemical engineering, mechanical engineering and chemistry, as well as professional scientists and engineers.

New Materials for Catalytic Applications

Author: Vasile I. Parvulescu,Erhard Kemnitz

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444635882

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 386

View: 9683

New Materials for Catalytic Applications proposes the use of both new and existing materials for catalytic applications, such as zeolites, metal oxides, microporous and mesoporous materials, and monocrystals. In addition, metal-oxides are discussed from a new perspective, i.e. nano- and photocatalytic applications. The material presents these concepts with a new focus on strategies in synthesis, synthesis based on a rational design, the correlation between basic properties/potential applications, and new catalytic solutions for acid-base, redox, hydrogenation, photocatalytic reactions, etc. Presents organometallic concepts for the synthesis of nanocatalysts Provides a synthesis of new materials following the fluorolytic sol-gel concept Covers electronic and photocatalytic properties via synthesis of nano-oxide materials Details the nature of sites in MOFs generating catalytic properties immobilization of triflates in solid matrices for organic reactions

SURFACES. Edition en anglais

Author: Gary Attard,Colin Barnes

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198556862

Category: Science

Page: 92

View: 1025

This primer provides an introduction to the subject of surfaces at the level of undergraduates and first year postgraduates. There are four chapters, the first concerns basic thermodynamic material used to understand the properties of surfaces including; surface tension, Gibbs adsorption, surface pressure and surface phase equilibria, surfactants and micelles, wetting, detergency, and contact angle. The second chapter concentrates on gas adsorbtion at solid surfaces and covers topics including adsorbtion, Langmuir isotherms, heats of adsorbtion, BET isotherms, physisorbtion, chemisorbtion, precursor adsorbtion kinetics, well-defined surfaces, UHV, surface sensitivity and selectivity, surface diffusion and electrons interacting with matter. Chapter three then outlines the physico- chemical principles of XPS, AES, LEED, STM, AFM, work function measurements, UPS, TPD, molecular beams, HREELS and PAIRS and the types of fundamental surface information each of these techniques provides. The final chapter contains a series of worked examples and problems, bringing together the various strands developed in Chapters 1-3 in order to elucidate surface phenomena. The book is unique in its mix of 'Classical' and 'Modern' surface science and should be relevant to physicists, chemists and material scientists.

Zeolites and Zeolite-like Materials

Author: Bert Sels,Leonid Kustov

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444635149

Category: Science

Page: 474

View: 3923

Zeolites and Zeolite-like Materials offers a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the important areas of zeolite synthesis, characterization, and applications. Its chapters are written in an educational, easy-to-understand format for a generation of young zeolite chemists, especially those who are just starting research on the topic and need a reference that not only reflects the current state of zeolite research, but also identifies gaps and opportunities. The book demonstrates various applications of zeolites in heterogeneous catalysis and biomass conversion and identifies the endless possibilities that exist for this class of materials, their structures, functions, and future applications. In addition, it demonstrates that zeolite-like materials should be regarded as a living body developing towards new modern applications, thereby responding to the needs of modern technology challenges, including biomass conversion, medicine, laser techniques, and nanomaterial design, etc. The book will be of interest not only to zeolite-focused researchers, but also to a broad scientific and non-scientific audience. Provides a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to zeolites and zeolite-like materials since 2000 Covers the chemistry of novel zeolite-like materials such as Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs), Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs), hierarchical zeolite materials, new mesoporous and composite zeolite-like micro/mesoporous materials Presents essential information of the new zeolite-like structures, with a balanced coverage of the most important areas of the zeolite research (synthesis, characterization, adsorption, catalysis, new applications of zeolites and zeolite-like materials) Contains chapters prepared by known specialists who are members of the International Zeolite Association

Encyclopedia of Interfacial Chemistry

Surface Science and Electrochemistry

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128098945

Category: Science

Page: 5560

View: 4630

Encyclopedia of Interfacial Chemistry: Surface Science and Electrochemistry summarizes current, fundamental knowledge of interfacial chemistry, bringing readers the latest developments. As the chemical and physical properties and processes at solid and liquid interfaces are the scientific basis of so many technologies which enhance our lives and create new opportunities, its important to highlight how these technologies enable the design and optimization of functional materials for heterogeneous and electro-catalysts in food production, pollution control, energy conversion and storage, medical applications requiring biocompatibility, drug delivery, and more. This book provides an interdisciplinary view that lies at the intersection of these three related fields. Presents fundamental knowledge of interfacial chemistry, surface science and electrochemistry and provides cutting-edge research from academics and practitioners across various fields and global regions

Local Activity Principle: The Cause Of Complexity And Symmetry Breaking

Author: Mainzer Klaus,Chua Leon O

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1908977116

Category: Mathematics

Page: 456

View: 5440

The principle of local activity explains the emergence of complex patterns in a homogeneous medium. At first defined in the theory of nonlinear electronic circuits in a mathematically rigorous way, it can be generalized and proven at least for the class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems in physics, chemistry, biology, and brain research. Recently, it was realized by memristors for nanoelectronic device applications. In general, the emergence of complex patterns and structures is explained by symmetry breaking in homogeneous media, which is caused by local activity. This book argues that the principle of local activity is really fundamental in science, and can even be identified in quantum cosmology as symmetry breaking of local gauge symmetries generating the complexity of matter and forces in our universe. Applications are considered in economic, financial, and social systems with the emergence of equilibrium states, symmetry breaking at critical points of phase transitions and risky acting at the edge of chaos./a

Characterization of Solid Materials and Heterogeneous Catalysts

From Structure to Surface Reactivity

Author: Michel Che,Jacques C. Vedrine

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527645330

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1284

View: 9979

This two-volume book provides an overview of physical techniques used to characterize the structure of solid materials, on the one hand, and to investigate the reactivity of their surface, on the other. Therefore this book is a must-have for anyone working in fields related to surface reactivity. Among the latter, and because of its most important industrial impact, catalysis has been used as the directing thread of the book. After the preface and a general introduction to physical techniques by M. Che and J.C. V?drine, two overviews on physical techniques are presented by G. Ertl and Sir J.M. Thomas for investigating model catalysts and porous catalysts, respectively. The book is organized into four parts: Molecular/Local Spectroscopies, Macroscopic Techniques, Characterization of the Fluid Phase (Gas and/ or Liquid), and Advanced Characterization. Each chapter focuses upon the following important themes: overview of the technique, most important parameters to interpret the experimental data, practical details, applications of the technique, particularly during chemical processes, with its advantages and disadvantages, conclusions.

The Role of Catalysis for the Sustainable Production of Bio-fuels and Bio-chemicals

Author: Kostas Triantafyllidis,Angelos Lappas,Michael Stöcker

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0444563326

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 608

View: 3427

The Role of Catalysis for the Sustainable Production of Bio-fuels and Bio-chemicals describes the importance of catalysis for the sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals, focused primarily on the state-of-the-art catalysts and catalytic processes expected to play a decisive role in the "green" production of fuels and chemicals from biomass. In addition, the book includes general elements regarding the entire chain of biomass production, conversion, environment, economy, and life-cycle assessment. Very few books are available on catalysis in production schemes using biomass or its primary conversion products, such as bio-oil and lignin. This book fills that gap with detailed discussions of: Catalytic pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass Hybrid biogasoline by co-processing in FCC units Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to biofuels (biomass-to-liquid process) Steam reforming of bio-oils to hydrogen With energy prices rapidly rising, environmental concerns growing, and regulatory apparatus evolving, this book is a resource with tutorial, research, and technological value for chemists, chemical engineers, policymakers, and students. Includes catalytic reaction mechanism schemes and gives a clear understanding of catalytic processes Includes flow diagrams of bench-, pilot- and industrial-scale catalytic processing units and demonstrates the various process technologies involved, enabling easy selection of the best process Incorporates many tables, enabling easy comparison of data based on a critical review of the available literature

Dynamics of Surfaces and Reaction Kinetics in Heterogeneous Catalysis

Author: G.F. Froment,K.C. Waugh

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080530628

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 594

View: 4509

Many processes of the chemical industry are based upon heterogeneous catalysis. Two important items of these processes are the development of the catalyst itself and the design and optimization of the reactor. Both aspects would benefit from rigorous and accurate kinetic modeling, based upon information on the working catalyst gained from classical steady state experimentation, but also from studies using surface science techniques, from quantum chemical calculations providing more insight into possible reaction pathways and from transient experimentation dealing with reactions and reactors. This information is seldom combined into a kinetic model and into a quantitative description of the process. Generally the catalytic aspects are dealt with by chemists and by physicists, while the chemical engineers are called upon for mechanical aspects of the reactor design and its control. The symposium "Dynamics of Surfaces and Reaction Kinetics in Heterogeneous Catalysis" aims at illustrating a more global and concerted approach through a number of prestigious keynote lectures and severely screened oral and poster presentations.

Fundamental Concepts in Heterogeneous Catalysis

Author: Jens K. N?rskov,Felix Studt,Frank Abild-Pedersen,Thomas Bligaard

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111889202X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 208

View: 4105

This book is based on a graduate course and suitable as a primer for any newcomer to the field, this book is a detailed introduction to the experimental and computational methods that are used to study how solid surfaces act as catalysts. Features include: First comprehensive description of modern theory of heterogeneous catalysis Basis for understanding and designing experiments in the field Allows reader to understand catalyst design principles Introduction to important elements of energy transformation technology Test driven at Stanford University over several semesters