The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political & Social Science

Human Trafficking: Recent Empirical Research

Author: Ronald Weitzer,Sheldon X. Zhang

Publisher: SAGE Publications, Incorporated

ISBN: 9781483369075

Category: Political Science

Page: 268

View: 2918

The swell of attention surrounding human trafficking over the past two decades has driven policies and laws to combat this global issue. However, these efforts are based on assertions about human trafficking—it is huge in magnitude; it is a growing problem; and it ranks among criminal enterprises—that have no empirical evidence. Without such evidence, we lack a true understanding of the reach of human trafficking. Instead, we are left to believe sensationalized media stories, celebrity activists, and political discourse. This groundbreaking volume of The ANNALS offers empirical studies that explore the complexity, scope, and particular locales of human trafficking. The articles look beyond the misconceived portrayals of human trafficking, delving into often overseen dimensions of it, such as labor trafficking and migration, and provide breakthrough findings on victims, facilitators, and offenders. Further high-quality empirical analysis will bring about a better understanding of the nuances of human trafficking and can be used to inform future policies.

Third Party Sex Work and Pimps in the Age of Anti-trafficking

Author: Amber Horning,Anthony Marcus

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319503057

Category: Social Science

Page: 196

View: 9023

This volume is a compilation of new original qualitative and ethnographic research on pimps and other third party facilitators of commercial sex from the developed and developing world. From African-American pimps in the United States and Eastern European migrants in Germany to Brazilian cafetãos and cafetinas this volume features the lives and voices of the men and women who enable diverse and culturally distinct sex markets around the world. In scholarly, popular, and policy-making discourses, such individuals are typically viewed as larger-than-life hustlers, violent predators, and brutal exploiters. However, there is actually very little empirical research-based knowledge about how pimps and third party facilitators actually live, labor, and make meaning in their everyday lives. Nearly all previous knowledge derives from hearsay and post-hoc reporting from ex-sex-workers, customers, police and government agents, neighbors, and self-aggrandizing fictionalized memoirs. This volume is the first published compilation of empirically researched data and analysis about pimps and third parties working in the sex trade across the globe. Situated in an age of highly punitive and ubiquitous global anti-trafficking law, it challenges highly charged public policy stereotypes that conflate pimping and sex trafficking, in order to understand the lived experience of pimps and the men and women whose work they facilitate.

Crime and Public Policy

Author: James Q. Wilson,Joan Petersilia

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199968233

Category: Law

Page: 656

View: 9171

Crime in the United States has fluctuated considerably over the past thirty years, as have the policy approaches to deal with it. During this time criminologists and other scholars have helped to shed light on the role of incarceration, prevention, drugs, guns, policing, and numerous other aspects to crime control. Yet the latest research is rarely heard in public discussions and is often missing from the desks of policymakers. This book accessibly summarizes the latest scientific information on the causes of crime and evidence about what does and does not work to control it. Thoroughly revised and updated, this new version of Crime and Public Policy will include twenty chapters and five new substantial entries. As with previous editions, each essay reviews the existing literature, discusses the methodological rigor of the studies, identifies what policies and programs the studies suggest, and then points to policies now implemented that fail to reflect the evidence. The chapters cover the principle institutions of the criminal justice system (juvenile justice, police, prisons, probation and parole, sentencing), how broader aspects of social life inhibit or encourage crime (biology, schools, families, communities), and topics currently generating a great deal of attention (criminal activities of gangs, sex offenders, prisoner reentry, changing crime rates). With contributions from trusted, leading scholars, Crime and Public Policy offers the most comprehensive and balanced guide to how the latest and best social science research informs the understanding of crime and its control for policymakers, community leaders, and students of crime and criminal justice.

Crime and Economics

An Introduction

Author: Kevin Albertson,Chris Fox

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136697209

Category: Social Science

Page: 328

View: 6161

Crime and Economics provides the first comprehensive and accessible text to address the economics of crime within the study of crime and criminology. The economics of crime is an area of growing activity and concern, increasingly influential both to the study of crime and criminal justice and to the formulation of crime reduction and criminal justice policy. As well as providing an overview of the relationship between economics and crime, this book poses key questions such as: What is the impact of the labour market and poverty on crime? Can society decrease criminal activity from a basis of economic disincentives? What forms of crime reduction and methods of reducing re-offending are most cost beneficial? Can illicit organised crime and illicit drug markets be understood better through the application of economic analysis? For those interested in economic methods, but without previous economic training, this book also provides an accessible overview of key areas such as cost-benefit analysis, econometrics and the debate around how to estimate the costs of crime. This book will be key reading for undergraduate and postgraduate students of criminology and economics and those working in the criminal justice system including practitioners, managers and policy makers.

Gender, shocks, and resilience

Author: Kumar, Neha,Quisumbing, Agnes

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 4

View: 2301

This brief attempts to unpack the relationship between gender and resilience by reviewing the evidence on men’s and women’s differential exposure to risk and the differential impact of shocks on men and women, and by examining the different types of mechanisms that men and women use to cope with and insure against risk. In reviewing these mechanisms, we assess whether they contribute to building resilience and we suggest gender-sensitive insurance mechanisms that will allow men and women alike to manage and cope with risk and vulnerability.

The Integration of Immigrants into American Society

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population,Panel on the Integration of Immigrants into American Society

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309373980

Category: Social Science

Page: 458

View: 2620

The United States prides itself on being a nation of immigrants, and the country has a long history of successfully absorbing people from across the globe. The integration of immigrants and their children contributes to our economic vitality and our vibrant and ever changing culture. We have offered opportunities to immigrants and their children to better themselves and to be fully incorporated into our society and in exchange immigrants have become Americans - embracing an American identity and citizenship, protecting our country through service in our military, fostering technological innovation, harvesting its crops, and enriching everything from the nation's cuisine to its universities, music, and art. Today, the 41 million immigrants in the United States represent 13.1 percent of the U.S. population. The U.S.-born children of immigrants, the second generation, represent another 37.1 million people, or 12 percent of the population. Thus, together the first and second generations account for one out of four members of the U.S. population. Whether they are successfully integrating is therefore a pressing and important question. Are new immigrants and their children being well integrated into American society, within and across generations? Do current policies and practices facilitate their integration? How is American society being transformed by the millions of immigrants who have arrived in recent decades? To answer these questions, this new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine summarizes what we know about how immigrants and their descendants are integrating into American society in a range of areas such as education, occupations, health, and language.

Children's Health, the Nation's Wealth

Assessing and Improving Child Health

Author: Institute of Medicine,National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Committee on Evaluation of Children's Health

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309166607

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 9161

Children's health has clearly improved over the past several decades. Significant and positive gains have been made in lowering rates of infant mortality and morbidity from infectious diseases and accidental causes, improved access to health care, and reduction in the effects of environmental contaminants such as lead. Yet major questions still remain about how to assess the status of children's health, what factors should be monitored, and the appropriate measurement tools that should be used. Children's Health, the Nation's Wealth: Assessing and Improving Child Health provides a detailed examination of the information about children's health that is needed to help policy makers and program providers at the federal, state, and local levels. In order to improve children's health -- and, thus, the health of future generations -- it is critical to have data that can be used to assess both current conditions and possible future threats to children's health. This compelling book describes what is known about the health of children and what is needed to expand the knowledge. By strategically improving the health of children, we ensure healthier future generations to come.

Brokers, Voters, and Clientelism

The Puzzle of Distributive Politics

Author: Susan C. Stokes,Thad Dunning,Marcelo Nazareno,Valeria Brusco

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107042208

Category: Political Science

Page: 316

View: 8904

Brokers, Voters, and Clientelism studies distributive politics: how parties and governments use material resources to win elections. The authors develop a theory that explains why loyal supporters, rather than swing voters, tend to benefit from pork-barrel politics; why poverty encourages clientelism and vote buying; and why redistribution and voter participation do not justify non-programmatic distribution.

The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids

The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Committee on the Health Effects of Marijuana: An Evidence Review and Research Agenda

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309453070

Category: Science

Page: 486

View: 2920

Significant changes have taken place in the policy landscape surrounding cannabis legalization, production, and use. During the past 20 years, 25 states and the District of Columbia have legalized cannabis and/or cannabidiol (a component of cannabis) for medical conditions or retail sales at the state level and 4 states have legalized both the medical and recreational use of cannabis. These landmark changes in policy have impacted cannabis use patterns and perceived levels of risk. However, despite this changing landscape, evidence regarding the short- and long-term health effects of cannabis use remains elusive. While a myriad of studies have examined cannabis use in all its various forms, often these research conclusions are not appropriately synthesized, translated for, or communicated to policy makers, health care providers, state health officials, or other stakeholders who have been charged with influencing and enacting policies, procedures, and laws related to cannabis use. Unlike other controlled substances such as alcohol or tobacco, no accepted standards for safe use or appropriate dose are available to help guide individuals as they make choices regarding the issues of if, when, where, and how to use cannabis safely and, in regard to therapeutic uses, effectively. Shifting public sentiment, conflicting and impeded scientific research, and legislative battles have fueled the debate about what, if any, harms or benefits can be attributed to the use of cannabis or its derivatives, and this lack of aggregated knowledge has broad public health implications. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids provides a comprehensive review of scientific evidence related to the health effects and potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis. This report provides a research agendaâ€"outlining gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for providing additional insight into these issuesâ€"that summarizes and prioritizes pressing research needs.

Ending Discrimination Against People with Mental and Substance Use Disorders

The Evidence for Stigma Change

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee on the Science of Changing Behavioral Health Social Norms

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309439124

Category: Social Science

Page: 170

View: 1313

Estimates indicate that as many as 1 in 4 Americans will experience a mental health problem or will misuse alcohol or drugs in their lifetimes. These disorders are among the most highly stigmatized health conditions in the United States, and they remain barriers to full participation in society in areas as basic as education, housing, and employment. Improving the lives of people with mental health and substance abuse disorders has been a priority in the United States for more than 50 years. The Community Mental Health Act of 1963 is considered a major turning point in America's efforts to improve behavioral healthcare. It ushered in an era of optimism and hope and laid the groundwork for the consumer movement and new models of recovery. The consumer movement gave voice to people with mental and substance use disorders and brought their perspectives and experience into national discussions about mental health. However over the same 50-year period, positive change in American public attitudes and beliefs about mental and substance use disorders has lagged behind these advances. Stigma is a complex social phenomenon based on a relationship between an attribute and a stereotype that assigns undesirable labels, qualities, and behaviors to a person with that attribute. Labeled individuals are then socially devalued, which leads to inequality and discrimination. This report contributes to national efforts to understand and change attitudes, beliefs and behaviors that can lead to stigma and discrimination. Changing stigma in a lasting way will require coordinated efforts, which are based on the best possible evidence, supported at the national level with multiyear funding, and planned and implemented by an effective coalition of representative stakeholders. Ending Discrimination Against People with Mental and Substance Use Disorders: The Evidence for Stigma Change explores stigma and discrimination faced by individuals with mental or substance use disorders and recommends effective strategies for reducing stigma and encouraging people to seek treatment and other supportive services. It offers a set of conclusions and recommendations about successful stigma change strategies and the research needed to inform and evaluate these efforts in the United States.

Childhood, Culture and Society

In a Global Context

Author: Michael Wyness

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1526422506

Category: Social Science

Page: 480

View: 1716

Never shying away from the most pressing topics in the field, this book provides a multifaceted and extensive analysis of the study of children and childhood. Linking key concepts, themes and problems together, this text offers an interdisciplinary approach with its topical and timely case studies and illustrations which illuminate the latest research in the field. The book: Features a number of international case studies including children and military conflict, child migrants, children and networking sites, child trafficking, and children as consumers Includes questions which help you to make connections between topics and get you reflecting on your own childhood Is packed with engaging learning features including chapter aims, boxed sections, summaries and further reading suggestions

New Directions in the Sociology of Aging

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population,Panel on New Directions in Social Demography, Social Epidemiology, and the Sociology of Aging

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309293006

Category: Social Science

Page: 318

View: 2086

The aging of the population of the United States is occurring at a time of major economic and social changes. These economic changes include consideration of increases in the age of eligibility for Social Security and Medicare and possible changes in benefit levels. Furthermore, changes in the social context in which older individuals and families function may well affect the nature of key social relationships and institutions that define the environment for older persons. Sociology offers a knowledge base, a number of useful analytic approaches and tools, and unique theoretical perspectives that can facilitate understanding of these demographic, economic, and social changes and, to the extent possible, their causes, consequences and implications. New Directions in the Sociology of Aging evaluates the recent contributions of social demography, social epidemiology and sociology to the study of aging and identifies promising new research directions in these sub-fields. Included in this study are nine papers prepared by experts in sociology, demography, social genomics, public health, and other fields, that highlight the broad array of tools and perspectives that can provide the basis for further advancing the understanding of aging processes in ways that can inform policy. This report discusses the role of sociology in what is a wide-ranging and diverse field of study; a proposed three-dimensional conceptual model for studying social processes in aging over the life cycle; a review of existing databases, data needs and opportunities, primarily in the area of measurement of interhousehold and intergenerational transmission of resources, biomarkers and biosocial interactions; and a summary of roadblocks and bridges to transdisciplinary research that will affect the future directions of the field of sociology of aging.

Doing Time on the Outside

Incarceration and Family Life in Urban America

Author: Donald Braman

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472032693

Category: Social Science

Page: 274

View: 9896

"Stigma, shame and hardship---this is the lot shared by families whose young men have been swept into prison. Braman reveals the devastating toll mass incarceration takes on the parents, partners, and children left behind." -Katherine S. Newman "Doing Time on the Outside brings to life in a compelling way the human drama, and tragedy, of our incarceration policies. Donald Braman documents the profound economic and social consequences of the American policy of massive imprisonment of young African American males. He shows us the link between the broad-scale policy changes of recent decades and the isolation and stigma that these bring to family members who have a loved one in prison. If we want to understand fully the impact of current criminal justice policies, this book should be required reading." -Mark Mauer, Assistant Director, The Sentencing Project "Through compelling stories and thoughtful analysis, this book describes how our nation's punishment policies have caused incalculable damage to the fabric of family and community life. Anyone concerned about the future of urban America should read this book." -Jeremy Travis, The Urban Institute In the tradition of Elijah Anderson's Code of the Street and Katherine Newman's No Shame in My Game, this startling new ethnography by Donald Braman uncovers the other side of the incarceration saga: the little-told story of the effects of imprisonment on the prisoners' families. Since 1970 the incarceration rate in the United States has more than tripled, and in many cities-urban centers such as Washington, D.C.-it has increased over five-fold. Today, one out of every ten adult black men in the District is in prison and three out of every four can expect to spend some time behind bars. But the numbers don't reveal what it's like for the children, wives, and parents of prisoners, or the subtle and not-so-subtle effects mass incarceration is having on life in the inner city. Author Donald Braman shows that those doing time on the inside are having a ripple effect on the outside-reaching deep into the family and community life of urban America. Braman gives us the personal stories of what happens to the families and communities that prisoners are taken from and return to. Carefully documenting the effects of incarceration on the material and emotional lives of families, this groundbreaking ethnography reveals how criminal justice policies are furthering rather than abating the problem of social disorder. Braman also delivers a number of genuinely new arguments. Among these is the compelling assertion that incarceration is holding offenders unaccountable to victims, communities, and families. The author gives the first detailed account of incarceration's corrosive effect on social capital in the inner city and describes in poignant detail how the stigma of prison pits family and community members against one another. Drawing on a series of powerful family portraits supported by extensive empirical data, Braman shines a light on the darker side of a system that is failing the very families and communities it seeks to protect.

Issues in General Science and Scientific Theory and Method: 2011 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464963479

Category: Science

Page: 3278

View: 8610

Issues in General Science and Scientific Theory and Method: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about General Science and Scientific Theory and Method. The editors have built Issues in General Science and Scientific Theory and Method: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about General Science and Scientific Theory and Method in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in General Science and Scientific Theory and Method: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

The Annals of the American Academy of Political & Social Science

Tough on Crime, Tough on Families? Criminal Justice and Family Life in America

Author: Christopher Wildeman,Sara Wakefield,Hedwig Lee

Publisher: Sage Publications, Incorporated

ISBN: 9781506354682

Category: Children of prisoners

Page: 243

View: 5273

More than 30 years after President Reagan declared a war on drugs and more than 20 years after President Clinton declared a war on lawlessness, President Obama has described our criminal justice system as broken; and plagued by overaggressive policing, prison overcrowding, and abominable conditions for inmates. He also characterized the criminal justice system as an "aspect of American life that remains particularly skewed by race and wealth, a source of inequity that has ripple effects on families and communities and ultimately on our nation." The president is joined in this view by a broad and increasingly bipartisan group of Americans interested in finding ways to reform criminal justice in America. How the expansion of the U.S. criminal justice system over the last four decades has affected children and families is a critical concern for researchers and some policymakers. We know that family effects are profound, complex, variable, and often disconcerting: "low-level" and "nonviolent" offenders, for example, can sometimes be a source of disarray and violence in their own families, and "violent" and "serious" offenders are sometimes stalwart spouses and parents. This volume of The ANNALS sheds light on the prospects and perils of U.S. criminal justice reform for family life, and provides guidance for policy and future research.

Frontiers in Massive Data Analysis

Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Mathematical Sciences and Their Applications,Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics,Committee on the Analysis of Massive Data

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309287812

Category: Mathematics

Page: 190

View: 5845

Data mining of massive data sets is transforming the way we think about crisis response, marketing, entertainment, cybersecurity and national intelligence. Collections of documents, images, videos, and networks are being thought of not merely as bit strings to be stored, indexed, and retrieved, but as potential sources of discovery and knowledge, requiring sophisticated analysis techniques that go far beyond classical indexing and keyword counting, aiming to find relational and semantic interpretations of the phenomena underlying the data. Frontiers in Massive Data Analysis examines the frontier of analyzing massive amounts of data, whether in a static database or streaming through a system. Data at that scale--terabytes and petabytes--is increasingly common in science (e.g., particle physics, remote sensing, genomics), Internet commerce, business analytics, national security, communications, and elsewhere. The tools that work to infer knowledge from data at smaller scales do not necessarily work, or work well, at such massive scale. New tools, skills, and approaches are necessary, and this report identifies many of them, plus promising research directions to explore. Frontiers in Massive Data Analysis discusses pitfalls in trying to infer knowledge from massive data, and it characterizes seven major classes of computation that are common in the analysis of massive data. Overall, this report illustrates the cross-disciplinary knowledge--from computer science, statistics, machine learning, and application disciplines--that must be brought to bear to make useful inferences from massive data.

Celebrity Diplomacy

Author: Andrew F. Cooper,Louise Frechette

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317262719

Category: Political Science

Page: 176

View: 9871

Time magazine named Bono and Bill and Melinda Gates their "Persons of the Year." The United Nations tapped Angelina Jolie as a goodwill ambassador. Bob Geldof organized the Live8 concert to push the G8 leaders' summit on AIDS and debt relief. What has come to be called "celebrity diplomacy" attracts wide media attention, significant money, and top official access around the world. But is this phenomenon just the latest fad? Are celebrities dabbling in an arena that is out of their depth, or are they bringing justified notice to important problems that might otherwise languish on the crowded international diplomatic scene? This book is the first to examine celebrity diplomacy as a serious global project with important implications, both positive and negative. Intended for readers who might not normally read about celebrities, it will also attract audiences often turned off by international affairs. Celebrities bring optimism and "buzz" to issues that seem deep and gloomy. Even if their lofty goals remain elusive, when celebrities speak, other actors in the global system listen.