Teeth

Author: Simon Hillson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521837019

Category: Medical

Page: 373

View: 5469

Archaeological discoveries of teeth provide remarkable information on humans, animals and the health, hygiene and diet of ancient communities. In this fully revised and updated 2005 edition of his seminal text, Simon Hillson draws together a mass of material from archaeology, anthropology and related disciplines to provide a comprehensive manual on the study of teeth. The range of mammals examined has been extended to include descriptions and line drawings for 325 mammal genera from Europe, North Africa, western, central and northeastern Asia, and North America. The book also introduces dental anatomy and the microscopic structure of dental tissues, explores how the age or season of death is estimated and looks at variations in tooth size and shape. With its detailed descriptions of the techniques and equipment used and its provision of tables and charts, this book is essential reading for students of archaeology, zoology and dental science.

Zooarchaeology

Author: Elizabeth J. Reitz,Elizabeth S. Wing

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139467743

Category: Social Science

Page: 558

View: 7268

This is an introductory text for students interested in identification and analysis of animal remains from archaeological sites. The emphasis is on animals whose remains inform us about the relationship between humans and their natural and social environments, especially site formation processes, subsistence strategies, the processes of domestication, and paleoenvironments. Examining examples from all over the world, from the Pleistocene period up to the present, this volume is organized in a way that is parallel to faunal study, beginning with background information, bias in a faunal assemblage, and basic zooarchaeological methods. This revised edition reflects developments in zooarchaeology during the past decade. It includes sections on enamel ultrastructure and incremental analysis, stable isotyopes and trace elements, ancient genetics and enzymes, environmental reconstruction, people as agents of environmental change, applications of zooarchaeology in animal conservation and heritage management, and a discussion of issues pertaining to the curation of archaeofaunal materials.

Vertebrate Taphonomy

Author: R. Lee Lyman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521458405

Category: History

Page: 524

View: 5374

In recent years archaeologists and paleontologists have become increasingly interested in how and why vertebrate animal remains become, or do not become, fossils. Vertebrate Taphonomy introduces interested researchers to the wealth of analytical techniques developed by archaeologists and paleontologists to help them understand why prehistoric animal remains do or do not preserve, and why those that preserve appear the way they do. This book is comprehensive in scope, and will serve as an important work of reference for years to come.

Mammal Bones and Teeth

An Introductory Guide to Methods of Identification

Author: Simon Hillson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315424991

Category: Social Science

Page: 132

View: 851

This guide is designed as an introduction to the basic methods for identifying mammal bones and teeth. It is intended to highlight for beginners the main points on which identifications can be made on the bulk of bones and teeth from a small range of common Old World mammals.

Bioarchaeology

Author: Clark Spencer Larsen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 052183869X

Category: History

Page: 656

View: 8158

A synthetic treatment of the study of human remains from archaeological contexts for current and future generations of bioarchaeologists.

Analytical Chemistry in Archaeology

Author: A. M. Pollard

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521655729

Category: Science

Page: 404

View: 1760

This book is an introductory manual that explains the basic concepts of chemistry behind scientific analytical techniques and that reviews their application to archaeology. It explains key terminology, outlines the procedures to be followed in order to produce good data, and describes the function of the basic instrumentation required to carry out those procedures. The manual contains chapters on the basic chemistry and physics necessary to understand the techniques used in analytical chemistry, with more detailed chapters on Atomic Absorption, Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy, Neutron Activation Analysis, X-ray Flourescence, Electron Microscopy, Infra-red and Raman Spectroscopy, and Mass Spectrometry. Each chapter describes the operation of the instruments, some hints on the practicalities, and a review of the application of the technique to archaeology, including some case studies. With guides to further reading on the topic, it is an essential tool for practitioners, researchers and advanced students alike.

Identifying and Interpreting Animal Bones

A Manual

Author: April M. Beisaw

Publisher: Texas A&M University Press

ISBN: 162349026X

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 5703

Offering a field-tested analytic method for identifying faunal remains, along with helpful references, images, and examples of the most commonly encountered North American species, Identifying and Interpreting Animal Bones: A Manual provides an important new reference for students, avocational archaeologists, and even naturalists and wildlife enthusiasts. Using the basic principles outlined here, the bones of any vertebrate animal, including humans, can be identified and their relevance to common research questions can be better understood. Because the interpretation of archaeological sites depends heavily on the analysis of surrounding materials—soils, artifacts, and floral and faunal remains—it is important that non-human remains be correctly distinguished from human bones, that distinctions between domesticated and wild or feral animals be made correctly, and that evidence of the reasons for faunal remains in the site be recognized. But the ability to identify and analyze animal bones is a skill that is not easy to learn from a traditional textbook. In Identifying and Interpreting Animal Bones, veteran archaeologist and educator April Beisaw guides readers through the stages of identification and analysis with sample images and data, also illustrating how specialists make analytical decisions that allow for the identification of the smallest fragments of bone. Extensive additional illustrative material, from the author’s own collected assemblages and from those in the Archaeological Analytical Research Facility at Binghamton University in New York, are also available in the book’s online supplement. There, readers can view and interact with images to further understanding of the principles explained in the text.

A Guide to the Measurement of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites

As Developed by the Institut Für Palaeoanatomie, Domestikationsforschung und Geschichte Der Tiermedizin of the University of Munich

Author: Angela von den Driesch

Publisher: Peabody Museum Press

ISBN: 0873659503

Category: Social Science

Page: 149

View: 5411

Von den Driesch's handbook is the standard tool used by faunal analysts working on animal and bird assemblages from around the world. Developed for the instruction of students working on osteoarchaeological theses at the University of Munich, the guide has standardized how animal bones recovered from prehistoric and early historic sites are measured.

Phytoliths

A Comprehensive Guide for Archaeologists and Paleoecologists

Author: Dolores R. Piperno

Publisher: Rowman Altamira

ISBN: 0759114463

Category: Social Science

Page: 248

View: 6034

Introductory guide to the analysis of plant phytoliths in archaeology.

The Human Bone Manual

Author: Tim D. White,Pieter A. Folkens

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080488998

Category: Law

Page: 488

View: 9769

Building on the success of their previous book, White and Folkens' The Human Bone Manual is intended for use outside the laboratory and classroom, by professional forensic scientists, anthropologists and researchers. The compact volume includes all the key information needed for identification purposes, including hundreds of photographs designed to show a maximum amount of anatomical information. Features more than 500 color photographs and illustrations in a portable format; most in 1:1 ratio Provides multiple views of every bone in the human body Includes tips on identifying any human bone or tooth Incorporates up-to-date references for further study

Alluvial Geoarchaeology

Floodplain Archaeology and Environmental Change

Author: A. G. Brown

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521568203

Category: Social Science

Page: 377

View: 2093

This comprehensive technical manual is designed to give archaeologists the necessary background knowledge in environmental science required to excavate and analyze archaeological sites by rivers and on floodplains. Bringing together information on the evolution and exploitation of floodplain and river landscapes, this text draws on examples from Britain, Europe, North America and Australasia. An important theme is the interaction between climatic and cultural forces and the transformation of riverine environments.

Demography in Archaeology

Author: Andrew T. Chamberlain

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139455346

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 3607

Demography in Archaeology, first published in 2006, is a review of current theory and method in the reconstruction of populations from archaeological data. Starting with a summary of demographic concepts and methods, the book examines historical and ethnographic sources of demographic evidence before addressing the methods by which reliable demographic estimates can be made from skeletal remains, settlement evidence and modern and ancient biomolecules. Recent debates in palaeodemography are evaluated, new statistical methods for palaeodemographic reconstruction are explained, and the notion that past demographic structures and processes were substantially different from those pertaining today is critiqued. The book covers a wide span of evidence, from the evolutionary background of human demography to the influence of natural and human-induced catastrophes on population growth and survival. This is essential reading for any archaeologist or anthropologist with an interest in relating the results of field and laboratory studies to broader questions of population structure and dynamics.

The Archaeology of Human Bones

Author: Simon Mays

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136971777

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 9935

The Archaeology of Human Bones provides an up to date account of the scientific analysis of human skeletal remains from archaeological sites. This completely revised edition reflects the latest developments in scientific techniques for studying human skeletons and the latest applications of those techniques in archaeology. In particular, the sections on ancient DNA and bone stable isotopes have been comprehensively updated, and two completely new chapters have been introduced, covering metric study of the postcranial skeleton and ethical dimensions of the study of human remains. The Archaeology of Human Bones introduces students to the anatomy of bones and teeth, utilising a large number of images. It analyzes the biasing effects of decay and incomplete recovery on burial data from archaeological sites, and discusses what we may learn about burial rites from human remains. Subsequent chapters focus on demographic analysis of earlier populations, normal skeletal variation, disease and injury, isotopic and DNA analysis of bone, the study of cremated bone and ethical aspects of working with ancient human remains. Current scientific methods are explained, alongside a critical discussion of their strengths and weaknesses. The ways in which scientific analyses of human skeletal remains can contribute to tackling major archaeological or historical issues is illustrated by means of examples drawn from studies from around the world. Technical jargon is kept to a minimum, and each chapter contains a summary of the main points that a student should grasp and a list of further reading targeted to enable students to follow up major issues covered in the book. Featuring case studies from around the world and with copious illustrations, The Archaeology of Human Bones continues to be a crucial work for students of archaeology.

The Archaeology of Animal Bones

Author: Terence Patrick O'Connor,Terry O'Connor

Publisher: Texas A&M University Press

ISBN: 9781603440844

Category: Social Science

Page: 206

View: 6547

Animal ecologists can observe the present and reconstruct the last one or two centuries from historical sources, but the study of animal bones adds valuable insight into the peoples and landscapes of the past while telling much about the evolution of human-animal relationships. In this standard work, now available in paperback, O’Connor offers a detailed overview of the study of animal bones. He analyzes bone composition and structure and the archaeological evidence left by the processes of life, death, and decomposition. He goes on to look at how bone is excavated, examined, described, identified, measured, and reassembled into skeletons. The bulk of the book is devoted to the interpretation of bone fragments, which tell much about the animals themselves—their health, growth, diet, injuries, and age at death.

Dental Morphology for Anthropology

An Illustrated Manual

Author: Heather J. H. Edgar

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1315300826

Category: Social Science

Page: 202

View: 3641

This work provides a new, comprehensive update to the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System (ASUDAS). Drawing upon her extensive experience in informatics, curating data, and dental morphological data acquisition, Edgar has developed accessible and user-friendly standardized images and descriptions of dental morphological variants. The manual provides nearly 400 illustrations that indicate ideal expressions of each dental trait. These drawings are coupled with over 650 photographs of real teeth, indicating real-world examples of each expression. Additionally, trait descriptions have been written to be clear, comparative, and easy to apply. Together, the images and descriptions are presented in a standardized form for quick and clear reference. All of these modifications to ASUDAS make it more usable for students and professionals alike. In addition to these features of the manual, the text makes a brief but strong argument for why dental morphology will continue to be a useful tool in biological anthropology through the 21st century.

Geographical Information Systems in Archaeology

Author: James Conolly,Mark Lake

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521793300

Category: Social Science

Page: 338

View: 9987

Geographical Information Systems has moved from the domain of the computer specialist into the wider archaeological community, providing it with an exciting new research method. This clearly written but rigorous book provides a comprehensive guide to that use. Topics covered include: the theoretical context and the basics of GIS; data acquisition including database design; interpolation of elevation models; exploratory data analysis including spatial queries; statistical spatial analysis; map algebra; spatial operations including the calculation of slope and aspect, filtering and erosion modeling; methods for analysing regions; visibility analysis; network analysis including hydrological modeling; the production of high quality output for paper and electronic publication; and the use and production of metadata. Offering an extensive range of archaeological examples, it is an invaluable source of practical information for all archaeologists, whether engaged in cultural resource management or academic research. This is essential reading for both the novice and the advanced user.

The Archaeology of Animals

Author: Simon J. M. Davis

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135106592

Category: Science

Page: 228

View: 2622

Ever since the discovery of fossil remains of extinct animals associated with flint implements, bones and other animal remains have been providing invaluable information to the archaeologist. In the last 20 years many archaeologists and zoologists have taken to studying such "archaeofaunal" remains, and the science of "zoo-archaeology" has come into being. What was the nature of the environment in which our ancestors lived? In which season were sites occupied? When did our earliest ancestors start to hunt big game, and how efficient were they as hunters? Were early humans responsible for the extinction of so many species of large mammals 10-20,000 years ago? When, where and why were certain animals first domesticated? When did milking and horse-riding begin? Did the Romans influence our eating habits? What were sanitary conditions like in medieval England? And could the terrible pestilence which afflicted the English in the seventh century AD have been plague? These are some of the questions dealt with in this book. The book also describes the nature and development of bones and teeth, and some of the methods used in zoo-archaeology.

Archaeological Illustration

Author: Lesley Adkins,Roy Adkins

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521354783

Category: Art

Page: 259

View: 9463

This volume, originally published in 1989, is intended as a practical guide to archaeological illustration, from drawing finds in the field to technical studio drawing for publication. It is also an invaluable reference tool for the interpretation of illustrations and their status as archaeological evidence. The book's ten chapters start from first principles and guide the illustrator through the historical development of archaeological illustration and basic skills. Each chapter then deals with a different illustrative technique - drawing in the field during survey work and excavation, drawing artefacts, buildings and reconstructions, producing artwork for publication and the early uses of computer graphics. Information about appropriate equipment, as well as a guide to manufacturers, is also supplied. An obvious and important feature of Archaeological Illustration is the 120 line drawings and half-tones which show the right - and the wrong - way of producing drawings. This volume will therefore be of interest to amateur and professional archaeologists alike.