Symmetry and Fundamental Physics: Tom Kibble at 80

Author: Jerome Gauntlett

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814583073

Category: Science

Page: 172

View: 9503

Tom Kibble is an inspirational theoretical physicist who has made profound contributions to our understanding of the physical world. To celebrate his 80th birthday a one-day symposium was held on March 13, 2013 at the Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London. This important volume is a compilation of papers based on the presentations that were given at the symposium. The symposium profiled various aspects of Tom's long scientific career. The tenor of the meeting was set in the first talk given by Neil Turok, director of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, who described Tom as “our guru and example”. He gave a modern overview of cosmological theories, including a discussion of Tom's pioneering work on how topological defects might have formed in the early universe during symmetry-breaking phase transitions. Wojciech Zurek of Los Alamos National Laboratory continued with this theme, surveying analogous processes within the context of condensed matter systems and explaining the Kibble–Zurek scaling phenomenon. The day's events were concluded by Jim Virdee of Imperial College, who summarized the epic and successful quest of finding the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. At the end of the talk, there was a standing ovation for Tom that lasted several minutes. In the evening, Steven Weinberg gave a keynote presentation to a capacity audience of 700 people. He talked eruditely on symmetry breaking and its role in elementary particle physics. At the banquet dinner, Frank Close of Oxford University concluded the banquet speeches by summarizing the significance of Tom's contributions to the creation of the Standard Model. Contents:Tom Kibble and the Early Universe as the Ultimate High Energy Experiment (Neil Turok)Universality of Phase Transition Dynamics: Topological Defects from Symmetry Breaking (Adolfo del Campo and Wojciech H Zurek)The Quest for the Higgs Boson at the LHC (Tejinder S Virdee)Tom Kibble: Breaking Ground and Breaking Symmetries (Steven Weinberg)Tom Kibble at 80: After Dinner Speech (Frank Close)Publication List — Tom W B Kibble Readership: Graduate students and researchers in particle physics, cosmology, high energy physics and astrophysics. Keywords:Tom Kibble;Higgs Boson;LHC;Symmetry-Breaking;Elementary Particle Physics;Cosmology;High Energy PhysicsReviews: “The overall structure of the volume is well-conceived as to capture and convey to a wide variety of audiences the fundamental long-range contributions given by Kibble. This book represents a precious cross-disciplinary reference for both specialists in different fields as well as for graduate students willing to get acquainted with the challenging ideas of contemporary theoretical physics.” Il Nuovo Saggiatore

Classical Mechanics

Author: Tom W B Kibble,Frank H Berkshire

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 1911298283

Category: Science

Page: 500

View: 3146

This is the fifth edition of a well-established textbook. It is intended to provide a thorough coverage of the fundamental principles and techniques of classical mechanics, an old subject that is at the base of all of physics, but in which there has also in recent years been rapid development. The book is aimed at undergraduate students of physics and applied mathematics. It emphasizes the basic principles, and aims to progress rapidly to the point of being able to handle physically and mathematically interesting problems, without getting bogged down in excessive formalism. Lagrangian methods are introduced at a relatively early stage, to get students to appreciate their use in simple contexts. Later chapters use Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods extensively, but in a way that aims to be accessible to undergraduates, while including modern developments at the appropriate level of detail. The subject has been developed considerably recently while retaining a truly central role for all students of physics and applied mathematics. This edition retains all the main features of the fourth edition, including the two chapters on geometry of dynamical systems and on order and chaos, and the new appendices on conics and on dynamical systems near a critical point. The material has been somewhat expanded, in particular to contrast continuous and discrete behaviours. A further appendix has been added on routes to chaos (period-doubling) and related discrete maps. The new edition has also been revised to give more emphasis to specific examples worked out in detail. Classical Mechanics is written for undergraduate students of physics or applied mathematics. It assumes some basic prior knowledge of the fundamental concepts and reasonable familiarity with elementary differential and integral calculus. Contents: Linear MotionEnergy and Angular MomentumCentral Conservative ForcesRotating FramesPotential TheoryThe Two-Body ProblemMany-Body SystemsRigid BodiesLagrangian MechanicsSmall Oscillations and Normal ModesHamiltonian MechanicsDynamical Systems and Their GeometryOrder and Chaos in Hamiltonian SystemsAppendices:VectorsConicsPhase Plane Analysis Near Critical PointsDiscrete Dynamical Systems — Maps Readership: Undergraduates in physics and applied mathematics.

The God Particle

If the Universe is the Answer, what is the Question?

Author: Leon M. Lederman,Dick Teresi

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 9780618711680

Category: Science

Page: 434

View: 9086

The world's foremost experimental physicist uses humor, metaphor, and storytelling to delve into the mysteries of matter, discussing the as-yet-to-be-discovered God particle.

The Infinity Puzzle

The Personalities, Politics, and Extraordinary Science Behind the Higgs Boson

Author: Frank Close

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199673306

Category: Science

Page: 413

View: 8675

Forty years ago, three physicists - Peter Higgs, Gerard 't Hooft, and James Bjorken - made the spectacular breakthroughs that led to the world's largest experiment, CERN's Large Hadron Collider. Against a backdrop of high politics and billion dollar budgets, this is the story of their work, the quest for the Higgs boson, and its eventual discovery.

Modern Quantum Field Theory

A Concise Introduction

Author: Tom Banks

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139473891

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 1705

Presenting a variety of topics that are only briefly touched on in other texts, this book provides a thorough introduction to the techniques of field theory. Covering Feynman diagrams and path integrals, the author emphasizes the path integral approach, the Wilsonian approach to renormalization, and the physics of non-abelian gauge theory. It provides a thorough treatment of quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, topics not usually covered in other texts at this level. The Standard Model of particle physics is discussed in detail. Connections with condensed matter physics are explored, and there is a brief, but detailed, treatment of non-perturbative semi-classical methods. Ideal for graduate students in high energy physics and condensed matter physics, the book contains many problems,which help students practise the key techniques of quantum field theory.

Introductory Topology

Exercises and Solutions

Author: Mohammed Hichem Mortad

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9814583839

Category: Mathematics

Page: 260

View: 8073

The book offers a good introduction to topology through solved exercises. It is mainly intended for undergraduate students. Most exercises are given with detailed solutions.

Quantum Social Science

Author: Emmanuel Haven,Andrei Khrennikov

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139851497

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 2672

Written by world experts in the foundations of quantum mechanics and its applications to social science, this book shows how elementary quantum mechanical principles can be applied to decision-making paradoxes in psychology and used in modelling information in finance and economics. The book starts with a thorough overview of some of the salient differences between classical, statistical and quantum mechanics. It presents arguments on why quantum mechanics can be applied outside of physics and defines quantum social science. The issue of the existence of quantum probabilistic effects in psychology, economics and finance is addressed and basic questions and answers are provided. Aimed at researchers in economics and psychology, as well as physics, basic mathematical preliminaries and elementary concepts from quantum mechanics are defined in a self-contained way.

Explicit Symmetry Breaking in Electrodynamic Systems and Electromagnetic Radiation

Author: Dhiraj Sinha,Gehan A J Amaratunga

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1681743582

Category: Science

Page: 93

View: 7449

This book is an introduction to the concept of symmetries in electromagnetism and explicit symmetry breaking. It begins with a brief background on the origin of the concept of symmetry and its meaning in fields such as architecture, mathematics and physics. Despite the extensive developments of symmetry in these fields, it has yet to be applied to the context of classical electromagnetism and related engineering applications. This book unravels the beauty and excitement of this area to scientists and engineers.

Science Education Research in the Knowledge-Based Society

Author: Dimitris Psillos,Petros Kariotoglou,Vasilis Tselfes,E. Hatzikraniotis,George Fassoulopoulos,Maria Kallery

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401701652

Category: Science

Page: 481

View: 5743

This book offers a global presentation of issues under study for improving science education research in the context of the knowledge-based society at a European and international level. It includes discussions of several theoretical approaches, research overviews, research methodologies, and the teaching and learning of science. It is based on papers presented at the Third International Conference of the European Science Education Research Association (Thessaloniki, Greece, August 2001).

The Standard Model Higgs Boson

Selections and Comments

Author: M.B. Einhorn

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444596135

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 4672

The Standard Model of electroweak and strong interactions contains a scalar field which permeates all of space and matter, and whose properties provide the explanation of the origin of the masses. Commonly referred to as the Higgs field, it assumes in the physical vacuum a non-vanishing classical expectation value to which the masses of not only the vector bosons, but all the other known fundamental particles (quarks and leptons) are proportional. This volume presents a concise summary of the phenomenological properties of the Higgs boson.

Back-of-the-envelope Quantum Mechanics

With Extensions to Many-body Systems and Integrable PDEs

Author: Maxim Olshanii

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814508470

Category: Differential equations, Partial

Page: 151

View: 6954

Dimensional and order-of-magnitude estimates are practiced by almost everybody but taught almost nowhere. When physics students engage in their first theoretical research project, they soon learn that exactly solvable problems belong only to textbooks, that numerical models are long and resource consuming, and that something else is needed to quickly gain insight into the system they are going to study. Qualitative methods are this something else, but typically, students have never heard of them before. The aim of this book is to teach the craft of qualitative analysis using a set of problems, some with solutions and some without, in advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate Quantum Mechanics. Examples include a dimensional analysis solution for the spectrum of a quartic oscillator, simple WKB formulas for the matrix elements of a coordinate in a gravitational well, and a three-line-long estimate for the ionization energy of atoms uniformly valid across the whole periodic table. The pi ce de r(r)sistance in the collection is a series of dimensional analysis questions in Integrable Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations with no dimensions existing a priori . Solved problems include the relationship between the size and the speed of solitons of the Korteweg-de Vries equation and an expression for the oscillation period of a Nonlinear SchrAdinger breather as a function of its widt

Noncommutative Cosmology

Author: Marcolli Matilde

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9813202866

Category: Science

Page: 292

View: 486

Modified gravity models play an important role in contemporary theoretical cosmology. The present book proposes a novel approach to the topic based on techniques from noncommutative geometry, especially the spectral action functional as a gravity model. The book discusses applications to early universe models and slow-roll inflation models, to the problem of cosmic topology, to non-isotropic cosmologies like mixmaster universes and Bianchi IX gravitational instantons, and to multifractal structures in cosmology. Relations between noncommutative and algebro-geometric methods in cosmology is also discussed, including the occurrence of motives, periods, and modular forms in spectral models of gravity. Contents: PrefaceAcknowledgmentsGravity and Matter in Noncommutative GeometryRenormalization Group Flows and Early Universe ModelsCosmic TopologyAlgebro-geometric Models in CosmologyMixmaster CosmologiesThe Spectral Action on Bianchi IX CosmologiesFractal and Multifractal Structures in CosmologyNoncommutative Quantum CosmologyBibliography Readership: Graduate students and researchers in mathematical physics and theoretical cosmology. Keywords: Cosmology;Gravity;Particle Physics;GeometryReview: Key Features: While there are recent books that focus on applications of noncommutative geometry to particle physics models, there is presently no other book that focuses on applications to cosmology

The Large Hadron Collider

The Extraordinary Story of the Higgs Boson and Other Stuff That Will Blow Your Mind

Author: Don Lincoln

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421413515

Category: SCIENCE

Page: 240

View: 3496

Details the history of the Large Hadron Collider and the scientific breakthroughs it helped to discover, including the Higgs boson.

Physics and Our World

Reissue of the Proceedings of a Symposium in Honor of Victor F Weisskopf

Author: Kerson Huang

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814434981

Category: Science

Page: 188

View: 6877

As the proceedings of a symposium in honor of Victor Weisskopf at MIT, this volume contains papers by leaders of physics at the time, including M Delbrück, M Gell-Mann, H Bethe, T D Lee, B R Mottelson, W K H Panofsky, E Purcell, J Schwinger, S M Ulam, and others. Some papers address problems in the philosophy of physics, and physics and society, that are timeless in nature. But the symposium had a historical significance, in that it took place at a historic juncture of particle physics — the emergence of the Standard Model owing to experiments that point to the existence of quarks. Some of the papers reflect both the pre-quark and post-quark points of view. For these reasons, these proceedings merit reissue and reexamination. Contents:Introductory Remarks (James Killian)The Energy Problem (Hans Bethe)Model-Free Views of Deep Inelastic Scattering (Julian Schwinger)Life at Low Reynolds Number (E M Purcell)A Possible New Form of Matter at High Density (T D Lee)The World as Quarks, Leptons and Bosons (Murray Gell-Mann)What Angular Momentum Can Do to the Nucleus (Ben R Mottelson)Physics for Mathematicians (S M Ulam)How Aristotle Discovered DNA (Max Delbrück)Is Negotiated Arms Control Possible? (W K H Panofsky)The Third Culture (David Hawkins) Readership: Academics, graduate students and people interested in particle and nuclear physics. Keywords:History of Physics;Nobel Laureate;Victor Weisskopf;Hans Bethe;Julian Schwinger;Edward Purcell;T D Lee;Murray Gell-Mann;Ben Mottelson;Max Delbrück

The Theory of Almost Everything

The Standard Model, the Unsung Triumph of Modern Physics

Author: Robert Oerter

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781101126745

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 945

There are two scientific theories that, taken together, explain the entire universe. The first, which describes the force of gravity, is widely known: Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. But the theory that explains everything else—the Standard Model of Elementary Particles—is virtually unknown among the general public. In The Theory of Almost Everything, Robert Oerter shows how what were once thought to be separate forces of nature were combined into a single theory by some of the most brilliant minds of the twentieth century. Rich with accessible analogies and lucid prose, The Theory of Almost Everything celebrates a heretofore unsung achievement in human knowledge—and reveals the sublime structure that underlies the world as we know it.

Selected Papers of Abdus Salam

(With Commentary)

Author: A Ali,C Isham,T Kibble,Riazuddin

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814502367

Category: Science

Page: 696

View: 2487

This is a selection from over 250 papers published by Abdus Salam. Professor Salam has been Professor of Theoretical Physics at Imperial College, London and Director of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, for which he was largely responsible for creating. He is one of the most distinguished theoretical physicists of his generation and won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1979 for his work on the unification of electromagnetic and weak interactions. He is well known for his deep interest in the development of scientific research in the third world (to which ICTP is devoted) and has taken a leading part in setting up the Third World Academy. His research work has ranged widely over quantum field theory and all aspects of the theory of elementary particles and more recently into other fields, including high-temperature superconductivity and theoretical biology. The papers selected represent a cross section of his work covering the entire period of 50 years from his student days to the present. Contents:Quantum Field Theory and Dispersion RelationsSymmetries and Electroweak UnificationLepton-Hadron UnificationGravity, Supersymmetry and StringsCondensed Matter and Biology Readership: Physicists. keywords:Abdus Salam;Quantum Field Theory;Renormalization;Gauge Theory;Electroweak Theory;Gauge Unification;Particle Symmetries;Supergravity;String Theory;Baryon Conservation;Compactification “Abdus Salam's scientific work spans much of the history of particle physics, from early days of quantum field theory to the present. He contributed to what are now basic ideas about functional determinants, symmetries in physics, the construction of the standard model, superspace constructions of supersymmetric theories, and more. This collection contains many papers that are still fresh after the passing of time.” Edward Witten