Survival and Event History Analysis

A Process Point of View

Author: Odd Aalen,Ornulf Borgan,Hakon Gjessing

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 038768560X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 540

View: 9150

The aim of this book is to bridge the gap between standard textbook models and a range of models where the dynamic structure of the data manifests itself fully. The common denominator of such models is stochastic processes. The authors show how counting processes, martingales, and stochastic integrals fit very nicely with censored data. Beginning with standard analyses such as Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regression, the presentation progresses to the additive hazard model and recurrent event data. Stochastic processes are also used as natural models for individual frailty; they allow sensible interpretations of a number of surprising artifacts seen in population data. The stochastic process framework is naturally connected to causality. The authors show how dynamic path analyses can incorporate many modern causality ideas in a framework that takes the time aspect seriously. To make the material accessible to the reader, a large number of practical examples, mainly from medicine, are developed in detail. Stochastic processes are introduced in an intuitive and non-technical manner. The book is aimed at investigators who use event history methods and want a better understanding of the statistical concepts. It is suitable as a textbook for graduate courses in statistics and biostatistics.

Introducing Survival and Event History Analysis

Author: Melinda Mills

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1848601026

Category: Social Science

Page: 279

View: 8078

This book is an accessible, practical and comprehensive guide for researchers from multiple disciplines including biomedical, epidemiology, engineering and the social sciences. Written for accessibility, this book will appeal to students and researchers who want to understand the basics of survival and event history analysis and apply these methods without getting entangled in mathematical and theoretical technicalities. Inside, readers are offered a blueprint for their entire research project from data preparation to model selection and diagnostics. Engaging, easy to read, functional and packed with enlightening examples, ‘hands-on’ exercises, conversations with key scholars and resources for both students and instructors, this text allows researchers to quickly master advanced statistical techniques. It is written from the perspective of the ‘user’, making it suitable as both a self-learning tool and graduate-level textbook. Also included are up-to-date innovations in the field, including advancements in the assessment of model fit, unobserved heterogeneity, recurrent events and multilevel event history models. Practical instructions are also included for using the statistical programs of R, STATA and SPSS, enabling readers to replicate the examples described in the text.

Event History Analysis with R

Author: Göran Broström

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 149878660X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 236

View: 9997

With an emphasis on social science applications, Event History Analysis with R presents an introduction to survival and event history analysis using real-life examples. Keeping mathematical details to a minimum, the book covers key topics, including both discrete and continuous time data, parametric proportional hazards, and accelerated failure times. Features Introduces parametric proportional hazards models with baseline distributions like the Weibull, Gompertz, Lognormal, and Piecewise constant hazard distributions, in addition to traditional Cox regression Presents mathematical details as well as technical material in an appendix Includes real examples with applications in demography, econometrics, and epidemiology Provides a dedicated R package, eha, containing special treatments, including making cuts in the Lexis diagram, creating communal covariates, and creating period statistics A much-needed primer, Event History Analysis with R is a didactically excellent resource for students and practitioners of applied event history and survival analysis.

Survival and Event History Analysis

Author: Niels Keiding,Per Kragh Andersen

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 9780470058060

Category: Mathematics

Page: 550

View: 4178

A unique and invaluable reference resource for those working in survival analysis. Survival analysis is concerned with studying the time between entry to a study and a subsequent event. Originally the analysis was concerned with time from treatment until death, hence the name, but survival analysis is applicable to many areas in addition to mortality, such as recidivism or the efficacy of drugs. The techniques can also be used in engineering and quality control (e.g. how long is a particular component likely to last?). Arranged in an A-Z format, Survival and Event History Analysis edited by Niels Keiding and Per Kragh Andersen contains 96 articles written by over 60 distinguished authors. The articles are taken from the Encyclopedia of Biostatistics, 2nd Edition. This book gives the reader a thorough grounding in the subject area and the extensive references at the end of each article provide a comprehensive source of information for further information in more depth.

Event History Analysis

Regression for Longitudinal Event Data

Author: Paul D. Allison

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803920552

Category: Social Science

Page: 87

View: 7990

Drawing on recent "event history" analytical methods from biostatistics, engineering, and sociology, this clear and comprehensive monograph explains how longitudinal data can be used to study the causes of deaths, crimes, wars, and many other human events. Allison shows why ordinary multiple regression is not suited to analyze event history data, and demonstrates how innovative regression - like methods can overcome this problem. He then discusses the particular new methods that social scientists should find useful.

Statistical Models Based on Counting Processes

Author: PER KRAGH ANDERSEN,Ornulf Borgan,Richard D. Gill,Niels Keiding

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461243483

Category: Mathematics

Page: 784

View: 630

Modern survival analysis and more general event history analysis may be effectively handled within the mathematical framework of counting processes. This book presents this theory, which has been the subject of intense research activity over the past 15 years. The exposition of the theory is integrated with careful presentation of many practical examples, drawn almost exclusively from the authors'own experience, with detailed numerical and graphical illustrations. Although Statistical Models Based on Counting Processes may be viewed as a research monograph for mathematical statisticians and biostatisticians, almost all the methods are given in concrete detail for use in practice by other mathematically oriented researchers studying event histories (demographers, econometricians, epidemiologists, actuarial mathematicians, reliability engineers and biologists). Much of the material has so far only been available in the journal literature (if at all), and so a wide variety of researchers will find this an invaluable survey of the subject.

Applied Survival Analysis

Regression Modeling of Time to Event Data

Author: David W. Hosmer, Jr.,Stanley Lemeshow,Susanne May

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118211588

Category: Mathematics

Page: 416

View: 2538

THE MOST PRACTICAL, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE TO MODELLING AND ANALYZING TIME-TO-EVENT DATA—NOW IN A VALUABLE NEW EDITION Since publication of the first edition nearly a decade ago, analyses using time-to-event methods have increase considerably in all areas of scientific inquiry mainly as a result of model-building methods available in modern statistical software packages. However, there has been minimal coverage in the available literature to9 guide researchers, practitioners, and students who wish to apply these methods to health-related areas of study. Applied Survival Analysis, Second Edition provides a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to regression modeling for time-to-event data in medical, epidemiological, biostatistical, and other health-related research. This book places a unique emphasis on the practical and contemporary applications of regression modeling rather than the mathematical theory. It offers a clear and accessible presentation of modern modeling techniques supplemented with real-world examples and case studies. Key topics covered include: variable selection, identification of the scale of continuous covariates, the role of interactions in the model, assessment of fit and model assumptions, regression diagnostics, recurrent event models, frailty models, additive models, competing risk models, and missing data. Features of the Second Edition include: Expanded coverage of interactions and the covariate-adjusted survival functions The use of the Worchester Heart Attack Study as the main modeling data set for illustrating discussed concepts and techniques New discussion of variable selection with multivariable fractional polynomials Further exploration of time-varying covariates, complex with examples Additional treatment of the exponential, Weibull, and log-logistic parametric regression models Increased emphasis on interpreting and using results as well as utilizing multiple imputation methods to analyze data with missing values New examples and exercises at the end of each chapter Analyses throughout the text are performed using Stata® Version 9, and an accompanying FTP site contains the data sets used in the book. Applied Survival Analysis, Second Edition is an ideal book for graduate-level courses in biostatistics, statistics, and epidemiologic methods. It also serves as a valuable reference for practitioners and researchers in any health-related field or for professionals in insurance and government.

Event History Modeling

A Guide for Social Scientists

Author: Janet M. Box-Steffensmeier,Bradford S. Jones

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521546737

Category: Political Science

Page: 218

View: 3752

Event History Modeling provides an accessible, up-to-date guide to event history analysis for researchers and advanced students in the social sciences. The authors explain the foundational principles of event-history analysis, and analyse numerous examples which they estimate and interpret using standard statistical packages, such as STATA and S-Plus. They review recent and critical innovations in diagnostics, including testing the proportional hazards assumption, identifying outliers, and assessing model fit. They also discuss common problems encountered with time-to-event data, and make recommendations regarding the implementation of duration modeling methods.

The Statistical Analysis of Recurrent Events

Author: Richard J. Cook,Jerald Lawless

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387698094

Category: Medical

Page: 404

View: 7544

This book presents models and statistical methods for the analysis of recurrent event data. The authors provide broad, detailed coverage of the major approaches to analysis, while emphasizing the modeling assumptions that they are based on. More general intensity-based models are also considered, as well as simpler models that focus on rate or mean functions. Parametric, nonparametric and semiparametric methodologies are all covered, with procedures for estimation, testing and model checking.

Analysis of Binary Data, Second Edition

Author: D.R. Cox

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351466720

Category: Mathematics

Page: 240

View: 5615

The first edition of this book (1970) set out a systematic basis for the analysis of binary data and in particular for the study of how the probability of 'success' depends on explanatory variables. The first edition has been widely used and the general level and style have been preserved in the second edition, which contains a substantial amount of new material. This amplifies matters dealt with only cryptically in the first edition and includes many more recent developments. In addition the whole material has been reorganized, in particular to put more emphasis on m.aximum likelihood methods. There are nearly 60 further results and exercises. The main points are illustrated by practical examples, many of them not in the first edition, and some general essential background material is set out in new Appendices.

Modeling Survival Data: Extending the Cox Model

Author: Terry M. Therneau,Patricia M. Grambsch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475732945

Category: Mathematics

Page: 350

View: 5136

This book is for statistical practitioners, particularly those who design and analyze studies for survival and event history data. Building on recent developments motivated by counting process and martingale theory, it shows the reader how to extend the Cox model to analyze multiple/correlated event data using marginal and random effects. The focus is on actual data examples, the analysis and interpretation of results, and computation. The book shows how these new methods can be implemented in SAS and S-Plus, including computer code, worked examples, and data sets.

Survival Analysis

Models and Applications

Author: Xian Liu

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118307674

Category: Mathematics

Page: 427

View: 7786

Survival analysis concerns sequential occurrences of events governed by probabilistic laws. Recent decades have witnessed many applications of survival analysis in various disciplines. This book introduces both classic survival models and theories along with newly developed techniques. Readers will learn how to perform analysis of survival data by following numerous empirical illustrations in SAS. Survival Analysis: Models and Applications: Presents basic techniques before leading onto some of the most advanced topics in survival analysis. Assumes only a minimal knowledge of SAS whilst enabling more experienced users to learn new techniques of data input and manipulation. Provides numerous examples of SAS code to illustrate each of the methods, along with step-by-step instructions to perform each technique. Highlights the strengths and limitations of each technique covered. Covering a wide scope of survival techniques and methods, from the introductory to the advanced, this book can be used as a useful reference book for planners, researchers, and professors who are working in settings involving various lifetime events. Scientists interested in survival analysis should find it a useful guidebook for the incorporation of survival data and methods into their projects.

Lifetime Data: Models in Reliability and Survival Analysis

Author: Nicholas P. Jewell,Alan C. Kimber,Mei-Ling Ting Lee,G. Alex Whitmore

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475756542

Category: Mathematics

Page: 410

View: 7412

Statistical models and methods for lifetime and other time-to-event data are widely used in many fields, including medicine, the environmental sciences, actuarial science, engineering, economics, management, and the social sciences. For example, closely related statistical methods have been applied to the study of the incubation period of diseases such as AIDS, the remission time of cancers, life tables, the time-to-failure of engineering systems, employment duration, and the length of marriages. This volume contains a selection of papers based on the 1994 International Research Conference on Lifetime Data Models in Reliability and Survival Analysis, held at Harvard University. The conference brought together a varied group of researchers and practitioners to advance and promote statistical science in the many fields that deal with lifetime and other time-to-event-data. The volume illustrates the depth and diversity of the field. A few of the authors have published their conference presentations in the new journal Lifetime Data Analysis (Kluwer Academic Publishers).

Fixed Effects Regression Models

Author: Paul D. Allison

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483389278

Category: Social Science

Page: 136

View: 5710

This book demonstrates how to estimate and interpret fixed-effects models in a variety of different modeling contexts: linear models, logistic models, Poisson models, Cox regression models, and structural equation models. Both advantages and disadvantages of fixed-effects models will be considered, along with detailed comparisons with random-effects models. Written at a level appropriate for anyone who has taken a year of statistics, the book is appropriate as a supplement for graduate courses in regression or linear regression as well as an aid to researchers who have repeated measures or cross-sectional data. Learn more about "The Little Green Book" - QASS Series! Click Here

Multistate Models for the Analysis of Life History Data

Author: Richard J Cook,Jerald F. Lawless

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351646052

Category: Mathematics

Page: 440

View: 9369

Multistate Models for the Analysis of Life History Data provides the first comprehensive treatment of multistate modeling and analysis, including parametric, nonparametric and semiparametric methods applicable to many types of life history data. Special models such as illness-death, competing risks and progressive processes are considered, as well as more complex models. The book provides both theoretical development and illustrations of analysis based on data from randomized trials and observational cohort studies in health research. Features Discusses a wide range of applications of multistate models Presents methods for both continuously and intermittently observed life history processes Gives a thorough discussion of conditionally independent censoring and observation processes Discusses models with random effects and joint models for two or more multistate processes Discusses and illustrates software for multistate analysis that is available in R Target audience includes those engaged in research and applications involving multistate models Richard Cook is Canada Research Chair in Statistical Methods for Health Research at the University of Waterloo. He has received the Gold Medal of the Statistical Society of Canada and is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association. He collaborates and consults widely on health research and has given many short courses. He and Dr. Lawless previously coauthored the influential book, The Statistical Analysis of Recurrent Events (Springer, 2007). Jerald Lawless is Distinguished Professor Emeritus at the University of Waterloo. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, a Gold Medal recipient of the Statistical Society of Canada and Fellow of the American Statistical Association. He is a past editor of Technometrics and has collaborated and consulted in numerous areas. He has presented many short courses, with Dr. Cook and individually. "The authors of the book are internationally renowned experts in the field of multi-state modeling and have written an extremely clear and comprehensive book on the topic that covers many different aspects, from the fundamental theory to the practical side of analyzing data and interpreting results. The examples are well chosen to represent the most common types of multi-state processes that public health researchers could encounter. The inclusion of software code to illustrate how the models can be fit and interpreted is especially helpful to readers." (Mimi Kim, Albert Einstein College of Medicine)

Dynamic Prediction in Clinical Survival Analysis

Author: Hans van Houwelingen,Hein Putter

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439835438

Category: Mathematics

Page: 250

View: 9764

There is a huge amount of literature on statistical models for the prediction of survival after diagnosis of a wide range of diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Current practice is to use prediction models based on the Cox proportional hazards model and to present those as static models for remaining lifetime after diagnosis or treatment. In contrast, Dynamic Prediction in Clinical Survival Analysis focuses on dynamic models for the remaining lifetime at later points in time, for instance using landmark models. Designed to be useful to applied statisticians and clinical epidemiologists, each chapter in the book has a practical focus on the issues of working with real life data. Chapters conclude with additional material either on the interpretation of the models, alternative models, or theoretical background. The book consists of four parts: Part I deals with prognostic models for survival data using (clinical) information available at baseline, based on the Cox model Part II is about prognostic models for survival data using (clinical) information available at baseline, when the proportional hazards assumption of the Cox model is violated Part III is dedicated to the use of time-dependent information in dynamic prediction Part IV explores dynamic prediction models for survival data using genomic data Dynamic Prediction in Clinical Survival Analysis summarizes cutting-edge research on the dynamic use of predictive models with traditional and new approaches. Aimed at applied statisticians who actively analyze clinical data in collaboration with clinicians, the analyses of the different data sets throughout the book demonstrate how predictive models can be obtained from proper data sets.

Analysing Survival Data from Clinical Trials and Observational Studies

Author: Ettore Marubini,Maria Grazia Valsecchi

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470093412

Category: Mathematics

Page: 414

View: 5734

A practical guide to methods of survival analysis for medical researchers with limited statistical experience. Methods and techniques described range from descriptive and exploratory analysis to multivariate regression methods. Uses illustrative data from actual clinical trials and observational studies to describe methods of analysing and reporting results. Also reviews the features and performance of statistical software available for applying the methods of analysis discussed.

Survival Analysis Using S

Analysis of Time-to-Event Data

Author: Mara Tableman,Jong Sung Kim

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203501412

Category: Mathematics

Page: 280

View: 748

Survival Analysis Using S: Analysis of Time-to-Event Data is designed as a text for a one-semester or one-quarter course in survival analysis for upper-level or graduate students in statistics, biostatistics, and epidemiology. Prerequisites are a standard pre-calculus first course in probability and statistics, and a course in applied linear regression models. No prior knowledge of S or R is assumed. A wide choice of exercises is included, some intended for more advanced students with a first course in mathematical statistics. The authors emphasize parametric log-linear models, while also detailing nonparametric procedures along with model building and data diagnostics. Medical and public health researchers will find the discussion of cut point analysis with bootstrap validation, competing risks and the cumulative incidence estimator, and the analysis of left-truncated and right-censored data invaluable. The bootstrap procedure checks robustness of cut point analysis and determines cut point(s). In a chapter written by Stephen Portnoy, censored regression quantiles - a new nonparametric regression methodology (2003) - is developed to identify important forms of population heterogeneity and to detect departures from traditional Cox models. By generalizing the Kaplan-Meier estimator to regression models for conditional quantiles, this methods provides a valuable complement to traditional Cox proportional hazards approaches.

Frailty Models in Survival Analysis

Author: Andreas Wienke

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420073911

Category: Mathematics

Page: 324

View: 3573

The concept of frailty offers a convenient way to introduce unobserved heterogeneity and associations into models for survival data. In its simplest form, frailty is an unobserved random proportionality factor that modifies the hazard function of an individual or a group of related individuals. Frailty Models in Survival Analysis presents a comprehensive overview of the fundamental approaches in the area of frailty models. The book extensively explores how univariate frailty models can represent unobserved heterogeneity. It also emphasizes correlated frailty models as extensions of univariate and shared frailty models. The author analyzes similarities and differences between frailty and copula models; discusses problems related to frailty models, such as tests for homogeneity; and describes parametric and semiparametric models using both frequentist and Bayesian approaches. He also shows how to apply the models to real data using the statistical packages of R, SAS, and Stata. The appendix provides the technical mathematical results used throughout. Written in nontechnical terms accessible to nonspecialists, this book explains the basic ideas in frailty modeling and statistical techniques, with a focus on real-world data application and interpretation of the results. By applying several models to the same data, it allows for the comparison of their advantages and limitations under varying model assumptions. The book also employs simulations to analyze the finite sample size performance of the models.

Modelling Survival Data in Medical Research, Second Edition

Author: David Collett

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1584883251

Category: Mathematics

Page: 410

View: 9446

Critically acclaimed and resoundingly popular in its first edition, Modelling Survival Data in Medical Research has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect the many developments and advances--particularly in software--made in the field over the last 10 years. Now, more than ever, it provides an outstanding text for upper-level and graduate courses in survival analysis, biostatistics, and time-to-event analysis.The treatment begins with an introduction to survival analysis and a description of four studies that lead to survival data. Subsequent chapters then use those data sets and others to illustrate the various analytical techniques applicable to such data, including the Cox regression model, the Weibull proportional hazards model, and others. This edition features a more detailed treatment of topics such as parametric models, accelerated failure time models, and analysis of interval-censored data. The author also focuses the software section on the use of SAS, summarising the methods used by the software to generate its output and examining that output in detail. Profusely illustrated with examples and written in the author's trademark, easy-to-follow style, Modelling Survival Data in Medical Research, Second Edition is a thorough, practical guide to survival analysis that reflects current statistical practices.