Social Support: Theory, Research and Applications

Author: I.G. Sarason

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400951159

Category: Medical

Page: 520

View: 4201

"No one is rich enough to do without a neighbor." Traditional Danish Proverb This bit of Danish folk wisdom expresses an idea underlying much of the current thinking about social support. While the clinical literature has for a long time recognized the deleterious effects of unwholesome social relationships, only more recently has the focus broadened to include the positive side of social interaction, those interpersonal ties that are desired, rewarding, and protective. This book contains theoretical and research contributions by a group of scholars who are charting this side of the social spectrum. Evidence is increasing that maladaptive ways of thinking and behaving occur disproportionately among people with few social supports. Rather than sapping self-reliance, strong ties with others particularly family members seem to encourage it. Reliance on others and self-reliance are not only compatible but complementary to one another. While the mechanism by which an intimate relationship is protective has yet to be worked out, the following factors seem to be involved: intimacy, social integration through shared concerns, reassurance of worth, the opportunity to be nurtured by others, a sense of reliable alliance, and guidance. The major advance that is taking place in the literature on social support is that reliance is being -placed less on anecdotal and clinical evidence and more on empirical inquiry. The chapters of this book reflect this important development and identify the frontiers that are currently being explored.


Theory, Research and Implications for Society

Author: D.J. Cooke,Adelle E. Forth,Robert D. Hare

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401139652

Category: Psychology

Page: 428

View: 8812

Psychopathy is a very important concept for those working in the field of criminal justice - investigators, prosecutors, and those who have to evaluate, manage and treat offenders. In Psychopathy: Theory, Research and Implications for Society, detailed, empirically based contributions by the world's leading researchers describe the relevance of the construct to practical and policy issues, examining its relevance to such topics as treatment, risk management and recidivism. The use of the concept in a range of populations is discussed, including juveniles, children, and the mentally disordered, as well as across cultures. The major strength of the volume is that the validity of the psychopathy construct is enhanced by the extensive empirical support: contributors explore topics including the genetic, biological, affective, interpersonal and information processing models that underpin the disorder. Audience: All those dealing with offenders - psychologists, psychiatrists, lawyers, judges, prison administrators and those who formulate policy in the criminal justice system.

Theoretical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory

Author: M.A. Conway,David C. Rubin,Hans Spinnler,Willem A. Wagenaar

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401579679

Category: Psychology

Page: 502

View: 2505

The meeting Theoretical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory was held at the Grange Hotel, Grange-over-Sands, in the Lake District region of North Western England, July 1991. The workshop was financed by a generous grant from the NATO Scientific Affairs Division under the Advanced Research Workshop programme and without this funding the meeting would not have been possible: the organisers and delegates gratefully acknowledge the support of the NATO Advanced Research Workshops programme. Thirty-five scientists from five different NATO countries attended the workshop and twenty-seven delegates presented papers. The two aims of the workshop were to bring together in one forum a number of comparatively separate approaches to autobiographical memory and to promote theory in the area generally . These aims were fulfilled in the presentations and discussions, particularly the final discussion session, in which delegates focussed on the central issues of the nature, structure, and functions of autobiographical memory and how these emerge in different research areas. The present volume contains the papers arising from the workshop. We thank Mrs. Sheila Whalley for secretarial help and Fiona Hirst and Stephen Anderson für practical assistance in coordinating registration for the workshop.

Heart Disease

Environment, Stress, and Gender

Author: Gerdi Weidner,Mária Kopp,Margareta Kristenson

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 9784274905070

Category: Coronary heart disease

Page: 384

View: 7238

Why do men get more heart disease than women? Recent global trends in heart disease show that traditional coronary risk factors, such as elevated blood pressure and cholesterol are poor candidates in explaining the gender gap in heart disease. Changes in these risk factors also cannot explain the recent cardiovascular disease epidemic among middle-aged men in Eastern Europe. This book focuses on environmental, behavioural, and psychosocial variables, as well as new risk factors of a biological nature in an attempt to understand the gender gap in heart disease. It combines perspectives from numerous disciplines, such as demography, epidemiology, medicine, nutrition, sociology, and psychology to explore the environmental, behavioural, and psychosocial influences on men's greater susceptibility to heart disease.

Stochastic Games and Applications

Author: Abraham Neyman,S. Sorin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401001898

Category: Mathematics

Page: 473

View: 4811

This volume is based on lectures given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Stochastic Games and Applications," which took place at Stony Brook, NY, USA, July 1999. It gives the editors great pleasure to present it on the occasion of L.S. Shapley's eightieth birthday, and on the fiftieth "birthday" of his seminal paper "Stochastic Games," with which this volume opens. We wish to thank NATO for the grant that made the Institute and this volume possible, and the Center for Game Theory in Economics of the State University of New York at Stony Brook for hosting this event. We also wish to thank the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, for providing continuing financial support, without which this project would never have been completed. In particular, we are grateful to our editorial assistant Mike Borns, whose work has been indispensable. We also would like to acknowledge the support of the Ecole Poly tech nique, Paris, and the Israel Science Foundation. March 2003 Abraham Neyman and Sylvain Sorin ix STOCHASTIC GAMES L.S. SHAPLEY University of California at Los Angeles Los Angeles, USA 1. Introduction In a stochastic game the play proceeds by steps from position to position, according to transition probabilities controlled jointly by the two players.

Handbook of Sexual Assault

Issues, Theories, and Treatment of the Offender

Author: William Lamont Marshall,D.R. Laws,Howard E. Barbaree

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 148990915X

Category: Psychology

Page: 406

View: 9178

A useful tool for practitioners, researchers, theorists, and advanced students, Handbook of Sexual Assault analyzes the nature and extent of the problem of sexual offending and classifies the types of offenders according to an empirically developed system. In addition, contributors present the theories of the etiology and maintenance of sexual offending; offer various perspectives and factors relevant to accurate assessment; and detail contemporary treatment procedures.

Complex Potential Theory

Author: Paul M. Gauthier

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401109346

Category: Mathematics

Page: 552

View: 9599

Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute and Séminaire de mathématiques supérieures, Montréal, Canada, July 26--August 6, 1993

Social support

theory, research, and intervention

Author: Alan Vaux

Publisher: Praeger Publishers

ISBN: 9780275928117

Category: Political Science

Page: 346

View: 2945

Within the last decade, social support has become an increasingly popular research topic among professionals in the social sciences. Many empirical studies on social support appeared initially, only to be followed by a spate of theoretical articles attempting to make sense of the growing research literature. A need arose for an integrative overview of both theoretical and practical considerations expressing a consistent perspective on the many unresolved issues in the field. Social Support comprehensively evaluates research and theory from the perspective of both the scientist and human service provider.

Graphs and Order

The Role of Graphs in the Theory of Ordered Sets and Its Applications

Author: Ivan Rival

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400953151

Category: Mathematics

Page: 816

View: 4831

This volume contains the accounts of the principal survey papers presented at GRAPHS and ORDER, held at Banff, Canada from May 18 to May 31, 1984. This conference was supported by grants from the N.A.T.O. Advanced Study Institute programme, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the University of Calgary. We are grateful for all of this considerable support. Almost fifty years ago the first Symposium on Lattice Theory was held in Charlottesville, U.S.A. On that occasion the principal lectures were delivered by G. Birkhoff, O. Ore and M.H. Stone. In those days the theory of ordered sets was thought to be a vigorous relative of group theory. Some twenty-five years ago the Symposium on Partially Ordered Sets and Lattice Theory was held in Monterey, U.S.A. Among the principal speakers at that meeting were R.P. Dilworth, B. Jonsson, A. Tarski and G. Birkhoff. Lattice theory had turned inward: it was concerned primarily with problems about lattices themselves. As a matter of fact the problems that were then posed have, by now, in many instances, been completely solved.

Understanding Terrorism

Analysis of Sociological and Psychological Aspects

Author: Suleyman Ozeren,Ismail Dincer Gunes,Diab M. Al-Badayneh

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 1586037544

Category: Political Science

Page: 325

View: 5389

"Terrorism is a multi dimensional phenomenon and this publication aims at comprehending it. This book has unique characteristics in terms of its focus on different issues; it has a comprehensive focus on the conceptualization of terrorism and understanding of it. It does not only explain the concept, it also addresses the important issues which help us to really understand why and how individuals commit such an act. Issues range from social and psychological analysis of a terrorist behavior to extremist subcultures and globalization. This publication also successfully reviews and analyzes underlying causes of terrorism and what really makes it valuable is that the chapters present the topics with relevant data which is current and up-to-date. Issues such as inequality, globalization, immigration, gender, and democracy are analyzed with research involving comprehensive data analysis. Furthermore, the book has both theoretical discussion and practical experience which makes this study a source book for the academicians and practitioners. It reflects the experience and knowledge of the authors most of whom have both academic and practical experience in the field. The chapters have the analysis based on professional experience and successful academic research."

Mining Massive Data Sets for Security

Advances in Data Mining, Search, Social Networks and Text Mining, and Their Applications to Security

Author: Françoise Fogelman-Soulié

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 1586038982

Category: Computers

Page: 377

View: 9161

The real power for security applications will come from the synergy of academic and commercial research focusing on the specific issue of security. Special constraints apply to this domain, which are not always taken into consideration by academic research, but are critical for successful security applications: large volumes: techniques must be able to handle huge amounts of data and perform 'on-line' computation; scalability: algorithms must have processing times that scale well with ever growing volumes; automation: the analysis process must be automated so that information extraction can 'run on its own'; ease of use: everyday citizens should be able to extract and assess the necessary information; and robustness: systems must be able to cope with data of poor quality (missing or erroneous data). The NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on Mining Massive Data Sets for Security, held in Italy, September 2007, brought together around ninety participants to discuss these issues. This publication includes the most important contributions, but can of course not entirely reflect the lively interactions which allowed the participants to exchange their views and share their experience. The bridge between academic methods and industrial constraints is systematically discussed throughout. This volume will thus serve as a reference book for anyone interested in understanding the techniques for handling very large data sets and how to apply them in conjunction for solving security issues.

Invisible Threats

Financial and Information Technology Crimes and National Security

Author: Umberto Gori,Ivo Paparela

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 9781586036645

Category: Computers

Page: 141

View: 9639

" Technology and the information revolution have changed the balance of power, both domestically and internationally, and are altering the dynamics of international relations. Technology has altered and corroded the States authority and strengthened nonstate actors, in particular transnational crime and terrorist organizations. The technological revolution, though positive in itself, is nonetheless successful in corrupting markets and weakening security. As has been said, cybercriminals and terrorists have already crossed into the spectrum of information warfare. This simply means that the same bases of sovereignty and state legitimacy are in jeopardy. The traditional paradigms of international relations are challenged. Postinternational global theories, such as the turbulence paradigm, are now trying to read with new lenses the new state of the world. This publication, enriched by the contribution of so many experts coming from different countries and cultures will contribute to the solution of at least some of the problems and invisible threats corruption, trafficking in documents, high-tech crime and money laundering that are challenging our societies and our security. "

Hydrogen Materials Science and Chemistry of Metal Hydrides

Author: Michael D. Hampton

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402007316

Category: Science

Page: 483

View: 4889

The study of metal hydrides opens up promising avenues for the solution of world energy problems, as well as casting light on the interactions of hydrogen with materials, the role of hydrogen in materials science, and the chemistry of metal hydrides, all of which are discussed in this book in terms that range from a global look at the new vision of energy and how hydrogen fits into that future to reviews such as a look at nickel hydride over the last 40 years. Very specific current research in such areas as hydrogen in materials science discuss properties like superconductivity, diffusion EMF, magnetic properties, physicochemical properties, phase composition, and permeability. Hydrogen can also be used as a processing or alloying agent, and in the synthesis of battery electrodes, composite materials and alloys. The interaction of hydrogen with many metals, composites and alloys offers potential hydrogen storage systems. There is also a discussion of hydrogen sensors.

Numerical Grid Methods and Their Application to Schrödinger’s Equation

Author: C. Cerjan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401582408

Category: Science

Page: 248

View: 3887

The use of numerical grid methods to solve the Schrodinger equation has rapidly evolved in the past decade.The early attempts to demonstrate the computational viability of grid methods have been largely superseded by applications to specific problems and deeper research into more sophisticated quadrature schemes. Underpinning this research, of course, is the belief that the generic nature of grid methods can enjoy a symbiotic development with advances in computer technology, harnessing this technology in an effective manner. The contributions to this proceedings demonstrate these points in full: several appli cations displayed creative use and extension of existing grid methodology; other research concentrated on the development of new quadrature schemes or mixed numerical meth ods. The research represented ranges from highly specific spectral simulations of van der Waals complexs to general schemes for reactive scattering. The novelty of grid methods in Density Functional Theory calculations should also be highlighted since it represents an alternative to standard basis set expansion techniques and might offer distinct advantages to the standard techniques. A deliberate attempt was made to present research material with more motivational and background discussion than is typical of research publications. It is hoped that these contributed proceedings will be useful to students and researchers outside the field to have a rapid and complete introduction to many of the exciting uses of grid methodology in atomic and molecular physics. Special thanks are due to the NATO Science Committee for its generous support of the activities of this workshop.

Meeting Security Challenges Through Data Analytics and Decision Support

Author: E. Shahbazian,G. Rogova

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 1614997160

Category: Computers

Page: 352

View: 9731

The sheer quantity of widely diverse data which now results from multiple sources presents a problem for decision-makers and analysts, who are finding it impossible to cope with the ever-increasing flow of material. This has potentially serious consequences for the quality of decisions and operational processes in areas such as counterterrorism and security. This book presents the papers delivered at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) 'Meeting Security Challenges through Data Analytics and Decision Support’, held in Aghveran, Armenia, in June 2015. The aim of the conference was to promote and enhance cooperation and dialogue between NATO and Partner countries on the subject of effective decision support for security applications. The attendance of many leading scientists from a variety of backgrounds and disciplines provided the opportunity to improve mutual understanding, as well as cognizance of the specific requirements and issues of Cyber Physical Social Systems (CPPS) and the technical advances pertinent to all collaborative human-centric information support systems in a variety of applications. The book is divided into 3 sections: counter terrorism: methodology and applications; maritime and border security; and cyber security, and will be of interest to all those involved in decision-making processes based on the analysis of big data.

Knowledge Production, Area Studies and Global Cooperation

Author: Claudia Derichs

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131728206X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 202

View: 9200

Whereas Area Studies and cross-border cooperation research conventionally demarcates groups of people by geographical boundaries, individuals might in fact feel more connected by shared values and principles than by conventional spatial dimensions. Knowledge Production, Area Studies and Global Cooperation asks what norms and principles lead to the creation of knowledge about cross-border cooperation and connection. It studies why theories, methods, and concepts originate in one place rather than another, how they travel, and what position the scholar adopts while doing research, particularly ‘in the field’. Taking case studies from Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, the book links the production of alternative epistemologies to the notion of global cooperation and reassesses the ways in which the concept of connectedness can be applied at the translocal and individual rather than the formal international and collective level. Knowledge Production, Area Studies and Global Cooperation provides an innovative and critical approach towards established means of producing knowledge about different areas of the world, demonstrating that an understanding of pluri-local connectivity should be integrated into the production of knowledge about different areas of the world and the behavioural dimension of global cooperation. By shifting the view from the collective to the individual and from the formal to often invisible patterns of connectedness, this book provides an important fresh perspective which will be of interest to scholars and students of Area Studies, Politics, International Relations and Development Studies. ????

Secondary Analysis of Electronic Health Records

Author: MIT Critical Data

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319437429

Category: Medical

Page: 427

View: 3937

This book trains the next generation of scientists representing different disciplines to leverage the data generated during routine patient care. It formulates a more complete lexicon of evidence-based recommendations and support shared, ethical decision making by doctors with their patients. Diagnostic and therapeutic technologies continue to evolve rapidly, and both individual practitioners and clinical teams face increasingly complex ethical decisions. Unfortunately, the current state of medical knowledge does not provide the guidance to make the majority of clinical decisions on the basis of evidence. The present research infrastructure is inefficient and frequently produces unreliable results that cannot be replicated. Even randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the traditional gold standards of the research reliability hierarchy, are not without limitations. They can be costly, labor intensive, and slow, and can return results that are seldom generalizable to every patient population. Furthermore, many pertinent but unresolved clinical and medical systems issues do not seem to have attracted the interest of the research enterprise, which has come to focus instead on cellular and molecular investigations and single-agent (e.g., a drug or device) effects. For clinicians, the end result is a bit of a “data desert” when it comes to making decisions. The new research infrastructure proposed in this book will help the medical profession to make ethically sound and well informed decisions for their patients.

Operational Research and the Social Sciences

Author: S.A. Cropper,Michael C. Jackson,Paul Keys

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461307899

Category: Psychology

Page: 723

View: 8104

Twenty five years ago, in 1964, The Operational Research Society's first International Conference (held at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge) took as its theme "Operational Research and the Social Sciences". The Conference sessions were organised around topics such as: Organisations and Control; Social Effects of Policies; Conflict Resolution; The Systems Concept; Models, Decisions and Operational Research. An examination of the published proceedings (J.R.Lawrence ed., 1966, Operational Research and the Social Sciences, Tavistock, London) reveals a distinct contrast between the types of contribution made by the representatives of the two academic communities involved. Nevertheless, the Conference served to break down some barriers, largely of ignorance about the objects, methods and findings of each concern. In the ensuing twenty five years, although debate has continued about the relationship between OR and the social sciences, mutual understanding has proved more difficult to achieve than many must have hoped for in 1964.