Sexual Violence and Armed Conflict

Author: Janie L. Leatherman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745658350

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 4099

Every year, hundreds of thousands of women become victims of sexual violence in conflict zones around the world; in the Democratic Republic of Congo alone, approximately 1,100 rapes are reported each month. This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the causes, consequences and responses to sexual violence in contemporary armed conflict. It explores the function and effect of wartime sexual violence and examines the conditions that make women and girls most vulnerable to these acts both before, during and after conflict. To understand the motivations of the men (and occasionally women) who perpetrate this violence, the book analyzes the role played by systemic and situational factors such as patriarchy and militarized masculinity. Difficult questions of accountability are tackled; in particular, the case of child soldiers, who often suffer a double victimization when forced to commit sexual atrocities. The book concludes by looking at strategies of prevention and protection as well as new programs being set up on the ground to support the rehabilitation of survivors and their communities. Sexual violence in war has long been a taboo subject but, as this book shows, new and courageous steps are at last being taken Ð at both local and international level - to end what has been called the “greatest silence in history”.

International Law and Sexual Violence in Armed Conflicts

Author: Chile Eboe-Osuji

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9004202625

Category: Law

Page: 354

View: 6992

Beginning with an attempt at understanding evil doing during armed conflicts, from both the general perspective and the particular angle of sexual violence itself, this book explores ways of shoring up international legal protection of women from sexual violence in armed conflicts.

Rape Loot Pillage

The Political Economy of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict

Author: Sara Meger

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190277661

Category: Rape as a weapon of war

Page: 248

View: 483

The securitization of sexual violence -- Toward a feminist political economy of sexual violence in war -- A preliminary typology of wartime sexual violence -- Sexual violence as an instrument of terror/torture -- Sexual violence as a weapon of war -- Sexual violence as an element of genocide -- The political economy of sexual violence in the DRC -- Sexual violence against men and boys in armed conflict -- From fetishization to politicization and gendered peace

Impunity in sexual violence against girl children during armed conflict

Author: Marina Fernandez Arroyo

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 366840724X

Category: Law

Page: 31

View: 7978

Master's Thesis from the year 2016 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Public International Law and Human Rights, grade: 4.5/6, , language: English, abstract: According to the Former Deputy Force Commander of the UN mission to the DRC “It is more dangerous to be a woman than to be a soldier in modern conflict”. Indeed, sexual violence is the silent crime happening massively during all armed conflicts. The question of the extension of the problem has been tackled several times by several international organizations, researchers, UN bodies, and by the states affected. However, nobody really knows which is the real impact of these crimes. Women and girls are usually disproportionally affected, and crimes such as these have devastating, long-term effects on the lives of survivors. Noting that this is a crime that affects particularly women and girls, special mention on this issue must be made on girls. Among the categorized six grave violations against children in armed conflicts, sexual violence has, as previously underlined, a specific gender dimension making girl children especially vulnerable, and main target of those practices. This paper tries to show that sexual violence occurring during armed conflict follows common patterns, that is to say, that regardless of the country where it happens, surprisingly it feels like the practice follows the same template of perpetration. It will also prove that girl children are the main victims, so that it would make sense for them to be the ones more protected by legislation against sexual violence during armed conflict. However, this paper will finish showing that the lack of law enforcement leads to impunity due to different reasons, which happens to be a constant repetition of similar motives every time, and everywhere.

Internationales Handbuch der Gewaltforschung

Author: Wilhelm Heitmeyer,John Hagan

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322803767

Category: Social Science

Page: 1583

View: 8056

Die Forschung zur Gewalt in modernen westlichen Gesellschaften hat in den letzten Jahren zugenommen. Die Erklärungen dafür sind zahlreich: tatsächlicher Anstieg bei bestimmten Gewaltvarianten, neue Sensibilitäten, Rückkehr alter Gewaltformen, Verlagerung von Gewalt in andere gesellschaftliche Bereiche etc. Bisher fehlt jedoch ein systematischer Überblick über die tatsächlichen Entwicklungen. Das vorliegende Handbuch informiert umfassend über Gewalt als soziales Phänomen. Dabei wird fast allen Facetten dieses Themas Rechnung getragen: · Sozialstrukturelle Verhältnisse und Gewalt, · Sozialisation und Lernen von Gewalt, · Gewalterfahrungen und Gewalttätigkeit, · Gewaltopfer, · Gewalt in gesellschaftlichen Institutionen, · Gewalt durch politische Gruppen, · Gewaltdiskurse etc. In 62 Artikeln von Autorinnen und Autoren aus zehn Ländern liefert der Band ein komplexes, transdisziplinäres Bild eines Forschungsfeldes zwischen Ordnung, Zerstörung und Macht.

Born of War

Protecting Children of Sexual Violence Survivors in Conflict Zones

Author: R. Charli Carpenter

Publisher: Kumarian Press

ISBN: 1565492374

Category: Political Science

Page: 243

View: 5448

Born of War examines the human rights of children born of wartime rape and sexual exploitation in conflict zones worldwide. Detailing the multiple impacts of armed conflict on these children's survival, protection and membership rights, the case studies suggest that these children constitute a particularly vulnerable category in conflict zones. They often face risks such as discrimination, infanticide, loss of health care, education and other rights granted to the rest of the community's children.The contributors to this collection have the stated goal of using their research to advocate for greater representation of this group in international human rights law where their experiences have so far been ignored. A wide variety of case studies show that every community responds to these children in different ways. The exploration into why this is so reveals much that contemporary humanitarianism will find valuable.

Review of the Sexual Violence Elements of the Judgments of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, and the Special Court for Sierra Leone in the Light of Security Council Resolution 1820

Author: N.A

Publisher: United Nations Publications

ISBN: 9789211370324

Category: Political Science

Page: 100

View: 8423

"The aim of this document is to identify the sexual violence elements of the jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), and the Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL). It offers a comprehensive overview of the various ways that sexual violence in armed conflict can be interpreted and addressed under international law. It further provides easy reference to the conclusions that the ICTY, ICTR and SCSL reached with regard to sexual violence in armed conflict. It was prepared in light of Security Council Resolution 1820 (SCR 1820) which requests, inter alia, information on situations of armed conflict in which sexual violence has been widely or systematically employed against civilians, and analysis of the prevalence and trends of sexual violence in situations of armed conflict"--Foreward.

Wartime Sexual Violence

From Silence to Condemnation of a Weapon of War

Author: Kerry F. Crawford

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 1626164665

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 9654

In armed conflict, systematic sexual violence is used all too frequently as a strategic weapon to terrorize an opponent's communities. Wartime sexual violence has transitioned rapidly from a neglected human rights issue to an unambiguous security concern on the agendas of powerful states and the United Nations Security Council. What has caused this transition, and what are its impacts? Kerry F. Crawford investigates through interviews and primary-source evidence the political impetuses for this change and the results of the securitization of sexual violence. Crawford explains how change started in the 1990s with the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda and then accelerated in the 2000s. Three case studies--the United States' response to sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1820 in 2008, and the development of the United Kingdom's Preventing Sexual Violence in Conflict Initiative--illustrate that use of the weapon of war frame does not represent pure cooptation by the security sector. Rather, well-placed advocates have used the frame to push the anti-sexual violence agenda while simultaneously working to move beyond the frame's constraints.

The Political Economy of Violence Against Women

Author: Jacqui True

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199755914

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 242

View: 4966

Violence against women is a major problem in all countries, affecting women in every socio-economic group and at every life stage. Yet, when women enjoy good social and economic status they are less vulnerable to violence across all societies. This book develops a political economy approach to understanding violence against women - from the household to the transnational level - accounting for its globally increasing scale and brutality.

Victims, Perpetrators Or Actors?

Gender, Armed Conflict and Political Violence

Author: Caroline N. O. Moser,Fiona Clark

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 9781856498982

Category: Political Science

Page: 243

View: 6166

Increasing levels of global conflict and political violence, as well as the higher profile of many 'simmering' confrontations, provide critical challenges for development theorists and practitioners. While numerous countries have endured decades of armed conflict, others live under the permanent menace of political violence. When peace accords are signed, economic and social violence often increase, particularly during the fragile transition to 'permanent' peace. Throughout, the gendered impacts of armed conflict and political violence are key issues. The objective of this book is to provide a holistic analysis of the gendered nature of armed conflict and political violence, and a broader understanding of the complex, changing roles and power relations between women and men during such circumstances. Currently armed conflict and political violence are predominantly viewed as 'male domains', perpetrated by men, whether as armed forces, guerilla groups, paramilitaries or peacemakers. The unavoidable, or deliberate, involvement of women has received far less attention with a tendency to portray a simplistic division of roles between men as aggressors, and women as victims, particularly of sexual abuse. Consequently the gendered causes, costs and consequences of violent conflicts have been at best underrepresented, while more often misrepresented.Through empirical case studies from different regions of the world written by authors from both North and South, the book aims to address four key issues; first, that men and women are both actors and victims throughout violent conflict; second, that the stages of conflict (pre, during and post) are all parts of a complex iterative process rather than self-contained phases with gendered implications throughout; third, that political, economic and social violence form a continuum with their impact requiring gender analysis; and fourth that local, community organizations run and managed by women play a key role throughout conflict situations not only for the provision of basic needs, but also occupying 'advocacy space', and fostering the trust and collaboration - the 'social capital' - that are so critical in reconciliation processes.

Allgemeine Erklärung der Menschenrechte

Author: Vereinte Nationen

Publisher: Aegitas

ISBN: 500064137X

Category: Law

Page: 8

View: 7026

Die Allgemeine Erklärung der Menschenrechte (A/RES/217, UN-Doc. 217/A-(III)), auch: Deklaration der Menschenrechte oder UN-Menschenrechtscharta oder kurz AEMR, ist das ausdrückliche Bekenntnis der Vereinten Nationen zu den allgemeinen Grundsätzen der Menschenrechte. Es wurde am 10. Dezember 1948 von der Generalversammlung der Vereinten Nationen im Palais de Chaillot in Paris genehmigt und verkündet.

Sexual Violence during War and Peace

Gender, Power, and Post-Conflict Justice in Peru

Author: J. Boesten

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137383453

Category: Social Science

Page: 231

View: 2965

Using the Peruvian internal armed conflict as a case study, this book examines wartime rape and how it reproduces and reinforces existing hierarchies. Jelke Boesten argues that effective responses to sexual violence in wartime are conditional upon profound changes in legal frameworks and practices, institutions, and society at large.