Sexual Violence and Armed Conflict

Author: Janie L. Leatherman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745658350

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 5806

Every year, hundreds of thousands of women become victims of sexual violence in conflict zones around the world; in the Democratic Republic of Congo alone, approximately 1,100 rapes are reported each month. This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the causes, consequences and responses to sexual violence in contemporary armed conflict. It explores the function and effect of wartime sexual violence and examines the conditions that make women and girls most vulnerable to these acts both before, during and after conflict. To understand the motivations of the men (and occasionally women) who perpetrate this violence, the book analyzes the role played by systemic and situational factors such as patriarchy and militarized masculinity. Difficult questions of accountability are tackled; in particular, the case of child soldiers, who often suffer a double victimization when forced to commit sexual atrocities. The book concludes by looking at strategies of prevention and protection as well as new programs being set up on the ground to support the rehabilitation of survivors and their communities. Sexual violence in war has long been a taboo subject but, as this book shows, new and courageous steps are at last being taken Ð at both local and international level - to end what has been called the “greatest silence in history”.

International Law and Sexual Violence in Armed Conflicts

Author: Chile Eboe-Osuji

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9004227229

Category: Law

Page: 372

View: 427

Sexual violence is a particular brand of evil that women have endured—more than men—during armed conflicts, through the ages. It is a menace that has continued to challenge the conscience of humanity—especially in our times. At the international level, basic laws aimed at preventing it are not in short supply. What is needed is a more conscious determination to enforce existing laws. This book explores ways of doing just that; thereby shoring up international legal protection of women from sexual violence in armed conflicts.

Rape Loot Pillage

The Political Economy of Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict

Author: Sara Meger

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190277661

Category: Rape as a weapon of war

Page: 248

View: 5618

The securitization of sexual violence -- Toward a feminist political economy of sexual violence in war -- A preliminary typology of wartime sexual violence -- Sexual violence as an instrument of terror/torture -- Sexual violence as a weapon of war -- Sexual violence as an element of genocide -- The political economy of sexual violence in the DRC -- Sexual violence against men and boys in armed conflict -- From fetishization to politicization and gendered peace

Homophobic Violence in Armed Conflict and Political Transition

Author: José Fernando Serrano-Amaya

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319603213

Category: Political Science

Page: 186

View: 5621

This book argues that homophobia plays a fundamental role in disputes for hegemony between antagonists during political transitions. Examining countries not often connected in the same research—Colombia and South Africa—the book asserts that homophobia, as a form of gender and sexual violence, contributes to the transformation of gender and sexual orders required by warfare and deployed by armed groups. Anti-homosexual violence also reinforces the creation of consensus around these projects of change. The book considers the perspective of individuals and their organizations, for whom such hatreds are part of the embodied experience of violence caused by protracted conflicts and social inequalities. Resistance to that violence are reason to mobilize and become political actors. This book contributes to the increasing interest in South-South comparative analyses and the need of theory building based on case-study analyses, offering systematic research useful for grass root organizations, practitioners, and policy makers.

Wartime Sexual Violence

From Silence to Condemnation of a Weapon of War

Author: Kerry F. Crawford

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 1626164665

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 3766

In armed conflict, systematic sexual violence is used all too frequently as a strategic weapon to terrorize an opponent's communities. Wartime sexual violence has transitioned rapidly from a neglected human rights issue to an unambiguous security concern on the agendas of powerful states and the United Nations Security Council. What has caused this transition, and what are its impacts? Kerry F. Crawford investigates through interviews and primary-source evidence the political impetuses for this change and the results of the securitization of sexual violence. Crawford explains how change started in the 1990s with the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda and then accelerated in the 2000s. Three case studies--the United States' response to sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1820 in 2008, and the development of the United Kingdom's Preventing Sexual Violence in Conflict Initiative--illustrate that use of the weapon of war frame does not represent pure cooptation by the security sector. Rather, well-placed advocates have used the frame to push the anti-sexual violence agenda while simultaneously working to move beyond the frame's constraints.

Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War?

Perceptions, Prescriptions, Problems in the Congo and Beyond

Author: Maria Eriksson Baaz,Professor Maria Stern

Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.

ISBN: 178032166X

Category: Social Science

Page: 168

View: 7152

All too often in conflict situations, rape is referred to as a 'weapon of war', a term presented as self-explanatory through its implied storyline of gender and warring. In this provocative but much-needed book, Eriksson Baaz and Stern challenge the dominant understandings of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings. Reading with and against feminist analyses of the interconnections between gender, warring, violence and militarization, the authors address many of the thorny issues inherent in the arrival of sexual violence on the global security agenda. Based on original fieldwork in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as research material from other conflict zones, Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War? challenges the recent prominence given to sexual violence, bravely highlighting various problems with isolating sexual violence from other violence in war. A much-anticipated book by two acknowledged experts in the field, on an issue that has become an increasingly important security, legal and gender topic.

Sexual Violence during War and Peace

Gender, Power, and Post-Conflict Justice in Peru

Author: J. Boesten

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137383453

Category: Social Science

Page: 231

View: 1324

Using the Peruvian internal armed conflict as a case study, this book examines wartime rape and how it reproduces and reinforces existing hierarchies. Jelke Boesten argues that effective responses to sexual violence in wartime are conditional upon profound changes in legal frameworks and practices, institutions, and society at large.

Children and Youth in Armed Conflict

Author: Ann-Charlotte Nilsson

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9004260269

Category: Law

Page: 1638

View: 4096

This is a book that students and professionals from different disciplines and backgrounds, including from academia, international organisations, non-governmental organisations, the medical community, governments, etc., will find to be a valuable resource in their quest to learn more about an area of study that has long been neglected.

Aid in Danger

The Perils and Promise of Humanitarianism

Author: Larissa Fast

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812246039

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 6741

Humanitarian aid workers increasingly remain present in contexts of violence and are injured, kidnapped, and killed as a result. Since 9/11 and in response to these dangers, aid organizations have fortified themselves to shield their staff and programs from outside threats. In Aid in Danger, Larissa Fast critically examines the causes of violence against aid workers and the consequences of the approaches aid agencies use to protect themselves from attack. Based on more than a decade of research, Aid in Danger explores the assumptions underpinning existing explanations of and responses to violence against aid workers. According to Fast, most explanations of attacks locate the causes externally and maintain an image of aid workers as an exceptional category of civilians. The resulting approaches to security rely on separation and fortification and alienate aid workers from those in need, representing both a symptom and a cause of crisis in the humanitarian system. Missing from most analyses are the internal vulnerabilities, exemplified in the everyday decisions and ordinary human frailties and organizational mistakes that sometimes contribute to the conditions leading to violence. This oversight contributes to the normalization of danger in aid work and undermines the humanitarian ethos. As an alternative, Fast proposes a relational framework that captures both external threats and internal vulnerabilities. By uncovering overlooked causes of violence, Aid in Danger offers a unique perspective on the challenges of providing aid in perilous settings and on the prospects of reforming the system in service of core humanitarian values.

Perpetrators and Perpetration of Mass Violence

Action, Motivations and Dynamics

Author: Timothy Williams,Susanne Buckley-Zistel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 135117584X

Category: Political Science

Page: 214

View: 5346

As the most comprehensive edited volume to be published on perpetrators and perpetration of mass violence, the volume sets a new agenda for perpetrator research by bringing together contributions from such diverse disciplines as political science, sociology, social psychology, history, anthropology and gender studies, allowing for a truly interdisciplinary discussion of the phenomenon of perpetration. The cross-case nature of the volume allows the reader to see patterns across case studies, bringing findings from inter alia the Holocaust, the genocides in Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia, and the civil wars in Cambodia and Côte d’Ivoire into conversation with each other. The chapters of this volume are united by a common research interest in understanding what constitutes perpetrators as actors, what motivates them, and how dynamics behind perpetration unfold. Their attention to the interactions between disciplines and cases allows for the insights to be transported into more abstract ideas on perpetration in general. Amongst other aspects, they indicate that instead of being an extraordinary act, perpetration is often ordinary, that it is crucial to studying perpetrators and perpetration not from looking at the perpetrators as actors but by focusing on their deeds, and that there is a utility of ideologies in explaining perpetration, when we differentiate them more carefully and view them in a more nuanced light. This volume will be vital reading for students and scholars of genocide studies, human rights, conflict studies and international relations.

Sexual Violence Against Men in Global Politics

Author: Marysia Zalewski,Paula Drumond,Elisabeth Prugl,Maria Stern

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315456486

Category: Political Science

Page: 278

View: 9689

Sexual violence against men is an under-theorised and under-noticed topic, though it is becoming increasingly apparent that this form of violence is widespread. Yet despite emerging evidence documenting its incidence, especially in conflict and post-conflict zones, efforts to understand its causes and develop strategies to reduce it are hampered by a dearth of theoretical engagement. One of the reasons that might explain its empirical invisibility and theoretical vacuity is its complicated relationship with sexual violence against women. The latter is evident empirically, theoretically, and politically, but the relationship between these violences conjures a range of complex and controversial questions about the ways they might be different, and why and how these differences matter. It is the case that sexual violence (when noticed at all) has historically been understood to happen largely, if not only, to women, allegedly because of their gender and their ensuing place in gender orders. This begs important questions regarding the impact of increasing knowledge about sexual violence against men, including the impact on resources, on understandings about, and experiences of masculinity, and whether the idea and practice of gender hierarchy is outdated. This book engages this diverse set of questions and offers fresh analysis on the incidences of sexual violence against men using both new and existing data. Additionally, the authors pay close attention to some of the controversial debates in the context of sexual violence against men, revisiting and asking new questions about the vexed issue of masculinities and related theories of gender hierarchy. The book will be of great interest to students and scholars of sex, gender, masculinities, corporeality, violence, and global politics, as well as to practitioners and activists.

Silenced Victims of Wartime Sexual Violence

Author: Olivera Simic

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317421000

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 196

View: 6682

The condemnation of wartime sexual violence as a gross violation of human rights has received widespread support. While rape and other forms of sexual violence have attracted considerable local and international attention, this often excludes wartime sexual violence among women belonging to so-called ‘perpetrator’ war-torn nations. This book explores the silence surrounding women’s experiences of wartime sexual violence within academic, legal and public discourses. Olivera Simi? argues that the international criminal law and feminist legal discourse on wartime sexual violence can construct a problematic victim hierarchy that excludes and misrecognises certain women’s experiences of sexual violence during and after armed conflict. ?The book focuses on the experiences of Bosnian Serb women, where the collapse of the former Yugoslavia led to brutal war and gross human rights violations throughout the 1990s. Two decades after the war, women in Bosnia and Herzegovina are still facing the legacies of the violence in the 1990s. Through this case Simi? argues that while all women survivors of rape face problems of stigma, shame and lack of political visibility, their legal and symbolic status differ according to their ethno-national identity. ?Drawing on interviews with Bosnian Serb women survivors of rape in Bosnia and Herzegovina, feminist activists, local media, documentary and archival sources, the book examines ‘post-conflict justice’ as it is seen, lived and interpreted by women who belong to ‘perpetrator’ nations and will be of great interest and use to researchers, students and practitioners within post-conflict law and justice, international criminal law, security studies and gender studies.

Against Our Will

Men, Women and Rape

Author: Susan Brownmiller

Publisher: Open Road Media

ISBN: 1480441953

Category: Social Science

Page: 472

View: 3816

Susan Brownmiller’s groundbreaking bestseller uncovers the culture of violence against women with a devastating exploration of the history of rape—now with a new preface by the author exposing the undercurrents of rape still present today Rape, as author Susan Brownmiller proves in her startling and important book, is not about sex but about power, fear, and subjugation. For thousands of years, it has been viewed as an acceptable “spoil of war,” used as a weapon by invading armies to crush the will of the conquered. The act of rape against women has long been cloaked in lies and false justifications. It is ignored, tolerated, even encouraged by governments and military leaders, misunderstood by police and security organizations, freely employed by domineering husbands and lovers, downplayed by medical and legal professionals more inclined to “blame the victim,” and, perhaps most shockingly, accepted in supposedly civilized societies worldwide, including the United States. Against Our Will is a classic work that has been widely credited with changing prevailing attitudes about violence against women by awakening the public to the true and continuing tragedy of rape around the globe and throughout the ages. Selected by the New York Times Book Review as an Outstanding Book of the Year and included among the New York Public Library’s Books of the Century, Against Our Will remains an essential work of sociological and historical importance.

Peace and Conflict 2014

Author: Paul K. Huth,Jonathan Wilkenfeld,David A. Backer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315284359

Category: Political Science

Page: 192

View: 3095

Peace and Conflict is a biennial publication that provides cutting-edge data and analysis concerning domestic and international conflicts and corresponding peacebuilding activities. The book include forecasts of risks of political and social instability, as well as trends and patterns in conflict. The 2014 edition focusses on the 'micro level' in the study of conflict and peacebuilding, such as social relationships below the level of the nation-state, with attention to key topics such as ethnicity, climate change, foreign aid and sexual violence. Peace and Conflict is a large-format, full-color resource with numerous graphs, tables, maps, and appendices dedicated to the visual and summary presentation of information. Crisp narratives are highlighted with pull-quote extracts emphasizing major findings.

Born of War

Protecting Children of Sexual Violence Survivors in Conflict Zones

Author: R. Charli Carpenter

Publisher: Kumarian Press

ISBN: 1565492374

Category: Political Science

Page: 243

View: 594

Born of War examines the human rights of children born of wartime rape and sexual exploitation in conflict zones worldwide. Detailing the multiple impacts of armed conflict on these children's survival, protection and membership rights, the case studies suggest that these children constitute a particularly vulnerable category in conflict zones. They often face risks such as discrimination, infanticide, loss of health care, education and other rights granted to the rest of the community's children.The contributors to this collection have the stated goal of using their research to advocate for greater representation of this group in international human rights law where their experiences have so far been ignored. A wide variety of case studies show that every community responds to these children in different ways. The exploration into why this is so reveals much that contemporary humanitarianism will find valuable.