The Sciences of the Artificial

Author: Herbert A. Simon

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262264495

Category: Computers

Page: 248

View: 798

Continuing his exploration of the organization of complexity and the science of design, this new edition of Herbert Simon's classic work on artificial intelligence adds a chapter that sorts out the current themes and tools—chaos, adaptive systems, genetic algorithms—for analyzing complexity and complex systems. There are updates throughout the book as well. These take into account important advances in cognitive psychology and the science of design while confirming and extending the book's basic thesis: that a physical symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means for intelligent action. The chapter "Economic Reality" has also been revised to reflect a change in emphasis in Simon's thinking about the respective roles of organizations and markets in economic systems.

Die Wissenschaften vom Künstlichen

Author: Herbert A. Simon

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783709193839

Category: Computers

Page: 241

View: 8716

Die Wissenschaften vom Künstlichen von Herbert A. Simon gilt seit dem Erscheinen der ersten Ausgabe im Jahr 1969 als "Klassiker" der Literatur zum Thema Künstliche Intelligenz. Simon hat zusammen mit den Computerwissenschaftlern Allen Newell, Marvin Minsky und John McCarthy Mitte der fünfziger Jahre das so bezeichnete - von Alan Turing antizipierte - Forschungsgebiet der Computerwissenschaft und der Psychologie ins Leben gerufen. Seine herausragende, allgemeinverständliche Darstellung von Grundüberlegungen und philosophischen Aspekten der Künstlichen Intelligenz ist heute aktueller denn je, nicht nur wegen der ständig zunehmenden Bedeutung der Forschung und Entwicklung auf diesem Gebiet, sondern auch aufgrund des verbreiteten Mangels an Grundkenntnissen für eine kritische Auseinandersetzung mit der Künstlichen Intelligenz.

Die Wissenschaften vom Künstlichen

Author: Herbert Alexander Simon

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783211826294

Category:

Page: 241

View: 1953

Die Wissenschaften vom KA1/4nstlichen von Herbert A. Simon gilt seit dem Erscheinen der ersten Ausgabe im Jahr 1969 als "Klassiker" der Literatur zum Thema KA1/4nstliche Intelligenz. Simon hat zusammen mit den Computerwissenschaftlern Allen Newell, Marvin Minsky und John McCarthy Mitte der fA1/4nfziger Jahre das so bezeichnete - von Alan Turing antizipierte - Forschungsgebiet der Computerwissenschaft und der Psychologie ins Leben gerufen. Seine herausragende, allgemeinverstAndliche Darstellung von GrundA1/4berlegungen und philosophischen Aspekten der KA1/4nstlichen Intelligenz ist heute aktueller denn je, nicht nur wegen der stAndig zunehmenden Bedeutung der Forschung und Entwicklung auf diesem Gebiet, sondern auch aufgrund des verbreiteten Mangels an Grundkenntnissen fA1/4r eine kritische Auseinandersetzung mit der KA1/4nstlichen Intelligenz.

The Idea of Design

Author: Victor Margolin,Richard Buchanan,Professor of Design Management & Information Systems George Richard Buchanan

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262631662

Category: Design

Page: 285

View: 8215

An anthology of essays addressing the nature and practice of contemporary product and graphic design, selected from volumes four through nine of the international journal Design Issues. Themes include reflection on the nature of design, the meaning of products, and the place of design in world culture. Includes b & w photos and illustrations. c. Book News Inc.

Leben 3.0

Mensch sein im Zeitalter Künstlicher Intelligenz

Author: Max Tegmark

Publisher: Ullstein Buchverlage

ISBN: 3843716706

Category: Social Science

Page: 528

View: 2248

Die Nobelpreis-Schmiede Massachusetts Institute of Technology ist der bedeutendste technologische Think Tank der USA. Dort arbeitet Professor Max Tegmark mit den weltweit führenden Entwicklern künstlicher Intelligenz zusammen, die ihm exklusive Einblicke in ihre Labors gewähren. Die Erkenntnisse, die er daraus zieht, sind atemberaubend und zutiefst verstörend zugleich. Neigt sich die Ära der Menschen dem Ende zu? Der Physikprofessor Max Tegmark zeigt anhand der neusten Forschung, was die Menschheit erwartet. Hier eine Auswahl möglicher Szenarien: - Eroberer: Künstliche Intelligenz übernimmt die Macht und entledigt sich der Menschheit mit Methoden, die wir noch nicht einmal verstehen. - Der versklavte Gott: Die Menschen bemächtigen sich einer superintelligenten künstlichen Intelligenz und nutzen sie, um Hochtechnologien herzustellen. - Umkehr: Der technologische Fortschritt wird radikal unterbunden und wir kehren zu einer prä-technologischen Gesellschaft im Stil der Amish zurück. - Selbstzerstörung: Superintelligenz wird nicht erreicht, weil sich die Menschheit vorher nuklear oder anders selbst vernichtet. - Egalitäres Utopia: Es gibt weder Superintelligenz noch Besitz, Menschen und kybernetische Organismen existieren friedlich nebeneinander. Max Tegmark bietet kluge und fundierte Zukunftsszenarien basierend auf seinen exklusiven Einblicken in die aktuelle Forschung zur künstlichen Intelligenz.

Artificial life II

proceedings of the workshop on artificial life held February, 1990 in Santa Fe, New Mexico

Author: Christopher G. Langton

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Longman

ISBN: 9780201525700

Category: Computers

Page: 854

View: 3080


Contemplating Minds

A Forum for Artificial Intelligence

Author: William J. Clancey,Stephen W. Smoliar,Mark Stefik

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262531191

Category: Computers

Page: 543

View: 4902

One place where the scientific debate has been written for a broad audience is in the book review column of the international journal Artificial Intelligence, which has evolved from simple reviews to a multidisciplinary forum where reviewers and authors debate the latest, often competing, theories of human and artificial intelligence.

New Challenges to Philosophy of Science

Author: Hanne Andersen,Dennis Dieks,Wenceslao J. Gonzalez,Thomas Uebel,Gregory Wheeler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400758456

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 5550

This volume is a serious attempt to open up the subject of European philosophy of science to real thought, and provide the structural basis for the interdisciplinary development of its specialist fields, but also to provoke reflection on the idea of ‘European philosophy of science’. This efforts should foster a contemporaneous reflection on what might be meant by philosophy of science in Europe and European philosophy of science, and how in fact awareness of it could assist philosophers interpret and motivate their research through a stronger collective identity. The overarching aim is to set the background for a collaborative project organising, systematising, and ultimately forging an identity for, European philosophy of science by creating research structures and developing research networks across Europe to promote its development.

The Politics of the Artificial

Essays on Design and Design Studies

Author: Victor Margolin

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226505046

Category: Art

Page: 273

View: 8783

Emerging from the world of commercial art and product styling, design has now become completely integrated into human life. Its marks are all around us, from the chairs we sit on to the Web sites on our computer screens. One of the pioneers of design studies and still one of its most distinguished practitioners, Victor Margolin here offers a timely meditation on design and its study at the turn of the millennium and charts new directions for the future development of both fields. Divided into sections on the practice and study of design, the essays in The Politics of the Artificial cover such topics as design history, design research, design as a political tool, sustainable design, and the problems of design's relation to advanced technologies. Margolin also examines the work of key practitioners such as the matrix designer Ken Isaacs. Throughout the book Margolin demonstrates the underlying connections between the many ways of reflecting on and practicing design. He argues for the creation of an international, interdisciplinary field of design research and proposes a new ethical agenda for designers and researchers that encompasses the responsibility to users, the problems of sustainability, and the complicated questions of how to set boundaries for applying advanced technology to solve the problems of human life. Opinionated and erudite, Victor Margolin's The Politics of the Artificial breaks fresh ground in its call for a new approach to design research and practice. Designers, engineers, architects, anthropologists, sociologists, and historians will all benefit from its insights.

The Discovery of the Artificial

Behavior, Mind and Machines Before and Beyond Cybernetics

Author: R. Cordeschi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401598703

Category: Philosophy

Page: 314

View: 1921

This series will include monographs and collections of studies devoted to the investigation and exploration of knowledge, information, and data processing systems of all kinds, no matter whether human, (other) animal, or machine. Its scope is intended to span the full range of interests from classical problems in the philosophy of mind and philosophical psychology through issues in cognitive psychology and sociobiology (concerning the mental capabilities of other species) to ideas related to artificial intelligence and to computer science. While primary emphasis will be placed upon theoretical, conceptual, and epistemological aspects of these problems and domains, empirical, experimental, and methodological studies will also appear from time to time. The present volume offers a broad and imaginative approach to the study of the mind, which emphasizes several themes, namely: the importance of functional organization apart from the specific material by means of which it may be implemented; the use of modeling to simulate these functional processes and subject them to certain kinds of tests; the use of mentalistic language to describe and predict the behavior of artifacts; and the subsumption of processes of adaptation, learning, and intelligence by means of explanatory principles. The author has produced a rich and complex, lucid and readable discussion that clarifies and illuminates many of the most difficult problems arising within this difficult domain.

Québec Studies in the Philosophy of Science

Part II: Biology, Psychology, Cognitive Science and Economics Essays in Honor of Hugues Leblanc

Author: Mathieu Marion,Robert S. Cohen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400901135

Category: Science

Page: 308

View: 8983

By North-American standards, philosophy is not new in Quebec: the first men tion of philosophy lectures given by a Jesuit in the College de Quebec (founded 1635) dates from 1665, and the oldest logic manuscript dates from 1679. In English-speaking universities such as McGill (founded 1829), philosophy began to be taught later, during the second half of the 19th century. The major influence on English-speaking philosophers was, at least initially, that of Scottish Empiricism. On the other hand, the strong influence of the Catholic Church on French-Canadian society meant that the staff of the facultes of the French-speaking universities consisted, until recently, almost entirely of Thomist philosophers. There was accordingly little or no work in modern Formal Logic and Philosophy of Science and precious few contacts between the philosophical communities. In the late forties, Hugues Leblanc was a young student wanting to learn Formal Logic. He could not find anyone in Quebec to teach him and he went to study at Harvard University under the supervision of W. V. Quine. His best friend Maurice L' Abbe had left, a year earlier, for Princeton to study with Alonzo Church. After receiving his Ph. D from Harvard in 1948, Leblanc started his profes sional career at Bryn Mawr College, where he stayed until 1967. He then went to Temple University, where he taught until his retirement in 1992, serving as Chair of the Department of Philosophy from 1973 until 1979.

Artificial Intelligence and Creativity

An Interdisciplinary Approach

Author: T. Dartnall

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792330615

Category: Psychology

Page: 458

View: 702

Creativity is one of the least understood aspects of intelligence and is often seen as `intuitive' and not susceptible to rational enquiry. Recently, however, there has been a resurgence of interest in the area, principally in artificial intelligence and cognitive science, but also in psychology, philosophy, computer science, logic, mathematics, sociology, and architecture and design. This volume brings this work together and provides an overview of this rapidly developing field. It addresses a range of issues. Can computers be creative? Can they help us to understand human creativity? How can artificial intelligence (AI) enhance human creativity? How, in particular, can it contribute to the `sciences of the artificial', such as design? Does the new wave of AI (connectionism, geneticism and artificial life) offer more promise in these areas than classical, symbol-handling AI? What would the implications be for AI and cognitive science if computers could not be creative? These issues are explored in five interrelated parts, each of which is introducted and explained by a leading figure in the field. - Prologue (Margaret Boden) - Part I: Foundational Issues (Terry Dartnall) - Part II: Creativity and Cognition (Graeme S. Halford and Robert Levinson) - Part III: Creativity and Connectionism (Chris Thornton) - Part IV: Creativity and Design (John Gero) - Part V: Human Creativity Enhancement (Ernest Edmonds) - Epilogue (Douglas Hofstadter) For researchers in AI, cognitive science, computer science, philosophy, psychology, mathematics, logic, sociology, and architecture and design; and anyone interested in the rapidly growing field of artificial intelligence and creativity.

Artifacts and Artificial Science

Author: Bo Dahlbom,Svante Beckman,Göran B. Nilsson

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 137

View: 7411

In three essays, examine the idea of an artificial science, the nature of artifacts, our artificial world and the example of history as an artificial science.

Epistemological Aspects of Computer Simulation in the Social Sciences

Second International Workshop, EPOS 2006, Brescia, Italy, October 5-6, 2006, Revised Selected and Invited Papers

Author: Flaminio Squazzoni

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 364201108X

Category: Computers

Page: 183

View: 1596

This book constitutes the revised versions of the invited and selected papers from the Second Epistemological Perspectives on Simulation Workshop, EPOS 2006, which was held in Brescia, Italy, during October 5-6, 2006. The 11 papers presented together with 2 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 35 submissions. The topics addressed were epistemological and methodological contents, such as the relevance of empirical foundations for agent-based simulations, the role of theory, the concepts and meaning of emergence, the trade-off between simplification and complexification of models.

Broad and Narrow Interpretations of Philosophy of Technology

Broad and Narrow Interpretations

Author: P.T. Durbin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400905572

Category: Philosophy

Page: 216

View: 552

BACKGROUND: DEPARTMENTS, SPECIALIZATION, AND PROFESSIONALIZATION IN AMERICAN HIGHER EDUCATION For over half of its history, U.S. higher education turned out mostly cler gymen and lawyers. Looking back on that period, we might be tempted to think that this meant specialized training for the ministry or the practice of law. That, however, was not the case. What a college education in the U.S. prepared young men (almost exclusively) for, from the founding of Harvard College in 1636 through the founding of hundreds of denominational colleges in the first two-thirds of the nineteenth century, was leadership in the community. Professionalization and specialization only began to take root, and then became the dominant mode in U.S. higher education, in the period roughly from 1860--1920. In subsequent decades, that seemed to many critics to signal the end of what might be called "education in wisdom," the preparation of leaders for a broad range of responsibilities. Professionalization, specialization, and departmentalization of higher education in the U.S. began in the last quarter of the nineteenth century.

Digital Phoenix

Why the Information Economy Collapsed and How It Will Rise Again

Author: Bruce Abramson

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262261449

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 368

View: 5626

While we were waiting for the Internet to make us rich -- back when we thought all we had to do was to buy lottery tickets called dotcom shares -- we missed the real story of the information economy. That story, says Bruce Abramson in Digital Phoenix, took place at the intersection of technology, law, and economics. It unfolded through Microsoft's manipulation of software markets, through open source projects like Linux, and through the file-sharing adventures that Napster enabled. Linux and Napster in particular exploited newly enabled business models to make information sharing cheap and easy; both systems met strong opposition from entrenched interests intent on preserving their own profits. These scenarios set the stage for the future of the information economy, a future in which each new technology will threaten powerful incumbents -- who will, in turn, fight to retard this "dangerous new direction" of progress.Disentangling the technological, legal, and economic threads of the story, Abramson argues that the key to the entire information economy -- understanding the past and preparing for the future -- lies in our approach to intellectual property and idea markets. The critical challenge of the information age, he says, is to motivate the creation and dissemination of ideas. After discussing relevant issues in intellectual property and antitrust law, the economics of competition, and artificial intelligence and software engineering, Abramson tells the information economy's formative histories: the Microsoft antitrust trial, the open-source movement, and (in a chapter called "The Computer Ate My Industry") the advent of digital music. Finally, he looks toward the future, examining some ways that intellectual property reform could power economic growth and showing how the information economy will reshape the ways we think about business, employment, society, and public policy -- how the information economy, in fact, can make us all rich, as consumers and producers, if not as investors.