Science and Technology in World History

An Introduction

Author: James Edward McClellan,Harold Dorn

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801883590

Category: History

Page: 478

View: 1812

Tracing historical relationship from the dawn of civilization through the twentieth century, the authors argue that technology as "applied science" emerged relatively, as industry and governments began funding scientific research. They explore the emergence of Europe and the United States as a scientific and technological power.

Science and Technology in World History

An Introduction

Author: James E. McClellan III,Harold Dorn

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 0801889391

Category: Science

Page: 496

View: 8952

The new edition reorganizes its treatment of Greek science and significantly expands its coverage of industrial civilization and contemporary science and technology with new and revised chapters devoted to applied science, the sociology and economics of science, globalization, and the technological systems that underpin everyday life.

Human-Built World

How to Think about Technology and Culture

Author: Thomas P. Hughes

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022612066X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 240

View: 8157

To most people, technology has been reduced to computers, consumer goods, and military weapons; we speak of "technological progress" in terms of RAM and CD-ROMs and the flatness of our television screens. In Human-Built World, thankfully, Thomas Hughes restores to technology the conceptual richness and depth it deserves by chronicling the ideas about technology expressed by influential Western thinkers who not only understood its multifaceted character but who also explored its creative potential. Hughes draws on an enormous range of literature, art, and architecture to explore what technology has brought to society and culture, and to explain how we might begin to develop an "ecotechnology" that works with, not against, ecological systems. From the "Creator" model of development of the sixteenth century to the "big science" of the 1940s and 1950s to the architecture of Frank Gehry, Hughes nimbly charts the myriad ways that technology has been woven into the social and cultural fabric of different eras and the promises and problems it has offered. Thomas Jefferson, for instance, optimistically hoped that technology could be combined with nature to create an Edenic environment; Lewis Mumford, two centuries later, warned of the increasing mechanization of American life. Such divergent views, Hughes shows, have existed side by side, demonstrating the fundamental idea that "in its variety, technology is full of contradictions, laden with human folly, saved by occasional benign deeds, and rich with unintended consequences." In Human-Built World, he offers the highly engaging history of these contradictions, follies, and consequences, a history that resurrects technology, rightfully, as more than gadgetry; it is in fact no less than an embodiment of human values.

Science and Technology in World History, Volume 4

The Origin of Chemistry, the Principle of Progress, the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution

Author: David Deming

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 0786494034

Category: History

Page: 340

View: 3247

The history of science is a story of human discovery--intertwined with religion, philosophy, economics and technology. The fourth in a series, this book covers the beginnings of the modern world, when 16th-century Europeans began to realize that their scientific achievements surpassed those of the Greeks and Romans. Western Civilization organized itself around the idea that human technological and moral progress was achievable and desirable. Science emerged in 17th-century Europe as scholars subordinated reason to empiricism. Inspired by the example of physics, men like Robert Boyle began the process of changing alchemy into the exact science of chemistry. During the 18th century, European society became more secular and tolerant. Philosophers and economists developed many of the ideas underpinning modern social theories and economic policies. As the Industrial Revolution fundamentally transformed the world by increasing productivity, people became more affluent, better educated and urbanized, and the world entered an era of unprecedented prosperity and progress.

Introduction to Glass Science and Technology

Author: James E Shelby

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1782625119

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: N.A

View: 9722

This book provides a concise and inexpensive introduction for an undergraduate course in glass science and technology. The level of the book has deliberately been maintained at the introductory level to avoid confusion of the student by inclusion of more advanced material, and is unique in that its text is limited to the amount suitable for a one term course for students in materials science, ceramics or inorganic chemistry. The contents cover the fundamental topics of importance in glass science and technology, including glass formation, crystallization, phase separation and structure of glasses. Additional chapters discuss the most important properties of glasses, including discussion of physical, optical, electrical, chemical and mechanical properties. A final chapter provides an introduction to a number of methods used to form technical glasses, including glass sheet, bottles, insulation fibre, optical fibres and other common commercial products. In addition, the book contains discussion of the effects of phase separation and crystallization on the properties of glasses, which is neglected in other texts. Although intended primarily as a textbook, Introduction to Glass Science and Technology will also be invaluable to the engineer or scientist who desires more knowledge regarding the formation, properties and production of glass.

Worldviews

An Introduction to the History and Philosophy of Science

Author: Richard DeWitt

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 144439276X

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 8943

Updated throughout and with three entirely new chapters, Worldviews: An Introduction to the History and Philosophy of Science, Second Edition furthers its reputation as the definitive introductory text on the historical developments and philosophical issues that inform our scientific view of the world around us. Represents an innovative introduction to the history and philosophy of science, designed especially for those coming to the subject for the first time Updated new edition features the addition of chapters focusing on scientific laws, evolutionary theory, and implications of evolution Covers the key historical developments and philosophical themes that have impacted our scientific view of the world around us Analyzes the transitions from the Aristotelian worldview to the Newtonian worldview to a new and currently developing worldview Explores challenges to the Western scientific worldview brought on by recent discoveries

Science In Society

An Introduction to Social Studies of Science

Author: Massimiano Bucchi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134354878

Category: Science

Page: 168

View: 7711

The world around us is continually being shaped by science, and by society’s relationship to it. In recent years sociologists have been increasingly preoccupied with the latter, and now in this fascinating book, Massimiano Bucchi provides a brief introduction to this topical issue. Bucchi provides clear and unassuming summaries of all the major theoretical positions within the sociology of science, illustrated with many fascinating examples. Theories covered include Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific change, the sociology of scientific knowledge, actor-network theory, and the social construction of technology. The second half of the book looks at recent public controversies over the role of science in the modern world including: * the Sokal affair, otherwise known as the science wars * debates over public understanding of science, such as global warming and genetically modified food * the implications of the human genome project. This much needed introduction to a rapidly growing area brings theory alive and will be essential reading for all students of the sociology of science.

An Introduction to Science and Technology Studies

Author: Sergio Sismondo

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 144435888X

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 4178

An Introduction to Science and Technology Studies, Second Edition reflects the latest advances in the field while continuing to provide students with a road map to the complex interdisciplinary terrain of science and technology studies. Distinctive in its attention to both the underlying philosophical and sociological aspects of science and technology Explores core topics such as realism and social construction, discourse and rhetoric, objectivity, and the public understanding of science Includes numerous empirical studies and illustrative examples to elucidate the topics discussed Now includes new material on political economies of scientific and technological knowledge, and democratizing technical decisions Other features of the new edition include improved readability, updated references, chapter reorganization, and more material on medicine and technology

A Culture of Improvement

Technology and the Western Millennium

Author: Robert Friedel

Publisher: MIT Press (MA)

ISBN: 9780262514019

Category: History

Page: 588

View: 4394

How technological change in the West has been driven by the pursuit of improvement: ahistory of technology, from plows and printing presses to penicillin, the atomic bomb, and thecomputer.

Circles

Fifty Round Trips Through History Technology Scien

Author: James Burke

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9781439127957

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 8373

From the bestselling author of The Knowledge Web come fifty mesmerizing journeys into the history of technology, each following a chain of consequential events that ends precisely where it began. Whether exploring electromagnetic fields, the origin of hot chocolate, or DNA fingerprinting, these essays -- which originally appeared in James Burke's popular Scientific American column -- all illustrate the serendipitous and surprisingly circular nature of change. In "Room with (Half) a View," for instance, Burke muses about the partly obscured railway bridge outside his home on the Thames. Thinking of the bridge engineer, who also built the steamship that laid the first transatlantic telegraph cable, causes him to recall Samuel Morse; which, in turn, conjures up Morse's neighbor, firearms inventor Sam Colt, and his rival, Remington. One dizzying connection after another leads to Karl Marx's daughter, who attended Socialist meetings with a trombonist named Gustav Holst, who once lived in the very house that blocks Burke's view of the bridge on the Thames. Burke's essays all evolve in this organic manner, highlighting the interconnectedness of seemingly unrelated events and innovations. Romantic poetry leads to brandy distillation; tonic water connects through Leibniz to the first explorers to reach the North Pole. Witty, instructive, and endlessly entertaining, Circles expands on the trademark style that has captivated James Burke fans for years. This unique collection is sure to stimulate and delight history buffs, technophiles, and anyone else with a healthy intellectual curiosity.

Science and Technology in World History, Volume 1

The Ancient World and Classical Civilization

Author: David Deming

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 0786456574

Category: Science

Page: 275

View: 7757

Science is a living, organic activity, the meaning and understanding of which have evolved incrementally over human history. This book, the first in a roughly chronological series, explores the development of the methodology and major ideas of science, in historical context, from ancient times to the decline of classical civilizations around 300 A.D. It includes details specific to the histories of specialized sciences including astronomy, medicine and physics—along with Roman engineering and Greek philosophy. It closely describes the contributions of such individuals as Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Alexander the Great, Euclid, Archimedes, Ptolemy, Seneca, Pliny the Elder, and Galen.

The Scientific Revolution: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Lawrence Principe

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199567417

Category: Science

Page: 148

View: 3110

Lawrence M. Principe takes a fresh approach to the story of the scientific revolution, emphasising the historical context of the society and its world view at the time. From astronomy to alchemy and medicine to geology, he tells this fascinating story from the perspective of the historical characters involved.

Science and Technology in World History, Volume 4

The Origin of Chemistry, the Principle of Progress, the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution

Author: David Deming

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 1476625042

Category: History

Page: 340

View: 7622

The history of science is a story of human discovery--intertwined with religion, philosophy, economics and technology. The fourth in a series, this book covers the beginnings of the modern world, when 16th-century Europeans began to realize that their scientific achievements surpassed those of the Greeks and Romans. Western Civilization organized itself around the idea that human technological and moral progress was achievable and desirable. Science emerged in 17th-century Europe as scholars subordinated reason to empiricism. Inspired by the example of physics, men like Robert Boyle began the process of changing alchemy into the exact science of chemistry. During the 18th century, European society became more secular and tolerant. Philosophers and economists developed many of the ideas underpinning modern social theories and economic policies. As the Industrial Revolution fundamentally transformed the world by increasing productivity, people became more affluent, better educated and urbanized, and the world entered an era of unprecedented prosperity and progress.

Science in Medieval Islam

An Illustrated Introduction

Author: Howard R. Turner

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 0292785410

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 2258

During the Golden Age of Islam (seventh through seventeenth centuries A.D.), Muslim philosophers and poets, artists and scientists, princes and laborers created a unique culture that has influenced societies on every continent. This book offers a fully illustrated, highly accessible introduction to an important aspect of that culture—the scientific achievements of medieval Islam. Howard Turner opens with a historical overview of the spread of Islamic civilization from the Arabian peninsula eastward to India and westward across northern Africa into Spain. He describes how a passion for knowledge led the Muslims during their centuries of empire-building to assimilate and expand the scientific knowledge of older cultures, including those of Greece, India, and China. He explores medieval Islamic accomplishments in cosmology, mathematics, astronomy, astrology, geography, medicine, natural sciences, alchemy, and optics. He also indicates the ways in which Muslim scientific achievement influenced the advance of science in the Western world from the Renaissance to the modern era. This survey of historic Muslim scientific achievements offers students and general readers a window into one of the world's great cultures, one which is experiencing a remarkable resurgence as a religious, political, and social force in our own time.

Technology and World Politics

An Introduction

Author: Daniel R. McCarthy

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317353838

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 2077

This edited volume provides a convenient entry point to the cutting-edge field of the international politics of technology, in an interesting and informative manner. Technology and World Politics introduces its readers to different approaches to technology in global politics through a survey of emerging fusions of Science and Technology Studies and International Relations. The theoretical approaches to the subject include the Social Construction of Technology, Actor-Network Theory, the Critical Theory of Technology, and New Materialist and Posthumanist approaches. Considering how such theoretical approaches can be used to analyse concrete political issues such as the politics of nuclear weapons, Internet governance, shipping containers, the revolution in military affairs, space technologies, and the geopolitics of the Anthropocene, the volume stresses the socially constructed and inherently political nature of technological objects. Providing the theoretical background to approach the politics of technology in a sophisticated manner alongside a glossary and guide to further reading for newcomers, this volume is a vital resource for both students and scholars focusing on politics and international relations.

The Intelligibility of Nature

How Science Makes Sense of the World

Author: Peter Dear

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226139506

Category: Science

Page: 254

View: 6989

Throughout the history of the Western world, science has possessed an extraordinary amount of authority and prestige. And while its pedestal has been jostled by numerous evolutions and revolutions, science has always managed to maintain its stronghold as the knowing enterprise that explains how the natural world works: we treat such legendary scientists as Galileo, Newton, Darwin, and Einstein with admiration and reverence because they offer profound and sustaining insight into the meaning of the universe. In The Intelligibility of Nature, Peter Dear considers how science as such has evolved and how it has marshaled itself to make sense of the world. His intellectual journey begins with a crucial observation: that the enterprise of science is, and has been, directed toward two distinct but frequently conflated ends—doing and knowing. The ancient Greeks developed this distinction of value between craft on the one hand and understanding on the other, and according to Dear, that distinction has survived to shape attitudes toward science ever since. Teasing out this tension between doing and knowing during key episodes in the history of science—mechanical philosophy and Newtonian gravitation, elective affinities and the chemical revolution, enlightened natural history and taxonomy, evolutionary biology, the dynamical theory of electromagnetism, and quantum theory—Dear reveals how the two principles became formalized into a single enterprise, science, that would be carried out by a new kind of person, the scientist. Finely nuanced and elegantly conceived, The Intelligibility of Nature will be essential reading for aficionados and historians of science alike.

Zookeeping

An Introduction to the Science and Technology

Author: Mark D. Irwin,John B. Stoner,Aaron M. Cobaugh

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226925323

Category: Science

Page: 816

View: 9513

As species extinction, environmental protection, animal rights, and workplace safety issues come to the fore, zoos and aquariums need keepers who have the technical expertise and scientific knowledge to keep animals healthy, educate the public, and create regional, national, and global conservation and management communities. This textbook offers a comprehensive and practical overview of the profession geared toward new animal keepers and anyone who needs a foundational account of the topics most important to the day-to-day care of zoo and aquarium animals. The three editors, all experienced in zoo animal care and management, have put together a cohesive and broad-ranging book that tackles each of its subjects carefully and thoroughly. The contributions cover professional zookeeping, evolution of zoos, workplace safety, animal management, taxon-specific animal husbandry, animal behavior, veterinary care, public education and outreach, and conservation science. Using the newest techniques and research gathered from around the world, Zookeeping is a progressive textbook that seeks to promote consistency and the highest standards within global zoo and aquarium operations.

Physics and Technology for Future Presidents

An Introduction to the Essential Physics Every World Leader Needs to Know

Author: Richard A. Muller

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691135045

Category: Science

Page: 536

View: 9515

Physics and Technology for Future Presidents contains the essential physics that students need in order to understand today's core science and technology issues, and to become the next generation of world leaders. From the physics of energy to climate change, and from spy technology to quantum computers, this is the only textbook to focus on the modern physics affecting the decisions of political leaders and CEOs and, consequently, the lives of every citizen. How practical are alternative energy sources? Can satellites really read license plates from space? What is the quantum physics behind iPods and supermarket scanners? And how much should we fear a terrorist nuke? This lively book empowers students possessing any level of scientific background with the tools they need to make informed decisions and to argue their views persuasively with anyone--expert or otherwise. Based on Richard Muller's renowned course at Berkeley, the book explores critical physics topics: energy and power, atoms and heat, gravity and space, nuclei and radioactivity, chain reactions and atomic bombs, electricity and magnetism, waves, light, invisible light, climate change, quantum physics, and relativity. Muller engages readers through many intriguing examples, helpful facts to remember, a fun-to-read text, and an emphasis on real-world problems rather than mathematical computation. He includes chapter summaries, essay and discussion questions, Internet research topics, and handy tips for instructors to make the classroom experience more rewarding. Accessible and entertaining, Physics and Technology for Future Presidents gives students the scientific fluency they need to become well-rounded leaders in a world driven by science and technology. Professors: A supplementary Instructor's Manual is available for this book. It is restricted to teachers using the text in courses. For information on how to obtain a copy, refer to: http://press.princeton.edu/class_use/solutions.html Leading universities that have adopted this book include: Harvard Purdue Rice University University of Chicago Sarah Lawrence College Notre Dame Wellesley Wesleyan University of Colorado Northwestern Washington University in St. Louis University of Illinois - Urbana-Champaign Fordham University of Miami George Washington University