Rough Surfaces

Author: T. R. Thomas

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9781860941009

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 278

View: 2905

This text addreseses the topic of surface roughness, how to measure and describe it, and what practical problems it might cause. Updated to include advances in measurement and characterization, this second edition introduces modern instruments, including laser interferometers and AFMs, and there are sections on fractals and motif analysis. Problems of 3D surface measurement and description are extensively treated. Manufacturing and production engineers, optical and QC engineers, tribologists and many other applied scientists should find this book useful.

Theory of Wave Scattering From Random Rough Surfaces,

Author: J. A. Ogilvy

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 277

View: 2198

A review of theories developed for the study of acoustic, elastic and electromagnetic wave scattering from randomly rough surfaces, and a comprehensive summary of the latest techniques. Different theories are illustrated by experimental data.With applications in radar, sonar, ultrasonics and optics this book will be invaluable to graduate students, researchers and engineers.

Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces

International Series in Natural Philosophy

Author: F. G. Bass,I. M. Fuks

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483187756

Category: Science

Page: 540

View: 9065

Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces discusses the complications in radio physics and hydro-acoustics in relation to wave transmission under settings seen in nature. Some of the topics that are covered include radar and sonar, the effect of variations in topographic relief or ocean waves on the transmission of radio and sound waves, the reproduction of radio waves from the lower layers of the ionosphere, and the oscillations of signals within the earth-ionosphere waveguide. The book begins with some fundamental idea of wave transmission theory and the theory of random processes as used to rough surfaces and to wave fields. This discussion is followed by an analysis of the average fields of sound and electromagnetic waves. A section on spatial correlation characteristics in the approximation of small perturbations is then given. Another chapter of the text explains the Kirchhoff method. The book will provide useful information to physicists, mechanical engineer, students, and researchers in the field of acoustics.

Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings

Author: Heinz Raether

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540474412

Category: Science

Page: 136

View: 3837

The book reviews the properties of surface plasmons that depict electromagnetic surface waves or surface plasma polaritons. Their propagation on smooth and corrugated surfaces (with rough or grating profiles) is considered. In the latter case, the corrugations can cause strong coupling of the surface plasmons with photons leading to resonances with a strong enhancement of the electromagnetic field in the surface. Coupling and field enhancement are the most prominent phenomena on corrugated surfaces and lead to numerous important applications. Attention has been focused on the explanation of the physics. To keep the text readable, sophisticated calculations have been avoided, and instead various applications dealing with enhanced light emission, nonlinear optics, SERS, and other cases of interest are discussed.

Characterization of Amorphous and Crystalline Rough Surface -- Principles and Applications

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080531380

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 417

View: 6832

The structure of a growth or an etch front on a surface is not only a subject of great interest from the practical point of view but also is of fundamental scientific interest. Very often surfaces are created under non-equilibrium conditions such that the morphology is not always smooth. In addition to a detailed description of the characteristics of random rough surfaces, Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences, Volume 37, Characterization of Amorphous and Crystalline Rough Surface-Principles and Applications will focus on the basic principles of real and diffraction techniques for quantitative characterization of the rough surfaces. The book thus includes the latest development on the characterization and measurements of a wide variety of rough surfaces. The complementary nature of the real space and diffraction techniques is fully displayed. Key Features * An accessible description of quantitative characterization of random rough surfaces and growth/etch fronts * A detailed description of the principles, experimentation, and limitations of advanced real-space imaging techniques (such as atomic force microscopy) and diffraction techniques (such as light scattering, X-ray diffraction, and electron diffraction) * Characterization of a variety of rough surfaces (e.g., self-affine, mounded, anisotropic, and two-level surfaces) accompanied by quantitative examples to illustrate the essence of the principles * An insightful description of how rough surfaces are formed * Presentation of the most recent examples of the applications of rough surfaces in various areas

Rough Surfaces

Author: Tom R Thomas

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1783262362

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 296

View: 793

This book is intended for scientists and engineers who need to know about surface roughness, how to measure and describe it and what practical problems it might cause them. The original Rough Surfaces was widely accepted as the definitive work on the subject; this is a completely new edition, updated to take account of recent major advances in measurement and characterisation. Modern instruments are introduced, including laser interferometers and AFM's, and there are sections on fractals and motif analysis. Problems of 3D surface measurement and description are extensively treated. Manufacturing and production engineers, optical and QC engineers, tribologists and many other applied scientists will find this book an essential addition to their libraries. Contents: Stylus InstrumentsOptical InstrumentsOther Measurement TechniquesOther Measurement TopicsData Acquisition and FilteringAmplitude ParametersTexture ParametersSurfaces in Three DimensionsApplications: Contact MechanicsTribologySome Other Applications Readership: Manufacturing, production, quality-control, mechanical and optical engineers, tribologists and applied physicists. Keywords:Rough Surfaces;Stylus Instruments;Optical Instruments

Wave Scattering from Rough Surfaces

Author: Alexander G. Voronovich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642599362

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 236

View: 6996

Since the fIrst edition of this book was published in the 1994, the theory of wave scattering from rough surfaces has continued to develop intensively. The community of researchers working in this area keeps growing, which provides justifIcation for issuing this second edition. In preparing the second edition, I was challenged by the problem of se lecting new material from the many important results obtained recently. Even tually, a new section was added to the central Chap. 6 of this book. This sec tion describes the operator expansion technique put forward by M. Milder, which conforms well with the general approach adopted in the book and which to my mind is one of the most promising. Remote sensing of the terrain and ocean surface represents one of the most important and interesting challenges to the theory of wave scattering from rough surfaces. Rapid progress in electronics results in sensors with new capabilities. New powerful computers and data communication systems allow more sophisticated data processing techniques. What information about soil or air-sea interaction processes can be obtained from gigaflops of data streaming from air-or space-borne radars? To use this information efficiently, one cannot rely entirely on heuristic approaches and needs adequate theory. I hope that this book will contribute to progress in this important area.

Diffraction from Rough Surfaces and Dynamic Growth Fronts

Author: Hong-Ning Yang,Gwo-Ching Wang,Toh-Ming Lu

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810215361

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 226

View: 5814

Designed both for experimentalists who study rough surfaces and the dynamics of thin film growth using diffraction techniques and for theorists who wish to learn of such rough surfaces and dynamic behavior in Fourier space, this monograph quickly brings the readers to forefront research in the area of the dynamics of interface growth. Graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as those readers who have very little prior knowledge of diffraction can pick up the subject matter with little difficulty.This monograph gives a brief review and summary at the end of each chapter. After the introduction of the elementary theory of diffraction in Chapter I, Chapter II discusses the various parameters and correlation functions that are essential in describing a rough surface. In Chapter III, the authors not only show analytical forms of the diffraction structure factor for both rough crystalline and non-crystalline surfaces, but also outline the methods of extracting the interface width, the lateral correlation length and the roughness parameter from the diffraction structure factor. To present the basic physical concepts underlying the scaling hypothesis during dynamic growth, in Chapter IV, a detailed description of the dynamic scaling properties of the height-height correlation function, the height difference function and the structure factor is given. The structure factor from a dynamic growth front is derived in Chapter V. An example of a quantitative measurement of the dynamic growth front of an epitaxial system is also given in this chapter. In Chapter VI, a particular type of rough surfaces having a diverging interface width associated with an equilibrium surface roughening transition is discussed. A comparison of the diffraction characteristics from divergent and non-divergent interface is also summarized.

Electromagnetic Wave Scattering from Random Rough Surfaces

Asymptotic Models

Author: Nicolas Pinel,Christophe Boulier

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118579461

Category: Science

Page: 265

View: 8192

Electromagnetic wave scattering from random rough surfaces is an active, interdisciplinary area of research with myriad practical applications in fields such as optics, acoustics, geoscience and remote sensing. Focusing on the case of random rough surfaces, this book presents classical asymptotic models used to describe electromagnetic wave scattering. The authors begin by outlining the basic concepts relevant to the topic before moving on to look at the derivation of the scattered field under asymptotic models, based on the Kirchhoff-tangent plane, in order to calculate both the scattered field and the statistical average intensity. More elaborated asymptotic models are also described for dealing with specific cases, and numerical results are presented to illustrate these models. Comparisons with a reference numerical method are made to confirm and refine the theoretical validity domains. The final chapter derives the expressions of the scattering intensities of random rough surfaces under the asymptotic models. Its expressions are given for their incoherent contributions, from statistical calculations. These results are then compared with numerical computations using a Monte-Carlo process, as well as with experimental models, for sea surface backscattering. Contents 1. Electromagnetic Wave Scattering from Random Rough Surfaces: Basics. 2. Derivation of the Scattered Field under Asymptotic Models. 3. Derivation of the Normalized Radar Cross-Section under Asymptotic Models. APPENDIX 1. Far-Field Scattered Fields under the Method of Stationary Phase. APPENDIX 2. Calculation of the Scattering Coefficients under the GO for 3D Problems. About the Authors Nicolas Pinel worked as a Research Engineer at the IETR (Institut d’Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes) laboratory at Polytech Nantes (University of Nantes, France) before joining Alyotech Technologies in Rennes, France, in July 2013. His research interests are in the areas of radar and optical remote sensing, scattering and propagation. In particular, he works on asymptotic methods of electromagnetic wave scattering from random rough surfaces and layers. Christophe Bourlier works at the IETR (Institut d’Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes) laboratory at Polytech Nantes (University of Nantes, France) and is also a Researcher at the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) on electromagnetic wave scattering from rough surfaces and objects for remote sensing applications and radar signatures. He is the author of more than 160 journal articles and conference papers.

Backscattering from Multiscale Rough Surfaces with Application to Wind Scatterometry

Author: Adrian K. Fung

Publisher: Artech House

ISBN: 1630810010

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 328

View: 7403

This resource explains and demonstrates the backscattering properties of multiscale rough surfaces, and illustrates their application to establish the geophysical model function (GMF) needed in wind scatterometry. This book also explains how the mechanisms of backscattering change with frequency and the incident angle on a multiscale surface and how to recognize single scale versus multiscale surfaces – very useful information for those wanting to use backscattering models more efficiently.

Mechanics of Hysteretic Adhesive Elastic Mechanical Contact Between Rough Surfaces

Author: N.A

Publisher: Stanford University

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 9823

In experiments that involve contact with adhesion between two surfaces, as found in atomic force microscopy or nanoindentation, two distinct contact force (P ) vs. indentation-depth (h) curves are often measured depending on whether the indenter moves towards or away from the sample. The origin of this hysteresis is not well understood and is often attributed to moisture, plasticity or viscoelasticity. We present experiments, atomistic simulations and continuum mechanics models that will show that hysteresis can exist without these effects, and that its magnitude depends on surface roughness. We explain the observed hysteresis as the result of a series of surface instabilities, where the contact area grows or recedes by a finite amount. We also demonstrate that when this is the case material properties can be estimated uniquely from contact experiments even when the measured P -h curves are not unique. The hysteresis energy loss during contact is also a measure of the adhesive toughness of the contact interface. We show experimentally that roughness can both increase and decrease the adhesive toughness of the contact interface. We show through numerical simulation of continuum adhesive contact models that the contact interface is optimally tough at conditions at which the contact region is at the cusp of the transition through which it turns form being mostly simply connected to being predominantly multiply connected.

Designer Surfaces

Author: Alexei A. Maradudin,Eugenio R. Méndez,Tamara A. Leskova

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080559735

Category: Science

Page: 350

View: 2012

Designer Surfaces presents an approach to the design and fabrication of optical elements that are based on the use of one- or two-dimensional randomly rough surfaces to reflect or transmit light in specified ways. The reader is provided with an introduction to analytical methods for the solution of direct problems in rough surface scattering, and fabrication techniques. These can be useful in contexts outside the scope of this book. The advantages and disadvantages of this stochastic approach compared to the diffractive optics approach are discussed. Finally, experimental results that verify the predictions of the theories developed in this book are presented. Authority of authors The only book on the topic Derivations are given in detail, with many figures illustrating results

Tribology Issues and Opportunities in MEMS

Proceedings of the NSF/AFOSR/ASME Workshop on Tribology Issues and Opportunities in MEMS held in Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A., 9–11 November 1997

Author: Bharat Bhushan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401150508

Category: Science

Page: 655

View: 898

Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is already about a billion dollars a year industry and is growing rapidly. So far major emphasis has been placed on the fabrication processes for various devices. There are serious issues related to tribology, mechanics, surfacechemistry and materials science in the operationand manufacturingof many MEMS devices and these issues are preventing an even faster commercialization. Very little is understood about tribology and mechanical properties on micro- to nanoscales of the materials used in the construction of MEMS devices. The MEMS community needs to be exposed to the state-of-the-artoftribology and vice versa. Fundamental understanding of friction/stiction, wear and the role of surface contamination and environmental debris in micro devices is required. There are significantadhesion, friction and wear issues in manufacturing and actual use, facing the MEMS industry. Very little is understood about the tribology of bulk silicon and polysilicon films used in the construction ofthese microdevices. These issues are based on surface phenomenaand cannotbe scaled down linearly and these become increasingly important with the small size of the devices. Continuum theory breaks down in the analyses, e. g. in fluid flow of micro-scale devices. Mechanical properties ofpolysilicon and other films are not well characterized. Roughness optimization can help in tribological improvements. Monolayers of lubricants and other materials need to be developed for ultra-low friction and near zero wear. Hard coatings and ion implantation techniques hold promise.