Rough Surfaces

Author: Tom R Thomas

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1783262362

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 296

View: 1928

This book is intended for scientists and engineers who need to know about surface roughness, how to measure and describe it and what practical problems it might cause them. The original Rough Surfaces was widely accepted as the definitive work on the subject; this is a completely new edition, updated to take account of recent major advances in measurement and characterisation. Modern instruments are introduced, including laser interferometers and AFM's, and there are sections on fractals and motif analysis. Problems of 3D surface measurement and description are extensively treated. Manufacturing and production engineers, optical and QC engineers, tribologists and many other applied scientists will find this book an essential addition to their libraries. Contents: Stylus InstrumentsOptical InstrumentsOther Measurement TechniquesOther Measurement TopicsData Acquisition and FilteringAmplitude ParametersTexture ParametersSurfaces in Three DimensionsApplications: Contact MechanicsTribologySome Other Applications Readership: Manufacturing, production, quality-control, mechanical and optical engineers, tribologists and applied physicists. Keywords:Rough Surfaces;Stylus Instruments;Optical Instruments

Rough Surfaces

Author: T. R. Thomas

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9781860941009

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 278

View: 2578

This text addreseses the topic of surface roughness, how to measure and describe it, and what practical problems it might cause. Updated to include advances in measurement and characterization, this second edition introduces modern instruments, including laser interferometers and AFMs, and there are sections on fractals and motif analysis. Problems of 3D surface measurement and description are extensively treated. Manufacturing and production engineers, optical and QC engineers, tribologists and many other applied scientists should find this book useful.

Diffraction from Rough Surfaces and Dynamic Growth Fronts

Author: Hong-Ning Yang,Gwo-Ching Wang,Toh-Ming Lu

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810215361

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 226

View: 2784

Designed both for experimentalists who study rough surfaces and the dynamics of thin film growth using diffraction techniques and for theorists who wish to learn of such rough surfaces and dynamic behavior in Fourier space, this monograph quickly brings the readers to forefront research in the area of the dynamics of interface growth. Graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as those readers who have very little prior knowledge of diffraction can pick up the subject matter with little difficulty.This monograph gives a brief review and summary at the end of each chapter. After the introduction of the elementary theory of diffraction in Chapter I, Chapter II discusses the various parameters and correlation functions that are essential in describing a rough surface. In Chapter III, the authors not only show analytical forms of the diffraction structure factor for both rough crystalline and non-crystalline surfaces, but also outline the methods of extracting the interface width, the lateral correlation length and the roughness parameter from the diffraction structure factor. To present the basic physical concepts underlying the scaling hypothesis during dynamic growth, in Chapter IV, a detailed description of the dynamic scaling properties of the height-height correlation function, the height difference function and the structure factor is given. The structure factor from a dynamic growth front is derived in Chapter V. An example of a quantitative measurement of the dynamic growth front of an epitaxial system is also given in this chapter. In Chapter VI, a particular type of rough surfaces having a diverging interface width associated with an equilibrium surface roughening transition is discussed. A comparison of the diffraction characteristics from divergent and non-divergent interface is also summarized.

Electromagnetic Wave Scattering from Random Rough Surfaces

Asymptotic Models

Author: Nicolas Pinel,Christophe Boulier

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118579461

Category: Science

Page: 265

View: 7636

Electromagnetic wave scattering from random rough surfaces is anactive, interdisciplinary area of research with myriad practicalapplications in fields such as optics, acoustics, geoscience andremote sensing. Focusing on the case of random rough surfaces, this book presentsclassical asymptotic models used to describe electromagnetic wavescattering. The authors begin by outlining the basic conceptsrelevant to the topic before moving on to look at the derivation ofthe scattered field under asymptotic models, based on theKirchhoff-tangent plane, in order to calculate both the scatteredfield and the statistical average intensity. More elaborated asymptotic models are also described for dealingwith specific cases, and numerical results are presented toillustrate these models. Comparisons with a reference numericalmethod are made to confirm and refine the theoretical validitydomains. The final chapter derives the expressions of the scatteringintensities of random rough surfaces under the asymptotic models.Its expressions are given for their incoherent contributions, fromstatistical calculations. These results are then compared withnumerical computations using a Monte-Carlo process, as well as withexperimental models, for sea surface backscattering. Contents 1. Electromagnetic Wave Scattering from Random Rough Surfaces:Basics. 2. Derivation of the Scattered Field under Asymptotic Models. 3. Derivation of the Normalized Radar Cross-Section underAsymptotic Models. APPENDIX 1. Far-Field Scattered Fields under the Method ofStationary Phase. APPENDIX 2. Calculation of the Scattering Coefficients under the GOfor 3D Problems. About the Authors Nicolas Pinel worked as a Research Engineer at the IETR(Institut d’Electronique et de Télécommunicationsde Rennes) laboratory at Polytech Nantes (University of Nantes,France) before joining Alyotech Technologies in Rennes, France, inJuly 2013. His research interests are in the areas of radar andoptical remote sensing, scattering and propagation. In particular,he works on asymptotic methods of electromagnetic wave scatteringfrom random rough surfaces and layers. Christophe Bourlier works at the IETR (Institutd’Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes)laboratory at Polytech Nantes (University of Nantes, France) and isalso a Researcher at the French National Center for ScientificResearch (CNRS) on electromagnetic wave scattering from roughsurfaces and objects for remote sensing applications and radarsignatures. He is the author of more than 160 journal articles andconference papers.

Wave Scattering from Rough Surfaces

Author: Alexander G. Voronovich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642599362

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 236

View: 1516

Since the fIrst edition of this book was published in the 1994, the theory of wave scattering from rough surfaces has continued to develop intensively. The community of researchers working in this area keeps growing, which provides justifIcation for issuing this second edition. In preparing the second edition, I was challenged by the problem of se lecting new material from the many important results obtained recently. Even tually, a new section was added to the central Chap. 6 of this book. This sec tion describes the operator expansion technique put forward by M. Milder, which conforms well with the general approach adopted in the book and which to my mind is one of the most promising. Remote sensing of the terrain and ocean surface represents one of the most important and interesting challenges to the theory of wave scattering from rough surfaces. Rapid progress in electronics results in sensors with new capabilities. New powerful computers and data communication systems allow more sophisticated data processing techniques. What information about soil or air-sea interaction processes can be obtained from gigaflops of data streaming from air-or space-borne radars? To use this information efficiently, one cannot rely entirely on heuristic approaches and needs adequate theory. I hope that this book will contribute to progress in this important area.

Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces

International Series in Natural Philosophy

Author: F. G. Bass,I. M. Fuks

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483187756

Category: Science

Page: 540

View: 7189

Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces discusses the complications in radio physics and hydro-acoustics in relation to wave transmission under settings seen in nature. Some of the topics that are covered include radar and sonar, the effect of variations in topographic relief or ocean waves on the transmission of radio and sound waves, the reproduction of radio waves from the lower layers of the ionosphere, and the oscillations of signals within the earth-ionosphere waveguide. The book begins with some fundamental idea of wave transmission theory and the theory of random processes as used to rough surfaces and to wave fields. This discussion is followed by an analysis of the average fields of sound and electromagnetic waves. A section on spatial correlation characteristics in the approximation of small perturbations is then given. Another chapter of the text explains the Kirchhoff method. The book will provide useful information to physicists, mechanical engineer, students, and researchers in the field of acoustics.

Mechanics of Hysteretic Adhesive Elastic Mechanical Contact Between Rough Surfaces

Author: N.A

Publisher: Stanford University



Page: N.A

View: 7124

In experiments that involve contact with adhesion between two surfaces, as found in atomic force microscopy or nanoindentation, two distinct contact force (P ) vs. indentation-depth (h) curves are often measured depending on whether the indenter moves towards or away from the sample. The origin of this hysteresis is not well understood and is often attributed to moisture, plasticity or viscoelasticity. We present experiments, atomistic simulations and continuum mechanics models that will show that hysteresis can exist without these effects, and that its magnitude depends on surface roughness. We explain the observed hysteresis as the result of a series of surface instabilities, where the contact area grows or recedes by a finite amount. We also demonstrate that when this is the case material properties can be estimated uniquely from contact experiments even when the measured P -h curves are not unique. The hysteresis energy loss during contact is also a measure of the adhesive toughness of the contact interface. We show experimentally that roughness can both increase and decrease the adhesive toughness of the contact interface. We show through numerical simulation of continuum adhesive contact models that the contact interface is optimally tough at conditions at which the contact region is at the cusp of the transition through which it turns form being mostly simply connected to being predominantly multiply connected.

Characterization of Amorphous and Crystalline Rough Surface -- Principles and Applications

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080531380

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 417

View: 5395

The structure of a growth or an etch front on a surface is not only a subject of great interest from the practical point of view but also is of fundamental scientific interest. Very often surfaces are created under non-equilibrium conditions such that the morphology is not always smooth. In addition to a detailed description of the characteristics of random rough surfaces, Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences, Volume 37, Characterization of Amorphous and Crystalline Rough Surface-Principles and Applications will focus on the basic principles of real and diffraction techniques for quantitative characterization of the rough surfaces. The book thus includes the latest development on the characterization and measurements of a wide variety of rough surfaces. The complementary nature of the real space and diffraction techniques is fully displayed. Key Features * An accessible description of quantitative characterization of random rough surfaces and growth/etch fronts * A detailed description of the principles, experimentation, and limitations of advanced real-space imaging techniques (such as atomic force microscopy) and diffraction techniques (such as light scattering, X-ray diffraction, and electron diffraction) * Characterization of a variety of rough surfaces (e.g., self-affine, mounded, anisotropic, and two-level surfaces) accompanied by quantitative examples to illustrate the essence of the principles * An insightful description of how rough surfaces are formed * Presentation of the most recent examples of the applications of rough surfaces in various areas

Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings

Author: Heinz Raether

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540474412

Category: Science

Page: 136

View: 4000

The book reviews the properties of surface plasmons that depict electromagnetic surface waves or surface plasma polaritons. Their propagation on smooth and corrugated surfaces (with rough or grating profiles) is considered. In the latter case, the corrugations can cause strong coupling of the surface plasmons with photons leading to resonances with a strong enhancement of the electromagnetic field in the surface. Coupling and field enhancement are the most prominent phenomena on corrugated surfaces and lead to numerous important applications. Attention has been focused on the explanation of the physics. To keep the text readable, sophisticated calculations have been avoided, and instead various applications dealing with enhanced light emission, nonlinear optics, SERS, and other cases of interest are discussed.

Theory of Wave Scattering From Random Rough Surfaces,

Author: J. A. Ogilvy

Publisher: CRC Press


Category: Science

Page: 277

View: 9995

A review of theories developed for the study of acoustic, elastic and electromagnetic wave scattering from randomly rough surfaces, and a comprehensive summary of the latest techniques. Different theories are illustrated by experimental data.With applications in radar, sonar, ultrasonics and optics this book will be invaluable to graduate students, researchers and engineers.

Multiscale Dissipative Mechanisms and Hierarchical Surfaces

Friction, Superhydrophobicity, and Biomimetics

Author: Michael Nosonovsky,Bharat Bhushan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 354078425X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 278

View: 3351

Multiscale Dissipative Mechanisms and Hierarchical Surfaces covers the rapidly developing topics of hierarchical surfaces, roughness-induced superhydrophobicity and biomimetic surfaces. The research in these topics has been progressing rapidly in the recent years due to the advances in the nanosciences and surfaces science and due to potential applications in nanotechnology. The first in its field, this monograph provides a comprehensive review of these subjects and presents the background introduction as well as recent and new results in the area.

Backscattering from Multiscale Rough Surfaces with Application to Wind Scatterometry

Author: Adrian K. Fung

Publisher: Artech House

ISBN: 1630810010

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 328

View: 1072

This resource explains and demonstrates the backscattering properties of multiscale rough surfaces, and illustrates their application to establish the geophysical model function (GMF) needed in wind scatterometry. This book also explains how the mechanisms of backscattering change with frequency and the incident angle on a multiscale surface and how to recognize single scale versus multiscale surfaces – very useful information for those wanting to use backscattering models more efficiently.

Designer Surfaces

Author: Alexei A. Maradudin,Eugenio R. Méndez,Tamara A. Leskova

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080559735

Category: Science

Page: 350

View: 2051

Designer Surfaces presents an approach to the design and fabrication of optical elements that are based on the use of one- or two-dimensional randomly rough surfaces to reflect or transmit light in specified ways. The reader is provided with an introduction to analytical methods for the solution of direct problems in rough surface scattering, and fabrication techniques. These can be useful in contexts outside the scope of this book. The advantages and disadvantages of this stochastic approach compared to the diffractive optics approach are discussed. Finally, experimental results that verify the predictions of the theories developed in this book are presented. Authority of authors The only book on the topic Derivations are given in detail, with many figures illustrating results

Light Scattering and Nanoscale Surface Roughness

Author: Alexei A. Maradudin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387356592

Category: Science

Page: 496

View: 3585

This book covers both experimental and theoretical aspects of nanoscale light scattering and surface roughness. Topics include: spherical particles located on a substrate; surface and buried interface roughness; surface roughness of polymer thin films; magnetic and thermal fluctuations at planar surfaces; speckle patterns; scattering of electromagnetic waves from a metal; multiple wavelength light scattering; nanoroughness standards.

Analysis and Simulation of Contact Problems

Author: Peter Wriggers,Udo Nackenhorst

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540317619

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 398

View: 8907

This carefully edited book offers a state-of-the-art overview on formulation, mathematical analysis and numerical solution procedures of contact problems. The contributions collected in this volume summarize the lectures presented by leading scientists in the area of contact mechanics, during the 4th Contact Mechanics International Symposium (CMIS) held in Hannover, Germany, 2005.

Parabolic Equation Methods for Electromagnetic Wave Propagation

Author: Mireille Levy

Publisher: IET

ISBN: 9780852967645

Category: Mathematics

Page: 336

View: 9318

Parabolic equation methods, used to analyze radiowave propagation in radar and radio communication systems, have become the dominant tool for assessing clear-air and terrain effects on propagation. This volume introduces the mathematical background to parabolic equation modelling and describes simple parabolic equation algorithms before progressing to more advanced topics, including domain truncation, impedance boundaries and the implementation of fast hybrid methods combining ray-tracing and parabolic equation techniques. The text's self-contained approach is suited to graduate students and researchers with little experience of radiowave propagation.