Prison Tattoos

A Study of Russian Inmates in Israel

Author: Efrat Shoham

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319158716

Category: Social Science

Page: 110

View: 6992

This Brief studies the important role that tattoos play in prison culture, and examines its unique manifestation among minority inmates. This work aims to provide a better understanding of prison group culture, particularly among social marginal groups, through the lens of Russian immigrants in Israeli prisons. Russian immigrants currently represent approximately 25% of the total Israeli prison population, and this book examines how tattoos show an important form of rebellion amongst this group. As tattoos are forbidden in some forms of Islam and Judaism, and the Israeli prison service confiscates over 200 homemade tattoo devices per year, this is a significant phenomenon both before and during incarceration. This work examines how despite the transition to Israel, the main social codes of Russian prisoners are still dominant and help segregate this group from the larger prison population. It provides a lens to understand Russian criminal activity in Israel, and in a larger context, the modes of social cohesion and criminal activity of organized crime groups operating in prison systems. This work will be of interest to researchers studying the organized crime and the criminal justice system, Russian organized crime in particular, as well as related studies of immigration, demography, and social cohesion.

Sex Workers and Criminalization in North America and China

Ethical and Legal Issues in Exclusionary Regimes

Author: Susan Dewey,Tiantian Zheng,Treena Orchard

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319257633

Category: Social Science

Page: 99

View: 4317

Sex work continues to provoke controversial legal and public policy debates world-wide that raise fundamental questions about the state’s role in protecting individual rights, status quo social relations, and public health. This book unites ethnographic research from China, Canada, and the United States to argue that criminalization results in a totalizing set of negative consequences for sex workers’ health, safety, and human rights. Such consequences are enabled through the operations of an exclusionary regime, a dense coalescence of punitive forces that involves both governance, in the form of the criminal justice system and other state agents, and dynamic interpersonal encounters in which individuals both enforce and negotiate stigma-related discrimination against sex workers. Chapter Two demonstrates how criminalization harms sex workers by isolating their work to potentially dangerous locations, fostering mistrust of authority figures, further limiting their abilities to find legal work and housing, and restricting possibilities for collective rights-based organizing. Criminalized sex workers report police harassment, seizure of condoms, and adversarial police-sex worker relations that enable others to abuse them with impunity. Chapter Three describes how sex workers negotiate these restrictions on their rights and personal autonomy via their arrest avoidance and client management strategies, self-treatment of health issues, selective mutual aid, rights-based organizing, and entrenchment in sex work or other criminalized activities. Chapter Four describes how researchers working in countries or locales that criminalize sex work face ethical concerns as well as barriers to their work at the practical, institutional, and political levels.

On the Power of Fuzzy Markup Language

Author: Giovanni Acampora,Vincenzo Loia,Chang-Shing Lee,Mei-Hui Wang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642354882

Category: Computers

Page: 188

View: 3350

One of the most successful methodology that arose from the worldwide diffusion of Fuzzy Logic is Fuzzy Control. After the first attempts dated in the seventies, this methodology has been widely exploited for controlling many industrial components and systems. At the same time, and very independently from Fuzzy Logic or Fuzzy Control, the birth of the Web has impacted upon almost all aspects of computing discipline. Evolution of Web, Web2.0 and Web 3.0 has been making scenarios of ubiquitous computing much more feasible; consequently information technology has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. What happens when Fuzzy Logic meets Web technology? Interesting results might come out, as you will discover in this book. Fuzzy Mark-up Language is a son of this synergistic view, where some technological issues of Web are re-interpreted taking into account the transparent notion of Fuzzy Control, as discussed here. The concept of a Fuzzy Control that is conceived and modeled in terms of a native web wisdom represents another step towards the last picture of Pervasive Web Intelligence.

Women and the Mafia

Female Roles in Organized Crime Structures

Author: Giovanni Fiandaca

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387365427

Category: Social Science

Page: 300

View: 2649

The insightful essays in this book shine a new light on the roles of women within criminal networks, roles that in reality are often less traditional than researchers used to think. The book seeks to answer questions from a wide range of academic disciplines and traces the portrait of women tied to organized crime in Italy and around the world. The book offers up accounts of mafia women, and also tales of severe abuse and violence against women.

Fixing Broken Windows

Restoring Order And Reducing Crime In Our Communities

Author: George L. Kelling,Catherine M. Coles

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 0684837382

Category: Political Science

Page: 319

View: 1939

Cites successful examples of community-based policing

What Works in Crime Prevention and Rehabilitation

Lessons from Systematic Reviews

Author: David Weisburd,David P. Farrington,Charlotte Gill

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493934775

Category: Social Science

Page: 331

View: 7644

Systematic reviews aim to minimize any possible bias in drawing conclusions by stating explicit criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies, by conducting extensive and wide-ranging searches for possibly eligible studies, and by making all stages of the review explicit and transparent so that the methods can be checked and replicated. Over a decade ago, a concerted effort was made by members of the criminology community, including the Editors and contributors of this volume, to bring the practice of systematic reviews to the study of Criminology, providing replicable, evidence-based data to answer key questions about the study of crime causation, detection, and prevention. Now, the pioneers in this effort present a comprehensive stock-taking of what has been learned in the past decade of systematic reviews in criminology. Much has been discovered about the effectiveness of (for example) boot camps, “hot spots” policing, closed-circuit television surveillance, neighborhood watch, anti-bullying programs in schools, early parenting programs, drug treatment programs, and other key topics. This ambitious volume aims to bring together and assess all major systematic reviews of the effectiveness of criminological interventions, to draw broad conclusions about what works in policing, corrections, developmental prevention, situational prevention, drug abuse treatments, sentencing and deterrence, and communities. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as in related fields such as public health and forensic science, with important implications for policy-makers and practitioners. Decisively showing that the “nothing works” era is over, this volume takes stock of what we know, and still need to know, to prevent crime. Focusing on different areas of prevention, individual chapters provide a state-of–the art analysis of the extent evaluation evidence. Together, they comprise an essential guide to improving both public safety and the lives of those most at risk of criminal involvement. I plan to keep this book close at hand and to use if often! Francis T. Cullen, Distinguished Research Professor Emeritus, University of Cincinnati This impressive volume, edited by Weisburd, Farrington and Gill, provides a comprehensive picture of what we’ve learned from systematic reviews about “what works” in addressing crime – and goes on to identify the “next step” issues that demand attention if the field is to move forward. At a time when there is a broad commitment to bringing science to the front lines of practice, this book should be on the reading list of both policymakers and scholars. Laurie O. Robinson, Clarence J. Robinson Professor of Criminology, Law Society, George Mason University and former Assistant Attorney General of the U.S. Department of Justice

Hamilton-Jacobi Equations: Approximations, Numerical Analysis and Applications

Cetraro, Italy 2011, Editors: Paola Loreti, Nicoletta Anna Tchou

Author: Yves Achdou,Guy Barles,Hitoshi Ishii,Grigory L. Litvinov

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642364330

Category: Mathematics

Page: 301

View: 8425

These Lecture Notes contain the material relative to the courses given at the CIME summer school held in Cetraro, Italy from August 29 to September 3, 2011. The topic was "Hamilton-Jacobi Equations: Approximations, Numerical Analysis and Applications". The courses dealt mostly with the following subjects: first order and second order Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations, properties of viscosity solutions, asymptotic behaviors, mean field games, approximation and numerical methods, idempotent analysis. The content of the courses ranged from an introduction to viscosity solutions to quite advanced topics, at the cutting edge of research in the field. We believe that they opened perspectives on new and delicate issues. These lecture notes contain four contributions by Yves Achdou (Finite Difference Methods for Mean Field Games), Guy Barles (An Introduction to the Theory of Viscosity Solutions for First-order Hamilton-Jacobi Equations and Applications), Hitoshi Ishii (A Short Introduction to Viscosity Solutions and the Large Time Behavior of Solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi Equations) and Grigory Litvinov (Idempotent/Tropical Analysis, the Hamilton-Jacobi and Bellman Equations).

A User’s Guide to Network Analysis in R

Author: Douglas Luke

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319238833

Category: Mathematics

Page: 238

View: 2158

Presenting a comprehensive resource for the mastery of network analysis in R, the goal of Network Analysis with R is to introduce modern network analysis techniques in R to social, physical, and health scientists. The mathematical foundations of network analysis are emphasized in an accessible way and readers are guided through the basic steps of network studies: network conceptualization, data collection and management, network description, visualization, and building and testing statistical models of networks. As with all of the books in the Use R! series, each chapter contains extensive R code and detailed visualizations of datasets. Appendices will describe the R network packages and the datasets used in the book. An R package developed specifically for the book, available to readers on GitHub, contains relevant code and real-world network datasets as well.

Producing Bias-Free Policing

A Science-Based Approach

Author: Lorie A. Fridell

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319331752

Category: Social Science

Page: 117

View: 9571

This Brief provides specific recommendations for police professionals to reduce the influence of implicit bias on police practice, which will improve both effectiveness (in a shift towards evidence-based, rather than bias-based) practices and police legitimacy. The author is donating her proceeds from this book to the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund (nleomf.org).

Biker Gangs and Transnational Organized Crime

Author: Thomas Barker

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131752411X

Category: Political Science

Page: 260

View: 4694

Biker Gangs and Transnational Organized Crime, Second Edition, describes and analyzes a rapidly expanding global problem: criminal acts committed by motorcycle gangs. Thomas Barker, one of the world’s top experts on outlaw biker gangs, offers fascinating details about the Bandidos, the Vagos, the Mongols, and other "one percenters" (criminal biker gangs, as opposed to the vast majority of motorcycle enthusiasts). He combines this data with a strengthened conceptual framework that makes sense of this complicated picture. U.S.-based motorcycle gangs like the Hells Angels have proliferated, especially in Canada and Europe, to the point where these gangs have more members in other countries than in the United States. Increasingly more often in recent years their crimes are not limited to rumbles or drug use—these gangs challenge the dominance of organized crime, leading to violent conflicts between the rivals. Germany, Scandinavia, the UK, the Netherlands, and Canada are particularly hard-hit by this rising violence. One of Barker’s unique contributions is his Criminal Organization Continuum, building on the groundbreaking network approach to organized crime proposed by Klaus von Lampe. Introduced in the first edition, Barker elaborates his continuum tool and makes it more multi-dimensional to help refine the definition of adult criminal gangs. The product of years of research, this book lays the groundwork for further study by offering students, police, and researchers the most thorough account available of outlaw motorcycle gangs.

Perspectives on Violence and Othering in India

Author: R.C. Tripathi,Purnima Singh

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 8132226135

Category: Social Science

Page: 237

View: 8344

This volume brings together important and original perspectives from South Asia on the relationship between violence---an increasingly important issue in multicultural societies---and the process of othering. The contributors state that societies create 'others' through deliberate acts of selection over a period of time. The objective of the process of othering is to deny rights and privileges that one sets for one's own group. This volume affirms that central to the understanding of violence in any society is the understanding of othering processes. Violence and nonviolence are influenced by the nature of othering processes as well as the kinds of others in a society. Groups engaged in mutual othering are also the ones that are often involved in violent relationships. Renowned scholars from diverse fields provide multidisciplinary perspectives on violence and othering, discussing the concepts of violence and nonviolence in multicultural societies, communal harmony, constructions of the other, truth commissions, state censorship of 'sensitive' issues, fundamentalism and secularism in multifaith societies, and specific cases from recent violence-prone areas. This volume focuses on the South Asian, and more specifically, the Indian context, but is relevant for researchers seeking to understand these issues anywhere in the world.

Criminal Justice and Mental Health

An Overview for Students

Author: Jada Hector,David Khey

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331976442X

Category: Social Science

Page: 225

View: 7591

This textbook provides an overview for students in Criminology and Criminal Justice about the overlap between the criminal justice system and mental health. It provides an accessible overview of basic signs and symptoms of major mental illnesses and size of scope of justice-involved individuals with mental illness. In the United States, the criminal justice system is often the first public service to be in contact with individuals suffering from mental illness or in mental distress. Those with untreated mental illnesses are often at higher risk for committing criminal acts, yet research on this population continues to shed light on common myths – such a prevailing assumption that those with mental illness tend to commit more violent crimes. Law enforcement agents may be called in as first responders for cases of mental distress; and due to a lack of mental health facilities, resources, and pervasive misconceptions about this population, those with mental illness often end up in the corrections system. In this environment, students in Criminology and Criminal Justice are likely to encounter those with mental illness in their future career paths, and need to be prepared for this reality. This timely work covers the roles of each part of the criminal justice system interacting with mentally ill individuals, from law enforcement and first responders, social services, public health services, sentencing and corrections, to release and re-entry. It also covers the crucial topic of mental health for criminal justice professionals, who suffer from high rates of job stress, PTSD, and other mental health issues. The final section of the book includes suggestions for future research. This work will be of interest to students of criminology and criminal justice with an interest in working in the professional sector, as well as those in related fields of sociology, psychology, and public health. It will also be of interest to policy-makers and practitioners already working in the field. The overall goal of this work is to inform, educate, and inspire change.

Perceptions of Female Offenders

How Stereotypes and Social Norms Affect Criminal Justice Responses

Author: Brenda Russell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461458714

Category: Social Science

Page: 198

View: 8277

​Female offenders are often perceived as victims who commit crimes as a self-defense mechanism or as criminal deviants whose actions strayed from typical ‘womanly’ behavior. Such cultural norms for violence exist in our gendered society and there has been scholarly debate about how male and female offenders are perceived and how this perception leads to differential treatment in the criminal justice system. This debate is primarily based upon theories associated with stereotypes and social norms and how these prescriptive norms can influence both public and criminal justice response. Scholars in psychology, sociology, and criminology have found that female offenders are perceived differently than male offenders and this ultimately leads to differential treatment in the criminal justice system. This interdisciplinary book provides an evidence based approach of how female offenders are perceived in society and how this translates to differential treatment within the criminal justice system and explores the ramifications of such differences. Quite often perceptions of female offenders are at odds with research findings. This book will provide a comprehensive evidence-based review of the research that is valuable to laypersons, researchers, practitioners, advocates, treatment providers, lawyers, judges, and anyone interested in equality in the criminal justice system. ​

Emerging Trends in Drug Use and Distribution

Author: David Khey,John M. Stogner,Bryan L. Miller

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319035754

Category: Social Science

Page: 99

View: 742

This Brief explores emerging trends in drug use and distribution. This timely Brief examines recent examples of emerging drugs including salvia (from the plant Salvia divinorum), bath salts (and other synthetic stimulants) and so-called research chemicals (primarily substituted phenethylamines, synthetic cousins of ecstasy), which have tended to receive brief levels of high intensity media coverage that may or may not reflect an actual increase in their usage. Over the past decade in particular, “new” substances being used recreationally seem to come out of obscurity and gain rapid popularity, particularly spurred on by discussion and distribution over the internet. While changing trends in the drug market have always presented a challenge for law enforcement and public health officials, online forums, media coverage and other recent trends discussed in this Brief allow them to gain popularity more quickly and change more frequently. These rapid shifts allow less time for researchers to understand the potential health consequences of these substances and for law enforcement to stay abreast of abuses of legal substances. This work includes: 1) review of relevant research and literature, 2) review the Internet sources in which many deem important in influencing the emerging drug market, 3) discussion of national and international trends in use, abuse and distribution of these substances and 4) examination of current drug policy and recommendations for the future. This brief will be useful for criminology and criminal justice, sociology and public health. It will also be useful for those that deal with youth and the problems that may develop during adolescence and early adulthood.

Minority Youth and Social Integration

The ISRD-3 Study in Europe and the US

Author: Sebastian Roché,Mike Hough

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319894614

Category: Social Science

Page: 250

View: 4578

This book examines the processes for social integration and social cohesion among young people, drawing on data collected from the International Self-Report Delinquency (ISRD) study, which covered 35 studies.This report examines case studies from 5 selected countries (France, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States) to provide an in-depth comparative study. Social integration processes are defined by sociologists as the mechanisms through which a society is held together, and populations are transformed into collectivities and communities. They are understood by criminologists to be an important factor in crime prevention, and factors such as peer groups and families are strong determinants of criminal behavior. In a time when society, and particularly young people, can seem increasingly fragmented (due to new technologies, rapidly increasing migration, economic inequality, and increased individuation), the researchers in this volume seek to understand whether and how these phenomena affect young people, and how they may have an impact on the development of criminal and antisocial behavior. This work will provide a framework for researchers in criminology and criminal justice, particularly with an interest in juveniles, developmental criminology, and crime prevention, as well as related fields such as sociology, social work, and demography.

Crime and Crime Reduction

The importance of group processes

Author: Jane L. Wood,Theresa A. Gannon

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136223894

Category: Psychology

Page: 224

View: 3218

The problems associated with groups that commit crime are well known and notoriously complex. However, there are many questions that we still cannot answer with certainty. This book seeks to deepen understanding of the group processes involved in crime and the treatment of offenders’ thoughts and behaviour. Together, the chapters in this volume address the following questions: Are people more likely to commit crime because of the influence of their group? Does group membership cause people to become criminals, or does the group merely foster people’s pre-existing criminal inclinations? How does group membership exert such a strong hold on people so that some risk imprisonment or even death, rather than relinquish their membership? The contributors to Crime and Crime Reduction consider the social psychological influences of groups and specific forms of group crime such as street and prison gangs, terrorism, organized criminal networks, and group sexual offending. The book also addresses important questions about the role of groups in treating offenders, and why existing group membership should be considered when treating offenders. Group criminal activity is a key area of study for researchers and for students of Forensic Psychology and Criminology courses. This book will therefore be of interest to students, scholars, and law enforcement practitioners who want to understand the group processes involved in crime and its reduction.

Prisonization

Individual and Institutional Factors Affecting Inmate Conduct

Author: Wayne Gillespie

Publisher: Lfb Scholarly Pub Llc

ISBN: 9781931202527

Category: Social Science

Page: 177

View: 1636

Annotation This study explores the social processes of institutional life, such as prisonization and general misconduct, from a multilevel perspective. According to the author, "an integrated theory of prisonization is developed that incorporates individual and contextual effects into one parsimonious design using multilevel data from over 1,000 inmates in 30 prisons across Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio." Gillespie teaches criminal justice and criminology at East Tennessee State University. Annotation (c)2003 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com).