Primate Parasite Ecology

The Dynamics and Study of Host-Parasite Relationships

Author: Michael A. Huffman,Colin A. Chapman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521872464

Category: Medical

Page: 531

View: 3276

Introduces methodology for studying host-parasite interactions, integrating laboratory methodology, field research, and theory.

Ethnoprimatology

Primate Conservation in the 21st Century

Author: Michel T. Waller

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319304690

Category: Science

Page: 422

View: 2882

The list of challenges facing nonhuman primates in the 21st century is a long one. The expansion of palm oil plantations to feed a growing consumer class is eating away at ape and monkey habitats in Southeast Asia and Central Africa. Lemurs are hunted for food in the poorest parts of Madagascar while monkeys are used as medicine in Brazil. Traditional cultural beliefs are maintaining demand for animal body parts in West African markets while viral YouTube videos of “cute” and “cuddly” lorises have increased their market value as pets and endangered their populations. These and other issues are addressed in this book by leading researchers in the field of ethnoprimatology, the study of human/nonhuman primate interactions that combines traditional primatological methodologies with cultural anthropology in an effort to better understand the nuances of our economic, ritualistic, and ecologic relationships.

The Anthropology of Modern Human Teeth

Dental Morphology and Its Variation in Recent and Fossil Homo sapien

Author: G. Richard Scott,Christy G. Turner II,Grant C. Townsend,María Martinón-Torres

Publisher: Cambridge Studies in Biologica

ISBN: 1107174414

Category: Law

Page: 450

View: 6563

Complete guide to genetics, evolution, and variation in human tooth crown and root morphology in modern and fossil Homo sapiens.

African Genesis

Perspectives on Hominin Evolution

Author: Sally C. Reynolds,Andrew Gallagher

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107019958

Category: Science

Page: 582

View: 2637

"The discovery of the first species of African hominin, Australopithecus africanus, from Taung, South Africa in 1925, launched the study of fossil man in Africa. New discoveries continue to confirm the importance of this region to our understanding of human evolution. Outlining major developments since Raymond Dart's description of the Taung skull and, in particular, the impact of the pioneering work of Phillip V. Tobias, this book will be a valuable companion for students and researchers of human origins. It presents a summary of the current state of palaeoanthropology, reviewing the ideas that are central to the field, and provides a perspective on how future developments will shape our knowledge about hominin emergence in Africa. A wide range of key themes are covered, from the earliest fossils from Chad and Kenya, to the origins of bipedalism and the debate about how and where modern humans evolved and dispersed across Africa"--

Parasite Diversity and Diversification

Author: Serge Morand,Boris R. Krasnov,Tim Littlewood,D. Timothy J. Littlewood

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107037654

Category: Science

Page: 488

View: 4901

By joining phylogenetics and evolutionary ecology, this book explores the patterns of parasite diversity while revealing diversification processes.

The Biogeography of Host-Parasite Interactions

Author: Serge Morand,Boris R. Krasnov

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199561346

Category: Medical

Page: 277

View: 3437

This edited volume demonstrates how the latest developments in biogeography (for example in phylogenetics, macroecology, and geographic information systems) can be applied to studies in the evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions in order to integrate spatial patterns with ecological theory.

Micromammals and Macroparasites

From Evolutionary Ecology to Management

Author: S. Morand,B.R. Krasnov,R. Poulin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 4431360255

Category: Science

Page: 647

View: 7262

This book provides a comprehensive survey of the diversity and biology of metazoan parasites affecting small mammals, of their impact on host individuals and populations, and of the management implications of these parasites for conservation biology and human welfare. Designed for a broad, multidisciplinary audience, the book is an essential resource for researchers, students, and practitioners alike.

The Comparative Approach in Evolutionary Anthropology and Biology

Author: Charles L. Nunn

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226608980

Category: Science

Page: 380

View: 2822

Comparison is fundamental to evolutionary anthropology. When scientists study chimpanzee cognition, for example, they compare chimp performance on cognitive tasks to the performance of human children on the same tasks. And when new fossils are found, such as those of the tiny humans of Flores, scientists compare these remains to other fossils and contemporary humans. Comparison provides a way to draw general inferences about the evolution of traits and therefore has long been the cornerstone of efforts to understand biological and cultural diversity. Individual studies of fossilized remains, living species, or human populations are the essential units of analysis in a comparative study; bringing these elements into a broader comparative framework allows the puzzle pieces to fall into place, creating a means of testing adaptive hypotheses and generating new ones. With this book, Charles L. Nunn intends to ensure that evolutionary anthropologists and organismal biologists have the tools to realize the potential of comparative research. Nunn provides a wide-ranging investigation of the comparative foundations of evolutionary anthropology in past and present research, including studies of animal behavior, biodiversity, linguistic evolution, allometry, and cross-cultural variation. He also points the way to the future, exploring the new phylogeny-based comparative approaches and offering a how-to manual for scientists who wish to incorporate these new methods into their research.

Sapiens

A Brief History of Humankind

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: Signal

ISBN: 9780771038518

Category:

Page: 464

View: 7697

Destined to become a modern classic in the vein of Guns, Germs, and Steel, Sapiens is a lively, groundbreaking history of humankind told from a unique perspective. 100,000 years ago, at least six species of human inhabited the earth. Today there is just one. Us. Homo Sapiens. How did our species succeed in the battle for dominance? Why did our foraging ancestors come together to create cities and kingdoms? How did we come to believe in gods, nations, and human rights; to trust money, books, and laws; and to be enslaved by bureaucracy, timetables, and consumerism? And what will our world be like in the millennia to come? In Sapiens, Dr. Yuval Noah Harari spans the whole of human history, from the very first humans to walk the earth to the radical -- and sometimes devastating -- breakthroughs of the Cognitive, Agricultural, and Scientific Revolutions. Drawing on insights from biology, anthropology, palaeontology, and economics, he explores how the currents of history have shaped our human societies, the animals and plants around us, and even our personalities. Have we become happier as history has unfolded? Can we ever free our behaviour from the heritage of our ancestors? And what, if anything, can we do to influence the course of the centuries to come? Bold, wide-ranging and provocative, Sapiens challenges everything we thought we knew about being human: our thoughts, our actions, our power...and our future.

Infectious Diseases in Primates

Behavior, Ecology and Evolution

Author: Charles L. Nunn,Sonia M. Altizer

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198565857

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 8985

Recent progress in the field of wildlife disease ecology demonstrates that infectious disease plays a crucial role in the lives of wild animals. Parasites and pathogens should be especially important for social animals in which high contact among individuals increases the potential for disease spread. As one of the best studied mammalian groups, primates offer a unique opportunity to examine how complex behaviours (including social organization) influence the risk of acquiring infectiousdiseases, and the defences used by animals to avoid infection. This book explores the correlates of disease risk in primates, including not only social and mating behaviour but also diet, habitat use, life history, geography and phylogeny. The authors examine how a core set of host and parasite traits influence patterns of parasitism at three levels of biological organization: among individuals, among populations, and across species. A major goal is to synthesize, for the first time, fourdisparate areas of research: primate behavioural ecology, parasite biology, wildlife epidemiology, and the behavioural and immune defences employed by animals to counter infectious disease. Throughout, the authors provide an overview of the remarkable diversity of infectious agents found in wild primate populations. Additional chapters consider how knowledge of infectious diseases in wild primates can inform efforts focused on primate conservation and human health. More generally, this book identifies infectious disease as an important frontier in our understanding of primate behaviour and ecology. It highlights future challenges for testing the links between host and parasite traits, including hypotheses for the effects of disease on primate social and mating systems.

Primates in Fragments

Complexity and Resilience

Author: Laura K. Marsh,Colin A. Chapman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461488397

Category: Science

Page: 539

View: 884

This book is number two in a series for Primates in Fragments. In this volume, ten years after the first http://www.springer.com/social+sciences/anthropology+%26+archaeology/book/978-0-306-47696-9, we continue to address issues regarding primates within a fractured landscape. There are seven sections based on specific categories of primates in fragments. In the Introductory section, authors discuss the issues surrounding primates in remnant habitats as well as encourage discussion about what we mean by fragmentation on a landscape scale. In the Long-Term and Regional Studies section, authors present information on changes that have occurred during longer studies as well as changes that have occurred over regions. In the Landscape, Metapopulations and the Matrix section, authors cover topics from dry to moist forests, and from metapopulations to single species use of multiple fragments locations. In Feeding and Behavioral Ecology, authors take a closer look at the flexibility and responsiveness of primates in fragments in terms of their food choices, resource use, and behavioral changes. In Endemic, Endangered, and Nocturnal Primates authors uncover details involving critical primates living in major city centers to the heights of the Himalayas. In Genetics, Disease and Parasites authors cover topics including population viability, disease and parasite transmission between primates in fragments and humans. Finally, in the Conservation and Ecology: Threats and Management section, we synthesize information in this volume and make recommendations for the future of work in this field and the survivability of primates in fragments.

Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior

Author: Michael D. Breed,Janice Moore

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080453330

Category: Science

Page: 2672

View: 7371

The Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior has engaged-with great success-the efforts of many of the best behavioral biologists of the 21st century. Section editors drawn from the most accomplished behavioral scientists of their generation have enrolled an international cast of highly respected thinkers and writers-all of whom have taken great care and joy in illuminating every imaginable corner of animal behavior. This comprehensive work covers not only the usual topics such as communication, learning, sexual selection, navigation, and the history of the field, but also emerging topics in cognition, animal welfare, conservation, and applications of animal behavior. The large section on animal cognition brings together many of the world's experts on the subject to provide a comprehensive overview of this rapidly developing area. Chapters relating to animal welfare give a full view of behavioral interactions of humans with companion animals, farm animals, and animals in the wild. The key role of animal behavior in conservation biology receives broad attention, including chapters on topics such as the effects of noise pollution, captive breeding, and how the behavioral effects of parasites interacts with conservation issues. Animal behavior in environmental biology is highlighted in chapters on the effects of endocrine disruptors on behavior and a large number of chapters on key species, such as wolves, chimpanzees, hyenas and sharks. Clear, accessible writing complements a wealth of information for undergraduate college students about the essential concepts of animal behavior and the application of those concepts across the field. In-depth coverage of concepts, methods, and exemplar organisms serves the needs of graduate students and professionals in the field. From the use of behavior in assessing the welfare of pigs to the social behavior of insects, from animal empathy to bat brains, this authoritative reference, with its in-depth introductory articles, rich array of illustrations, interactive cross-referenced links, and numerous suggested readings, can guide the student or the professional to an expanded appreciation of the far-flung world of animal behavior. An invaluable tool for teaching and a source of enrichment and detail for any topic covered in an animal behavior course, the Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior is the definitive reference work in its field and will be for years to come. Comprehensive work which covers the usual topics along with emerging areas of animal behavior This encyclopedia contains clear, accessible writing and is well illustrated, including an online video, complimenting a wealth of information. As an online reference, this work will be subject to period updating. This ensures that the work always remains current. Contains in-depth introductions to the material that make each well-illustrated section come alive with the best the new content the discipline has to offer Glossary includes a compendium of behavioral terms that form a succinct mosaic of virtually every concept and phenomenon related to animal behavior Section editors, drawn from around the world, represent the best and the brightest among today's behavioral biologists and have recruited a broad range of internationally recognized experts. Editors-in-Chief are experienced scientists and writers who between them have authored or edited eight books and teach courses in animal behavior at their respective universities.

Interoperating Geographic Information Systems

Author: Michael Goodchild,Max J. Egenhofer,Robin Fegeas,Cliff Kottman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461551897

Category: Computers

Page: 509

View: 5560

Geographic information systems have developed rapidly in the past decade, and are now a major class of software, with applications that include infrastructure maintenance, resource management, agriculture, Earth science, and planning. But a lack of standards has led to a general inability for one GIS to interoperate with another. It is difficult for one GIS to share data with another, or for people trained on one system to adapt easily to the commands and user interface of another. Failure to interoperate is a problem at many levels, ranging from the purely technical to the semantic and the institutional. Interoperating Geographic Information Systems is about efforts to improve the ability of GISs to interoperate, and has been assembled through a collaboration between academic researchers and the software vendor community under the auspices of the US National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis and the Open GIS Consortium Inc. It includes chapters on the basic principles and the various conceptual frameworks that the research community has developed to think about the problem. Other chapters review a wide range of applications and the experiences of the authors in trying to achieve interoperability at a practical level. Interoperability opens enormous potential for new ways of using GIS and new mechanisms for exchanging data, and these are covered in chapters on information marketplaces, with special reference to geographic information. Institutional arrangements are also likely to be profoundly affected by the trend towards interoperable systems, and nowhere is the impact of interoperability more likely to cause fundamental change than in education, as educators address the needs of a new generation of GIS users with access to a new generation of tools. The book concludes with a series of chapters on education and institutional change. Interoperating Geographic Information Systems is suitable as a secondary text for graduate level courses in computer science, geography, spatial databases, and interoperability and as a reference for researchers and practitioners in industry, commerce and government.

The Evolution of Senescence in the Tree of Life

Author: Richard P. Shefferson,Owen R. Jones,Roberto Salguero-Gómez

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107078504

Category: Science

Page: 402

View: 8248

The existing theories on the evolution of senescence assume that senescence is inevitable in all organisms. However, recent studies have shown that this is not necessarily true. A better understanding of senescence and its underlying mechanisms could have far-reaching consequences for conservation and eco-evolutionary research. This book is the first to offer interdisciplinary perspectives on the evolution of senescence in many species, setting the stage for further developments. It brings together new insights from a wide range of scientific fields and cutting-edge research done on a multitude of different animals (including humans), plants and microbes, giving the reader a complete overview of recent developments and of the controversies currently surrounding the topic. Written by specialists from a variety of disciplines, this book is a valuable source of information for students and researchers interested in ageing and life history traits and populations.

Primates in Fragments

Ecology and Conservation

Author: Laura K. Marsh

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 147573770X

Category: Social Science

Page: 404

View: 4848

This volume was created initially from a symposium of the same name presented at the International Primatological Society's XVIII Congress in Adelaide. South Australia. 6-12 January 2000. Many of the authors who have contributed to this text could not attend the symposium. so this has become another vehicle for the rapidly growing discipline of Fragmentation Science among primatologists. Fragmentation has quickly become a field separate from general ecology. which underscores the severity of the situation since we as a planet are rapidly losing habitat of all types to human disturbance. Getting ecologists. particularly primatologists. to admit that they study in fragments is not easy. In the field of primatology. one studies many things. but rarely do those things (genetics. behavior. population dynamics) get called out as studies in fragmentation. For some reason "fragmentation primatologists" fear that our work is somehow "not as good" as those who study in continuous habitat. We worry that perhaps our subjects are not demonstrating as robust behaviors as they "should" given fragmented or disturbed habitat conditions. I had a colleague openly state that she did not work in fragmented forests. that she merely studied behavior when it was clear that her study sites. everyone of them. was isolated habitat. Our desire to be just another link in the data chain for wild primates is so strong that it makes us deny what kinds of habitats we are working in. However.