Police Use of Research Evidence

Recommendations for Improvement

Author: Elizabeth A. Stanko,Paul Dawson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319206486

Category: Social Science

Page: 79

View: 3115

This brief takes the reader through a 10-year journey of seeking to embed Evidence Based Policing within one of the largest police forces in the world - the Metropolitan Police Service in London, England - from the inside. As a topic, Evidence Based Policing has generated considerable recent interest and academic discussion - although largely remains without a consistent guiding voice for police practitioners. The aim of the brief is to expand upon the current discussions and address this gap within the day-to-day reality of policing where translation of research is a routine part of the day job. The book is organised into three sections: the first explores receptivity to evidence, asking practitioners to locate where they are on a continuum of evidence based craftwork; the second presents the importance of programme integrity and effective implementation in police craft; and the final section explores the challenges in professionalising policing and offers a more nuanced discussion around what it really means to be evidenced based. Throughout the brief the authors promote an insider whole-force strategic approach in landing evidence into policing 'business as normal' as opposed to an external academic or educated individual officer translation approach. Over the course of the monograph the authors draw upon their decade of experience providing case studies, toolkits, exercises, anecdotes and research experience as an inspiration for police practitioners both to practically support and inspire better evidence based working as part of the day job.

Introduction to Policing Research

Taking Lessons from Practice

Author: Mark Brunger,Stephen Tong,Denise Martin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317747089

Category: Social Science

Page: 230

View: 9818

The expansion of degrees and postgraduate qualifications on policing has come hand in hand with the need for a more scholarly and research-based approach to the subject. Students are increasingly encouraged to apply research to practice and this book is specifically designed to bring clarity to the concept of empirical research in policing. As an introduction to the theoretical explanations and assumptions that underpin the rationale of research design in policing, this book clearly illustrates the practical and ethical issues facing empirical research in a policing context, as well as the limitations of such research. Introduction to Policing Research brings together a range of leading scholars who have a wide range of experience conducting police research. Topics covered include: professional development, police culture, policing protests, private policing, policing and diversity, policing in transition, policing and mental health, policing and sensitive issues. This book is perfect for undergraduate and graduate students on policing degrees, as well as graduate students and researchers engaged with criminal justice. It is also essential reading for police officers taking professional and academic qualifications.

Producing Bias-Free Policing

A Science-Based Approach

Author: Lorie A. Fridell

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319331752

Category: Social Science

Page: 117

View: 1627

This Brief provides specific recommendations for police professionals to reduce the influence of implicit bias on police practice, which will improve both effectiveness (in a shift towards evidence-based, rather than bias-based) practices and police legitimacy. The author is donating her proceeds from this book to the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund (nleomf.org).

Best Practices for the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System

Author: Lenore E.A. Walker,James M. Pann,David L. Shapiro,Vincent B. Van Hasselt

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319216562

Category: Psychology

Page: 88

View: 5750

This timely brief resource introduces a new evidence-based model for treatment of mentally ill individuals in jails, with emphasis on community-based options. Forensic mental health experts review police alternatives to arresting mentally ill persons in confrontations, the efficacy of problem-solving courts, and continuity of care between jail and community. The book's best-practices approach extends to frequently related issues such as addiction, domestic violence, juvenile considerations, and trauma and describes successful programs coordinating judicial and clinical systems. These guidelines for decriminalizing non-violent behaviors and making appropriate services available to those with mental problems should also help address issues affecting the justice system, such as overcrowding. Included in the coverage: The Best Practices Model. Best practices in law enforcement crisis interventions with the mentally ill. Problem-solving courts and therapeutic jurisprudence. Competency restoration programs. A review of best practices for the treatment of persons with mental illness in jail. Conclusions, recommendations, and helpful appendices. With its practical vision for systemic improvement, Best Practices Model for Intervention with the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System is progressive reading for practitioners in the mental health field, especially practitioners working with inmates, as well as for stakeholders in the law enforcement and justice systems.

Community-Oriented Policing and Technological Innovations

Author: Georgios Leventakis,M. R. Haberfeld

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319892940

Category: Social Science

Page: 131

View: 2214

This Brief presents new approaches and innovative challenges to address bringing technology into community-oriented policing efforts. “Community-oriented policing” is an approach that encourages police to develop and maintain personal relationships with citizens and community organizations. By developing these partnerships, the goal is to enhance trust and legitimacy of police by the community (and vice versa), and focus on engaging the community crime prevention and detection efforts for sustainable, long-term crime reduction. The contributions to this volume emphasize how technological innovations can advance community-oriented policing goals, such as: -Strengthening community policing principles through effective and efficient tools, procedures and approaches - Accelerating communication between citizens and police forces - Early identification, timely intervention, as well as better crime reporting, identification of risks, unreported and undiscovered crime through the community Contributions to this volume were developed out of the Next Generation Community Policing (NGCP) International Conference was co-organized by nine contributing research and development projects, funded by the Horizon 2020 SECURITY Program of the European Commission. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public health, security, IT and public policy. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

Developing and Maintaining Police-Researcher Partnerships to Facilitate Research Use

A Comparative Analysis

Author: Jeff Rojek,Peter Martin,Geoffrey P. Alpert

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493920561

Category: Social Science

Page: 84

View: 4315

This Brief discusses methods to develop and maintain police – researcher partnerships. First, the authors provide information that will be useful to police managers and researchers who are interested in creating and maintaining partnerships to conduct research, work together to improve policing and help others understand the linkages between the two groups. Then, more specifically, they describe how police managers consider and utilize research in policing and criminal justice and its findings from a management perspective in both the United States and Australia. While both countries experience similar issues of trust, acceptance, utility, and accountability between researchers and practitioners, the experiences in the countries differ. In the United States with 17,000 agencies, the use of research findings by police agencies requires understanding, diffusion and acceptance. In Australia with a small number of larger agencies, the problems of research-practitioner partnerships have different translational issues, including acceptance and application. As long as police practitioners and academic researchers hold distinct and different impressions of each other, the likelihood of positive, cooperative, and sustainable agreements between them will suffer.

Procedural Justice and Legitimacy in Policing

Author: Lorraine Mazerolle,Elise Sargeant,Adrian Cherney,Sarah Bennett,Kristina Murphy,Emma Antrobus,Peter Martin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319045431

Category: Social Science

Page: 81

View: 8653

This brief focuses on the “doing” of procedural justice: what the police can do to implement the principles of procedural justice, and how their actions can improve citizen perceptions of police legitimacy. Drawing on research from Australia (Mazerolle et al), the UK (Stanko, Bradford, Jackson etc al), the US (Tyler, Reisig, Weisburd), Israel (Jonathon-Zamir et al), Trinidad & Tobago (Kochel et al) and Ghana (Tankebe), the authors examine the practical ways that the police can approach engagement with citizens across a range of different types of interventions to embrace the principles of procedural justice, including: · problem-oriented policing · patrol · restorative justice · reassurance policing · and community policing. Through these examples, the authors also examine some of the barriers for implementing procedurally just ways of interacting with citizens, and offer practical suggestions for reform. This work will be of interest for researchers in criminology and criminal justice focused on policing as well as policymakers.

Evidence-Based Practice in Juvenile Justice

Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities

Author: Peter Greenwood

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461489083

Category: Social Science

Page: 118

View: 363

Over the past 15 years, evidence-based practice in juvenile justice has moved from a concept to a full blown practice in a number of states. They have used research based principles and programs to: - completely reorganize their system for treating juveniles -reduce crime and recidivism -and saved money in the process. Evidence-Based Practice in Juvenile Justice describes the major players in this transformative process, the particular role they play in moving research to practice, and provides recommendations for applying this research in other locations. It will be of key interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice with a focus on Juvenile Justice or Juvenile Delinquency, or related fields such as Public Policy and Social Work, as well as policy-makers, and practitioners working in the juvenile justice system. ​

Police Pursuit Driving

Policy and Research

Author: Geoffrey P. Alpert,Cynthia Lum

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1493907123

Category: Social Science

Page: 68

View: 3262

Police pursuits, often receiving a lot of media attention, have become a topic of concern and priority for both law enforcement and the communities they serve. They often come with high risks for the well-being of community members and for both the police officers involved in the chase as well as for the fleeing suspects. In this brief, we summarize what is known about police pursuits, from both legal decisions and criminological research. We then discuss the impact of this research on police pursuit policy, court decisions, and media reports. We offer suggestions about the need for more development and use of research, and the challenges for research to be integrated into police policies, training, supervision and accountability systems.

Using Modeling to Predict and Prevent Victimization

Author: Ken Pease,Andromachi Tseloni

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319031856

Category: Social Science

Page: 80

View: 4313

This work provides clear application of a new statistical modeling technique that can be used to recognize patterns in victimization and prevent repeat victimization. The history of crime prevention techniques range from offender-based, to environment/situation-based, to victim-based. The authors of this work have found more accurate ways to predict and prevent victimization using a statistical modeling, based around crime concentration and sub-group profiling with regard to crime vulnerability levels, to predict areas and individuals vulnerable to crime. Following from this prediction, they propose policing strategies to improve crime prevention based on these predictions. With a combination of immediate actions and longer-term research recommendations, this work will be of interest to researchers and policy makers in focused on crime prevention, police studies, victimology and statistical applications.

Most-Cited Scholars in Criminology and Criminal Justice, 1986-2010

Author: Ellen G Cohn,David P. Farrington,Amaia Iratzoqui

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319012223

Category: Social Science

Page: 113

View: 6366

​​ ​This brief examines the influence and prestige of scholars and works in the field of Criminology and Criminal Justice, as well as changes in influence and prestige over a period of 25 years, based on citation analysis. Methods of measuring scholarly influence can be highly controversial, but the authors of this work clearly outline their methodology, developed over years of experience working with this area of study. Through their expertise in Criminology and Criminal Justice, they are able to solve problems that affect or confound many traditional forms of citation analysis, such as irregularly cited references or self-citations. It includes 25 years of data (1986 through 2010) on the most-cited scholars and works in major American and international Criminology and Criminal Justice journals, and provides an objective measure of influence and prestige. Through an analysis of the data, the authors also document the intellectual development of criminology and criminal justice as a field of study since 1986. They highlight the development of research trends and indicate areas for future research. This book is designed for use by scholars and academics in the fields of Criminology and Criminal Justice, and the methodology will be of interest to researchers in related disciplines, including Sociology and Social Psychology. -- Cohn, Farrington, and Iratzoqui provide an invaluable service in unpacking the criminological enterprise. Using systematic citational analysis, they illuminate the core patterns of scholarly influence that have shaped the field’s development. This volume is an essential resource for all those wishing to understand which scholars and writings have done most—within and across time periods—to affect thinking about crime and justice. Francis T. Cullen Distinguished Research Professor University of Cincinnati - Citation analyses have become one of the most significant measures of scholarly influence. They are especially useful for revealing major trends over time regarding authors and the topics of interest to the wider field. Cohn, Farrington, and Iratzoqui's Most Cited Scholars in Criminology and Criminal Justice, 1986-2010 provides the most up-to-date, comprehensive, and longitudinal investigation of scholarly influence in criminology/criminal justice. This resource is a most interesting read, one that supplies not a mere counting of citations but clear ideas about where the field has been centered and where it is trending into the future. Alex R. Piquero Ashbel Smith Professor of Criminology University of Texas at Dallas

Developing and Maintaining Police-Researcher Partnerships to Facilitate Research Use

A Comparative Analysis

Author: Jeff Rojek,Peter Martin,Geoffrey P. Alpert

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493920561

Category: Social Science

Page: 84

View: 5986

This Brief discusses methods to develop and maintain police – researcher partnerships. First, the authors provide information that will be useful to police managers and researchers who are interested in creating and maintaining partnerships to conduct research, work together to improve policing and help others understand the linkages between the two groups. Then, more specifically, they describe how police managers consider and utilize research in policing and criminal justice and its findings from a management perspective in both the United States and Australia. While both countries experience similar issues of trust, acceptance, utility, and accountability between researchers and practitioners, the experiences in the countries differ. In the United States with 17,000 agencies, the use of research findings by police agencies requires understanding, diffusion and acceptance. In Australia with a small number of larger agencies, the problems of research-practitioner partnerships have different translational issues, including acceptance and application. As long as police practitioners and academic researchers hold distinct and different impressions of each other, the likelihood of positive, cooperative, and sustainable agreements between them will suffer.

Ethics and Civil Drones

European Policies and Proposals for the Industry

Author: María de Miguel Molina,Virginia Santamarina Campos

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319710877

Category: Law

Page: 92

View: 5875

This open access book disseminates some of the results of the European H2020 AiRT Project (Technology transfer of RPAs for the creative industry). In particular, it presents findings related to mitigating safety and security concerns when civil drones are piloted by the service sector (mainly, the creative industry). European policies regarding drones generally focus on outdoor drones, but they are also used indoors. Moreover, a number of European countries have fragmented regulations on drone use, and as a result, European institutions are attempting address these issues. This work is based on a detailed study of the European policies, a comparative analysis of the regulation in various European countries, an analysis of the drone sector in Europe, and primary data from members of the creative industry. The authors created focus groups in Spain, the UK and Belgium in order to discuss with the creative industry the concerns on safety and security when using civil drones for their work. Based on these results, the book offers advice to the European industry, as well as new insights for academics and policymakers. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

Intergenerational Transmission of Child Maltreatment

Author: Lisa Schelbe,Jennifer M. Geiger

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319438247

Category: Social Science

Page: 89

View: 2214

This accessible resource coordinates what we know about the intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment (ITCM), with a specific focus on prevention in context. Cutting through facile cause-and-effect constructs, the authors review and critique the recent literature on the complicated nature of the phenomenon and weigh different approaches to its conceptualization. The book identifies child and parental risk factors linked to ITCM as well as protective factors involved in its reduction, while examining complex relationships between family, parenting, and social contexts that can provide keys to understanding and healing traumatized families. This close attention to crucial yet often overlooked details will aid professionals in creating the next wave of salient research projects and effective interventions, and enhance current efforts to break longstanding patterns of abuse and neglect. Among the topics covered: • Theoretical frameworks conceptualizing intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment.• Empirical studies on intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment.• Risk factors associated with ITCM.• Protective factors associated with breaking the cycle of maltreatment.• Methodological challenges in studying ITCM.• Recommendations for evaluation of intervention and prevention strategies. Geared toward novices and veterans alike, Intergenerational Transmission of Child Maltreatment is a solution-focused reference of singular importance to practitioners and research professionals involved in improving children’s well-being.

The Role of State Agencies in Translational Criminology

Connecting Research to Policy

Author: Mark S Davis

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319576828

Category: Social Science

Page: 63

View: 6747

This Brief discusses the role of state-level criminal justice organizations in the prevention and control of crime and delinquency. State agencies play an important role in translating criminological knowledge into criminal justice policy and practice. Their unique position enables them to help bridge the divide between the academic and federal agencies, and local communities that need the knowledge. Using several examples, the author shows how state agencies have facilitated translation with varying degrees of success. The agencies covered include: state police/patrol, attorneys general, adult and juvenile corrections, and state criminal justice planning agencies. To a lesser extent they also include statewide organizations representing law enforcement, prosecutors, judges, probation and parole officers, crime prevention professionals, and victim advocates. Most statewide criminal justice organizations are in an excellent position to translate criminological theory and research into policy and practice. Some, like those administering federal monies, to an extent are forced into the translation role for their constituents. Others, such as departments of corrections, do so out of necessity or because of enlightened leadership. Still others, such as state criminal justice planning agencies, provide leadership in translation because of the broad umbrella of their responsibilities and the incentives their pass-though dollars represent. Regardless, state agencies provide an important link between academic institutions and the federal government on one hand, and local criminal justice agencies on the other.​ This Brief provides and important resource for navigating that link.

Treatment versus Punishment for Drug Addiction

Lessons from Austria, Poland, and Spain

Author: Richard Soyer,Stefan Schumann

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319188240

Category: Social Science

Page: 100

View: 3676

​​This brief summarizes the results of a two-year, international research project covering drug addiction treatment versus punishment in Austria, Poland, and Spain. It features: -An analysis of the national drug-related legislation and its application in these countries - An evaluation of drug laws and policies by both the law enforcement and drug treatment practitioners -An evaluation of drug-addicted offenders undergoing drug treatment versus punishment and their outcomes The basic findings of the project can be summarized as follows: drug addiction and drug-related criminal behavior should be treated as a psychiatric disorder and a chronic disease. The study supports the application of a treatment-oriented approach to drug-related delinquency. As this brief demonstrates, one challenge to an adequate treatment of drug addicted offenders is a lack of cooperation between the judicial and the medical sector, and an inconsistent application of policies. By comparing the legislation and application of drug laws in these three European countries, the authors provide insights with implications for other national legal systems. This brief will be of interest to researchers and policy-makers working with drug involved individuals, from criminology and criminal justice, public health, public policy and international comparative law.

PTSD and Forensic Psychology

Applications to Civil and Criminal Law

Author: Laurence Miller

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331909081X

Category: Psychology

Page: 116

View: 7941

In World War I, they spoke of shell shock. By World War II, the term was battle fatigue. Modern understanding of trauma psychology has evolved to give the concept a non-military name: posttraumatic stress disorder. As such, it has been at the heart of civil and criminal cases from workers' compensation to murder. PTSD and Forensic Psychology brings its topic into real-world focus by examining posttraumatic stress as a clinical entity and taking readers through the evaluation process for court cases involving the PTSD syndrome. This timely reference differentiates between PTSD and disorders that may be mistaken for it, and demonstrates its legal application in seeking civil damages and mounting a criminal defense. An evidence-based framework for conducting a trial-worthy evaluation and guidelines for establishing strong cases and refuting dubious ones further illustrate the protocols and challenges surrounding the status of PTSD in legal settings. For maximum usefulness, the book offers courtroom advice for expert witnesses as well as "practice points" at the end of each chapter. Featured topics include: History of the PTSD concept and its relation to the law. PTSD as syndrome: symptoms, diagnosis, treatment. PTSD and other traumatic disability syndromes. PTSD in the civil litigation and criminal justice systems. PTSD as an insanity defense and in claims of diminished capacity. PTSD cases: evaluation, interpretation, testimony. This thorough yet concise analysis makes PTSD and Forensic Psychology the ideal training tool for beginning mental health expert witnesses, as well as a concise practical review and reference source for seasoned forensic psychologists. It will also serve as a useful practice and teaching guide for attorneys, medical rehabilitation professionals, military personnel, psychotherapists, researchers, and educators in the fields of clinical and forensic psychology, criminology, traumatic stress studies, and mental health law.

Police-Citizen Relations Across the World

Comparing sources and contexts of trust and legitimacy

Author: Dietrich Oberwittler,Sebastian Roché

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315406640

Category: Social Science

Page: 308

View: 1158

Police-citizen relations are in the public spotlight following outbursts of anger and violence. Such clashes often happen as a response to fatal police shootings, racial or ethnic discrimination, or the mishandling of mass protests. But even in such cases, citizens’ assessment of the police differs considerably across social groups. This raises the question of the sources and impediments of citizens’ trust and support for police. Why are police-citizen relations much better in some countries than in others? Are police-minority relations doomed to be strained? And which police practices and policing policies generate trust and legitimacy? Research on police legitimacy has been centred on US experiences, and relied on procedural justice as the main theoretical approach. This book questions whether this approach is suitable and sufficient to understand public attitudes towards the police across different countries and regions of the world. This volume shows that the impact of macro-level conditions, of societal cleavages, and of state and political institutions on police-citizen relations has too often been neglected in contemporary research. Building on empirical studies from around the world as well as cross-national comparisons, this volume considerably expands current perspectives on the sources of police legitimacy and citizens’ trust in the police. Combining the analysis of micro-level interactions with a perspective on the contextual framework and varying national conditions, the contributions to this book illustrate the strength of a broadened perspective and lead us to ask how specific national frameworks shape the experiences of policing.

Policing in Russia

Combating Corruption since the 2009 Police Reforms

Author: Serguei Cheloukhine

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319611003

Category: Social Science

Page: 67

View: 473

This Brief provides an in-depth look at crime and corruption in Russian Law Enforcement, in the fifteen years since the 2009 police reforms. It focuses on corruption and organized crime at various levels of public services and law enforcement, how these organized crime networks operate, and how to enhance police integrity and legitimacy in this context. It begins with a short overview of the history of law enforcement in the Soviet and Post-Soviet context, and the scope of organized crime on the operations of local businesses, public services, and bureaucratic offices. It provides an in depth examination of how organized crime developed in this context, to fill a void between the supply and demand of various goods and services. Based on an in-depth survey of police integrity and corruption in Russia, it provides key insights into how countries in a transition to democracy can maintain and enhance legitimacy of their police force. This Brief will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, particularly with a focus on policing, corruption or organized crime, as well as related disciplines such as political science.

Toward the Next Generation of Bystander Prevention of Sexual and Relationship Violence

Action Coils to Engage Communities

Author: Victoria L. Banyard

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319231715

Category: Social Science

Page: 118

View: 4281

This briefs integrates and synthesizes an array of research about who helps others and under what conditions and discusses the implications of this research for a bystander intervention focused prevention agenda to reduce sexual and relationship violence in schools and communities. It combines an examination of bystander helping behavior in the specific context of sexual and relationship violence with social psychological research on bystander behavior outside that context in order to inform prevention efforts. This briefs is designed for researchers, practitioners, and students concerned about violence prevention and who are interesting in bystander intervention as a promising prevention strategy. Connections between research and practice are the foundation of this briefs. The briefs addresses the following questions: What is the promise of a bystander approach to violence prevention? Where does it fit within the spectrum of sexual and relationship violence prevention? How do we expand theoretical models of helping behavior to the unique context of interpersonal violence? How can we bring in research from other areas of health behavior change and developmental research on violence to inform a broader bystander action model? It provides a new synthesis and model of bystander interaction. It outlines a strategic plan for new research and next steps in prevention practices.