Originally published in hardcover: New York: Pantheon, a division of Random House LLC, 2014.
Why Philosophy Won't Go Away
Author: Rebecca Goldstein
This book is about the concept of progress, its separate varieties, its current rejection, and how it may be reconsidered from a philosophical and scientific basis. John C. Caiazza's main emphasis is on how science is understood as it has a direct impact on social values as expressed by prominent philosophers. He argues that progress is at a standstill, which presents a crisis for Western civilization.Caiazza presents historical examples, both of scientific inquiry and social and cultural themes, to examine the subject of progress. Beginning with the Whig model and progressive political values exemplified by Bacon and Dewey, he also examines other variations, the Enlightenment, cosmopolitanism, and totalitarianism. Technology, argues Caiazza, also has a stultifying effect on Western culture and to understand the idea of progress, we must take a philosophic rather than a scientific point of view. Modern cosmology has inevitable humanistic and theological implications, and major contemporary philosophers reject social science in favour of ancient concepts of virtue and ethics.In the end, Caiazza writes that time is an agent, not a neutral plain on which scientific and historical events occur. We can expect technology to keep us in stasis or become aware of the possibility of transcendence. This book will be of interest for students of scientific history and philosophy.
Science, Society, and Values
Author: John C. Caiazza
Platon zählt zu den einflussreichsten Philosophen aller Zeiten. Er beeinflusste maßgeblich Profil und Kanon der westlichen Philosophie. Die Kritik am sogenannten Platonismus wurde kontinuierlich von den Schwierigkeiten gespeist, die die Interpretation der philosophischen Schriften Platons bereitet. Gemeinhin wird er als rein rationaler Philosoph gesehen. Ein Philosoph war er in der Tat, ebenso jedoch ein Experte in der Annäherung an das Nicht-Rationale, unter anderem in Form von Mythen. So wurde er auch als "Mythenerfinder" und "Mythologe" bezeichnet. Platon war ein Visionär, der es wagte, das Reich des Nicht-Rationalen auf systematische und disziplinierte Art zu erforschen. Insgesamt lässt sich Platons philosophisches Vorhaben als Streben nach einer umfassenden Sicht des organischen Ganzen klassifizieren. Der Ausdruck „Gestalt“ scheint die Ganzheit am ehesten zu beschreiben. Platon kann als prominentester und auch als letzter Repräsentant der antiken Philosophie angesehen werden, der die Entwicklung einer Gestalt-Philosophie anstrebte. Plato is one of the most influential philosophers of all time. He decisively shaped the profile and canon of western philosophy. Criticism of what has become known as Platonism has been continuously nourished by the difficulties of interpreting this philosopher's writings. Plato is commonly viewed as a purely rational philosopher. A philosopher he was indeed, but Plato was also an expert in approaching the non-rational, in the form of mythology among others. Plato has been called a "mythmaker" and a "mythologist". Plato was a visionary who dared to explore the realm of the non-rational in a systematic and disciplined way. In an overall comparison, Plato's philosophical enterprise strives for a comprehensive perspective on the organic whole. The expression "Gestalt" seems to come closest to describing the wholeness. Plato may be considered to be the most prominent representative of classical philosophy to develop a Gestalt philosophy and also the last to do so in antiquity.
Contours of a Contextual Theory of Truth
Author: Harald Haarmann
Publisher: Georg Olms Verlag
A brilliant inquiry into the origins of human nature. "Sweeping, erudite, sharply argued, and fun to read..also highly persuasive." -Time Now updated with a new afterword One of the world's leading experts on language and the mind explores the idea of human nature and its moral, emotional, and political colorings. With characteristic wit, lucidity, and insight, Pinker argues that the dogma that the mind has no innate traits-a doctrine held by many intellectuals during the past century-denies our common humanity and our individual preferences, replaces objective analyses of social problems with feel-good slogans, and distorts our understanding of politics, violence, parenting, and the arts. Injecting calm and rationality into debates that are notorious for ax-grinding and mud-slinging, Pinker shows the importance of an honest acknowledgment of human nature based on science and common sense.
The Modern Denial of Human Nature
Author: Steven Pinker
In The Value of Virginia Woolf, Madelyn Detloff explores the writings of Virginia Woolf from her early texts to her challenging and inventive novels. Detloff demonstrates why Woolf has enduring value for our own time, both as a defender of modernist experimentation and as a novelist of innovation and poetic vision who also exhibits moments of intense insight and philosophical depth. A famously enigmatic figure, Woolf's literary works offer different rewards to different readers. The Value of Virginia Woolf examines not only the significance of her most celebrated fiction but the function of time and allegory, natural and urban spaces, voice and language that give Woolf's writings their perennial appeal.
Author: Madelyn Detloff
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Literary Criticism
In her new book Art and the Brain: Plasticity, Embodiment and the Unclosed Circle, Amy Ione offers a profound assessment of our ever-evolving view of the biological brain as it pertains to embodied human experience.
Plasticity, Embodiment, and the Unclosed Circle
Author: Amy Ione
A new translation of the complete texts of The Republic, The Apology, Crito, Phaido, Ion, Meno, and Symposium reveals the genius of Plato as he struggled with education, justice, the "philosopher king," and utopian visions of society. Reprint.
Publisher: Signet Classics
An intellectual history of America's water management philosophy. Humans take more than their geological share of water, but they do not benefit from it equally. This imbalance has created an era of intense water scarcity that affects the security of individuals, states, and the global economy. For many, this brazen water grab and the social inequalities it produces reflect the lack of a coherent philosophy connecting people to the planet. Challenging this view, Jeremy Schmidt shows how water was made a “resource” that linked geology, politics, and culture to American institutions. Understanding the global spread and evolution of this philosophy is now key to addressing inequalities that exist on a geological scale. Water: Abundance, Scarcity, and Security in the Age of Humanity, details the remarkable intellectual history of America’s water management philosophy. It shows how this philosophy shaped early twentieth-century conservation in the United States, influenced American international development programs, and ultimately shaped programs of global governance that today connect water resources to the Earth system. Schmidt demonstrates how the ways we think about water reflect specific public and societal values, and illuminates the process by which the American approach to water management came to dominate the global conversation about water. Debates over how human impacts on the planet are connected to a new geological epoch—the Anthropocene—tend to focus on either the social causes of environmental crises or scientific assessments of the Earth system. Schmidt shows how, when it comes to water, the two are one and the same. The very way we think about managing water resources validates putting ever more water to use for some human purposes at the expense of others.
Abundance, Scarcity, and Security in the Age of Humanity
Author: Jeremy J. Schmidt
Publisher: NYU Press
Category: Social Science
樹的詩人哈思克，再次以精微細膩的文字，勾勒出由樹所延伸的生命網絡—— 與風沙海婆娑共舞的菜棕、即便倒下卻依舊滋養著萬物的綠梣樹、注入紙神川上御前精魂的三椏和紙、人行道上串連起陌生人們的豆梨、無畏戰火乾旱仍舊繁茂生長的橄欖樹……無不訴說著樹與天地萬物間的動人故事。 有別於前作專注於描述方寸之地中的林間生態，哈思克反覆造訪了位在世界各地的幾種樹木，去傾聽、凝視與探索每種樹木與蕈類、細菌群、與其共生或將之毀滅的動物，以及其他樹木之間的連結，並展現人樹間千絲萬縷的關係。像是安大略省的膠冷杉以及亞馬遜的吉貝樹，儘管生長於看似天然之地，卻深受工業發展與氣候變遷的影響。哈思克也透過了那些生長在看似毫無自然氣息之地的樹木，如曼哈頓人行道上的豆梨、耶路撒冷的橄欖樹，說明了自然其實無所不在。 哈思克說，樹有許多值得我們學習之處；它們向我們展示了如何融入自然的網絡之中，並且繁榮茁壯。樹根會藉由土壤傳送出化學訊息，與鄰近的蕈類與細菌溝通。小樹枝擁有對光線、重量、熱度以及礦物質的記憶。葉子裡的植物細胞會釋放出飄散於空氣中的氣味引來愛吃毛毛蟲的昆蟲。哈思克特別關注來自樹木或包圍樹木的聲音；每種聲音都訴說著樹木與其他生物間動人的故事。
Author: 大衛．喬治．哈思克(David George Haskell)