Zoonoses—infectious diseases, such as SARS and mad cow, that originate in animals and spread to humans—reveal how intimately animal and human health are linked. Complicating this relationship further, when livestock are given antibiotics to increase growth, it can lead to resistant bacteria. Unfortunately, there are few formal channels for practitioners of human medicine and veterinary medicine to communicate about threats to public health. To address this problem, Dr. Laura H. Kahn and her colleagues are promoting the One Health concept, which seeks to increase communication and collaboration between professionals in human, animal, and environmental health. In One Health and the Politics of Antimicrobial Resistance, Dr. Kahn investigates the use of antibiotics and the surge in antimicrobial resistance in food animals and humans from a One Health perspective. Although the medical community has blamed the problem on agricultural practices, the agricultural community insists that antibiotic resistance is the result of indiscriminate use of antibiotics in human medicine. Dr. Kahn argues that this blame game has fueled the politics of antibiotic resistance and hindered the development of effective policies to address the worsening crisis. Combining painstaking research with unprecedented access to international data, the book analyzes the surprising outcomes of differing policy approaches to antibiotic resistance around the globe. By integrating the perspectives of both medicine and agriculture and exploring the history and science behind the widespread use of growth-promoting antibiotics, One Health and the Politics of Antimicrobial Resistance examines the controversy in a unique way while offering policy recommendations that all sides can accept.
Author: Laura H. Kahn
Publisher: JHU Press
Category: Political Science
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is predicted to be one of the greatest threats to public health in the twenty-first century. In this context, understanding the reasons why perceptions of antibiotic risk differ between different groups is crucial when it comes to tackling antibiotic misuse. This innovative volume gathers together chapters written by sociologists, psychologists and linguists with the common aim of examining the social factors that affect use of antibiotics among humans and animals. A unique focus on Denmark – one of the world’s most progressive countries when it comes to antibiotic regulation – as well as Europe more broadly, makes this book a valuable resource for regulatory deliberations on future antibiotic policy to effectively combat AMR.
A collection of one-health studies of antibiotics and its social and health consequences
Author: Carsten Strøby Jensen,Søren Beck Nielsen,Lars Fynbo
Category: Social Science
Emerging infectious diseases are often due to environmental disruption, which exposes microbes to a different niche that selects for new virulence traits and facilitates transmission between animals and humans. Thus, health of humans also depends upon health of animals and the environment – a concept called One Health. This book presents core concepts, compelling evidence, successful applications, and remaining challenges of One Health approaches to thwarting the threat of emerging infectious disease. Written by scientists working in the field, this book will provide a series of ""stories"" about how disruption of the environment and transmission from animal hosts is responsible for emerging human and animal diseases. • Explains the concept of One Health and the history of the One Health paradigm shift . • Traces the emergence of devastating new diseases in both animals and humans.• Presents case histories of notable, new zoonoses, including West Nile virus, hantavirus, Lyme disease, SARS, and salmonella.• Links several epidemic zoonoses with the environmental factors that promote them.• Offers insight into the mechanisms of microbial evolution toward pathogenicity.• Discusses the many causes behind the emergence of antibiotic resistance.• Presents new technologies and approaches for public health disease surveillance.• Offers political and bureaucratic strategies for promoting the global acceptance of One Health.
People, Animals, and the Environment
Author: Ronald M. Atlas,Stanley Maloy
Publisher: ASM Press
The One Health concept of combined veterinary and human health continues to gain momentum, but the supporting literature is sparse. In this book, the origins of the concept are examined and practical content on methodological tools, data gathering, monitoring techniques, study designs, and mathematical models is included. Zoonotic diseases, with discussions of diseases of wildlife, farm animals, domestic pets and humans, and real-world issues such as sanitation, economics, food security and evaluating the success of vaccination programmes are covered in detail. Discussing how to put policy into practice, and with case studies throughout, this book combines research and practice in one broad-ranging volume.
The Theory and Practice of Integrated Health Approaches
Author: Jakob Zinsstag,Esther Schelling,David Waltner-Toews,Maxine Whittaker,Marcel Tanner
Zoonotic diseases – pathogens transmitted from animals to people – offer particularly challenging problems for global health institutions and actors, given the complex social-ecological dynamics at play. New forms of risk caused by unprecedented global connectivity and rapid social and environmental change demand new approaches. ‘One Health’ highlights the need for collaboration across sectors and disciplines to tackle zoonotic diseases. However, there has been little exploration of how social, political and economic contexts influence efforts to ‘do’ One Health. This book fills this gap by offering a much needed political economy analysis of zoonosis research and policy. Through ethnographic, qualitative and quantitative data, the book draws together a diverse number of case studies. These include chapters exploring global narratives about One Health operationalization and prevailing institutional bottlenecks; the evolution of research networks over time; and the histories and politics behind conflicting disease control approaches. The themes from these chapters are further contextualized and expanded upon through country-specific case studies – from Kenya, Zambia, Nigeria, Ghana and Sierra Leone – exploring the translation of One Health research and policy into the African context. This book is a valuable resource for academic researchers, students and policy practitioners in the areas of global health, agriculture and development.
Science, politics and zoonotic disease in Africa
Author: Kevin Bardosh
Category: Business & Economics
As of 2017, the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance continues unabated around the world, leaving devastating health and economic outcomes in its wake. Those consequences will multiply if collaborative global action is not taken to address the spread of resistance. Major drivers of antimicrobial resistance in humans have been accelerated by inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing in health care practices; the inappropriate use of antimicrobials in livestock; and the promulgation of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment. To explore the issue of antimicrobial resistance, the Forum of Microbial Threats planned a public workshop. Participants explored issues of antimicrobial resistance through the lens of One Health, which is a collaborative approach of multiple disciplines - working locally, nationally, and globally - for strengthening systems to counter infectious diseases and related issues that threaten human, animal, and environmental health, with an end point of improving global health and achieving gains in development. They also discussed immediate and short-term actions and research needs that will have the greatest effect on reducing antimicrobial resistance, while taking into account the complexities of bridging different sectors and disciplines to address this global threat. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.
A One Health Approach to a Global Threat: Proceedings of a Workshop
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
Publisher: National Academies Press
"Americans eat chicken more than any other meat. But our nation's favorite food comes with an invisible cost: its insidious effect on our health. In this extraordinary narrative, acclaimed journalist Maryn McKenna reveals how antibiotic use has altered the way we consume industrially raised meat, and its impact on our daily lives. Drawing on decades of research, as well as interviews with entrepreneurs, epidemiologists, and other specialists, McKenna spins an astonishing story of science gone wrong. In the middle of the last century, antibiotics fueled the rapid rise of chicken from local delicacy to everyday protein source. But with that spectacular growth came great risk. As resistance to new wonder drugs crept into the farming process, bacterial outbreaks became harder to treat. And the consequences-to agriculture, to human health, and to modern medicine-were devastating. Beginning with the push to make chicken the affordable entrée of choice and tracing its evolution to a global commodity and carrier of foodborne illness, McKenna shines a light on the hidden forces of industrialization, the repercussions of runaway antibiotic use, and the outcome for future generations. Taking readers from the first poultry farms on the Delmarva Peninsula to the little-known lab where the chicken nugget was invented and into today's factory farms, McKenna reveals that the history of chicken is as much about economics, politics, and culture as it is about what we eat. In these vivid pages, she gives voice to a vanguard of farmers, chefs, and activists who are seeking to return poultry to an honored place at the table-and are changing the way we think about food. Incisive and beautifully written, Big Chicken is a cautionary tale of an industry that lost its way-and shows us the way back to healthier eating"--Back cover.
The Incredible Story of how Antibiotics Created Modern Agriculture and Changed the Way the World Eats
Author: Maryn McKenna
Publisher: National Geographic Books
A detailed exploration of leadership problems that can develop during public health crises such as the anthrax attacks, SARS, and Mad Cow disease. * First-person accounts from leaders involved in the actual crises, as well as leading experts, scientists, and others * Primary documents including excerpts from official reports and the medical literature * Chronologies of five recent public health emergencies * A comprehensive index organized by disease and by individuals involved in emergency response
Leadership During Epidemics, Bioterror, Attacks, and Other Public Health Crises
Author: Laura H. Kahn
One Health refers to an interdisciplinary approach to solving complex problems at the interface of human and animal health and the wider ecosystem. It represents an integrated and collaborative approach and addresses diverse issues such as the detection and management of emerging and re-emerging infectious and non-infectious diseases, food and water security, food hygiene and global trade. Many complex problems that we currently face must consider anthropogenic factors as well as climate change, environmental impact, international collaboration, tourism, the human-animal bond, economics, plant health and myriad other factors. This book discusses complex concepts in One Health such as preparedness planning, national level governance, inter-agency co-operation, climate change, human activity in sensitive ecosystems, the global food trade and food safety, antimicrobial resistance, surveillance, and communication from policy level to practical application. The book uses real-world case studies from different geographical regions ranging from Asia to the Arctic, different environments from the jungle to the oceans, and different species including bees, fish, domestic and wild animals and humans. The cases are prepared by experts with a diverse range of experience and provide a unique and fascinating on-the-ground approach to One Health topics in practice. One Health Case Studies is an ideal resource for students and practitioners in veterinary medicine, human medicine, public health, agriculture, wildlife management, ecosystem health and environmental management.
Addressing Complex Problems in a Changing World
Author: Susan Cork,David Hall,Karen Liljebjelke
Antibiotics are powerful drugs that can prevent and treat infections, but they are becoming less effective as a result of drug resistance. Resistance develops because the bacteria that antibiotics target can evolve ways to defend themselves against these drugs. When antibiotics fail, there is very little else to prevent an infection from spreading. Unnecessary use of antibiotics in both humans and animals accelerates the evolution of drug-resistant bacteria, with potentially catastrophic personal and global consequences. Our best defenses against infectious disease could cease to work, surgical procedures would become deadly, and we might return to a world where even small cuts are life-threatening. The problem of drug resistance already kills over one million people across the world every year and has huge economic costs. Without action, this problem will become significantly worse. Following from their work on the Review on Antimicrobial Resistance, William Hall, Anthony McDonnell, and Jim O’Neill outline the major systematic failures that have led to this growing crisis. They also provide a set of solutions to tackle these global issues that governments, industry, and public health specialists can adopt. In addition to personal behavioral modifications, such as better handwashing regimens, Superbugs argues for mounting an offense against this threat through agricultural policy changes, an industrial research stimulus, and other broad-scale economic and social incentives.
An Arms Race against Bacteria
Author: William Hall
Publisher: Harvard University Press
The epic history of how antibiotics were born, saving millions of lives and creating a vast new industry known as Big Pharma. As late as the 1930s, virtually no drug intended for sickness did any good; doctors could set bones, deliver babies, and offer palliative care. That all changed in less than a generation with the discovery and development of a new category of medicine known as antibiotics. By 1955, the age-old evolutionary relationship between humans and microbes had been transformed, trivializing once-deadly infections. William Rosen captures this revolution with all its false starts, lucky surprises, and eccentric characters. He explains why, given the complex nature of bacteria—and their ability to rapidly evolve into new forms—the only way to locate and test potential antibiotic strains is by large-scale, systematic, trial-and-error experimentation. Organizing that research needs large, well-funded organizations and businesses, and so our entire scientific-industrial complex, built around the pharmaceutical company, was born. Timely, engrossing, and eye-opening, Miracle Cure is a must-read science narrative—a drama of enormous range, combining science, technology, politics, and economics to illuminate the reasons behind one of the most dramatic changes in humanity’s relationship with nature since the invention of agriculture ten thousand years ago.
The Creation of Antibiotics and the Birth of Modern Medicine
Author: William Rosen
This book reconstructs the early circulation of penicillin in Spain, a country exhausted by civil war (1936–1939), and oppressed by Franco’s dictatorship. Embedded in the post-war recovery, penicillin’s voyages through time and across geographies – professional, political and social – were both material and symbolic. This powerful antimicrobial captivated the imagination of the general public, medical practice, science and industry, creating high expectations among patients, who at times experienced little or no effect. Penicillin’s lack of efficacy against some microbes fueled the search for new wonder drugs and sustained a decades-long research agenda built on the post-war concept of development through scientific and technological achievements. This historical reconstruction of the social life of penicillin between the 1940s and 1980s – through the dictatorship to democratic transition – explores political, public, medical, experimental and gender issues, and the rise of antibiotic resistance.
Health, Wealth and Authority
Author: María Jesús Santesmases
A Change of Heart is a detailed account of the revolutionary Framingham Heart study — which, over the years, has provided conclusive evidence that cardiovascular disease is largely the result of measurable and modifiable risk factors. First begun in 1948, not long after Franklin Delano Roosevelt succumbed to a massive stroke, the study of over 5,000 citizens of Framingham, Massachusetts, changed the course of medical history. The lessons learned in Framingham allow each of us to control our risk of heart disease and stroke, two of the leading causes of death in the United States. Here is a clear-eyed and intriguing assessment of the achievements of this study and of its continuing importance to our health today. From the Trade Paperback edition.
Unraveling the Mysteries of Cardiovascular Disease
Author: Daniel Levy, M.D.,Susan Brink
Category: Health & Fitness
Antimicrobial Resistance and Food Safety: Methods and Techniques introduces antimicrobial resistant food-borne pathogens, their surveillance and epidemiology, emerging resistance and resistant pathogens. This analysis is followed by a systematic presentation of currently applied methodology and technology, including advanced technologies for detection, intervention, and information technologies. This reference can be used as a practical guide for scientists, food engineers, and regulatory personnel as well as students in food safety, food microbiology, or food science. Includes analysis of all major pathogens of concern Provides many case studies and examples of fundamental research findings Presents recent advances in methodologies and analytical software Demonstrates risk assessment using information technologies in foodborne pathogens
Methods and Techniques
Author: Chin-Yi Chen,Xianghe Yan,Charlene R. Jackson
Category: Technology & Engineering
Antibiotics are familiar drugs to us all, so familiar that we may take them for granted. They allow us to survive life-threatening infections, and allow us to protect the animals we farm for food. Many antibiotics have now become ineffective against common diseases, and there are few alternative treatments to replace them. In this topical book, Laura Bowater, Professor of Microbiology Education and Engagement at Norwich Medical School, considers the past, present and uncertain future of antibiotics. This book begins by looking back at how infectious diseases, such as smallpox and The Plague, were able to wreak havoc on populations before the discovery of the first antibiotics. These then revolutionised the medical world. In an engaging and accessible style, Professor Bowater takes the reader through how antibiotics are made, how bacteria are able to mutate and develop resistance and she explains why there is now a lack of new antibiotic drugs coming to market. What will a future of continued antibiotic resistance look like? How can human activities prevent the rise of ‘superbugs'? Professor Bowater highlights the need for universal cooperation in order to tackle this global health challenge, which, if not addressed, could transport us back to the medical dark ages.
Author: Laura Bowater
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
A fully revised edition of a volume written by the world's leading authorities on this subject. It discusses how the evolution of humans and their pathogens have generated important medical issues, covering both infectious and degenerative diseases. It presents important ideas that are not yet sufficiently appreciated in the medical community.
Author: Stephen C. Stearns,Jacob C. Koella
Publisher: Oxford University Press
A Companion to the Anthropology of Environmental Health presents a collection of readings that utilize a medical anthropological approach to explore the interface of humans and the environment in the shaping of health and illness around the world. Features the latest ethnographic research from around the world related to the multiple impacts of the environment on health and of societies on their environments Includes contributions from international medical anthropologists, conservationists, environmental experts, public health professionals, health clinicians, and other social scientists Analyzes the conditions of cultural and social transformation that accompany environmental and ecological impacts in all areas of the world Offers critical perspectives on theoretical and methodological advancements in the anthropology of environmental health, along with future directions in the field
Author: Merrill Singer
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Social Science
Environmental Health Ethics illuminates the conflicts between protecting the environment and promoting human health. In this study, David B. Resnik develops a method for making ethical decisions on environmental health issues. He applies this method to various issues, including pesticide use, antibiotic resistance, nutrition policy, vegetarianism, urban development, occupational safety, disaster preparedness, and global climate change. Resnik provides readers with the scientific and technical background necessary to understand these issues. He explains that environmental health controversies cannot simply be reduced to humanity versus environment and explores the ways in which human values and concerns - health, economic development, rights, and justice - interact with environmental protection.
Author: David B. Resnik
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Health & Fitness