Object Categorization

Computer and Human Vision Perspectives

Author: Sven J. Dickinson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521887380

Category: Computers

Page: 536

View: 815

A unique multidisciplinary perspective on the problem of visual object categorization.

Shape Perception in Human and Computer Vision

An Interdisciplinary Perspective

Author: Sven J. Dickinson,Zygmunt Pizlo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 144715195X

Category: Computers

Page: 502

View: 1480

This comprehensive and authoritative text/reference presents a unique, multidisciplinary perspective on Shape Perception in Human and Computer Vision. Rather than focusing purely on the state of the art, the book provides viewpoints from world-class researchers reflecting broadly on the issues that have shaped the field. Drawing upon many years of experience, each contributor discusses the trends followed and the progress made, in addition to identifying the major challenges that still lie ahead. Topics and features: examines each topic from a range of viewpoints, rather than promoting a specific paradigm; discusses topics on contours, shape hierarchies, shape grammars, shape priors, and 3D shape inference; reviews issues relating to surfaces, invariants, parts, multiple views, learning, simplicity, shape constancy and shape illusions; addresses concepts from the historically separate disciplines of computer vision and human vision using the same “language” and methods.

How Humans Recognize Objects: Segmentation, Categorization and Individual Identification

Author: Chris Fields

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889199401

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 2587

Human beings experience a world of objects: bounded entities that occupy space and persist through time. Our actions are directed toward objects, and our language describes objects. We categorize objects into kinds that have different typical properties and behaviors. We regard some kinds of objects – each other, for example – as animate agents capable of independent experience and action, while we regard other kinds of objects as inert. We re-identify objects, immediately and without conscious deliberation, after days or even years of non-observation, and often following changes in the features, locations, or contexts of the objects being re-identified. Comparative, developmental and adult observations using a variety of approaches and methods have yielded a detailed understanding of object detection and recognition by the visual system and an advancing understanding of haptic and auditory information processing. Many fundamental questions, however, remain unanswered. What, for example, physically constitutes an “object”? How do specific, classically-characterizable object boundaries emerge from the physical dynamics described by quantum theory, and can this emergence process be described independently of any assumptions regarding the perceptual capabilities of observers? How are visual motion and feature information combined to create object information? How are the object trajectories that indicate persistence to human observers implemented, and how are these trajectory representations bound to feature representations? How, for example, are point-light walkers recognized as single objects? How are conflicts between trajectory-driven and feature-driven identifications of objects resolved, for example in multiple-object tracking situations? Are there separate “what” and “where” processing streams for haptic and auditory perception? Are there haptic and/or auditory equivalents of the visual object file? Are there equivalents of the visual object token? How are object-identification conflicts between different perceptual systems resolved? Is the common assumption that “persistent object” is a fundamental innate category justified? How does the ability to identify and categorize objects relate to the ability to name and describe them using language? How are features that an individual object had in the past but does not have currently represented? How are categorical constraints on how objects move or act represented, and how do such constraints influence categorization and the re-identification of individuals? How do human beings re-identify objects, including each other, as persistent individuals across changes in location, context and features, even after gaps in observation lasting months or years? How do human capabilities for object categorization and re-identification over time relate to those of other species, and how do human infants develop these capabilities? What can modeling approaches such as cognitive robotics tell us about the answers to these questions? Primary research reports, reviews, and hypothesis and theory papers addressing questions relevant to the understanding of perceptual object segmentation, categorization and individual identification at any scale and from any experimental or modeling perspective are solicited for this Research Topic. Papers that review particular sets of issues from multiple disciplinary perspectives or that advance integrative hypotheses or models that take data from multiple experimental approaches into account are especially encouraged.

From Animals to Robots and Back: Reflections on Hard Problems in the Study of Cognition

A Collection in Honour of Aaron Sloman

Author: Jeremy L. Wyatt,Dean D. Petters,David C. Hogg

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319066145

Category: Computers

Page: 258

View: 1146

Cognitive Science is a discipline that brings together research in natural and artificial systems and this is clearly reflected in the diverse contributions to From Animals to Robots and Back. In tribute to Aaron Sloman and his pioneering work in Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence, the editors have collected a unique collection of cross-disciplinary papers that include work on: · intelligent robotics; · philosophy of cognitive science; · emotional research · computational vision; · comparative psychology; and · human-computer interaction. Key themes such as the importance of taking an architectural view in approaching cognition, run through the text. Drawing on the expertize of leading international researchers, contemporary debates in the study of natural and artificial cognition are addressed from complementary and contrasting perspectives with key issues being outlined at various levels of abstraction. From Animals to Robots and Back, will give readers with backgrounds in the study of both natural and artificial cognition an important window on the state of the art in cognitive systems research.

Computer Vision -- ECCV 2014

13th European Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, September 6-12, 2014, Proceedings

Author: David Fleet,Tomas Pajdla,Bernt Schiele,Tinne Tuytelaars

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319105787

Category: Computers

Page: 851

View: 3171

The seven-volume set comprising LNCS volumes 8689-8695 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Computer Vision, ECCV 2014, held in Zurich, Switzerland, in September 2014. The 363 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 1444 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on tracking and activity recognition; recognition; learning and inference; structure from motion and feature matching; computational photography and low-level vision; vision; segmentation and saliency; context and 3D scenes; motion and 3D scene analysis; and poster sessions.

Emotion and Decision-making Explained

Author: Edmund T. Rolls

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191635154

Category: Medical

Page: 688

View: 8432

What produces emotions? Why do we have emotions? How do we have emotions? Why do emotional states feel like something? What is the relation between emotion, and reward value, and subjective feelings of pleasure? How is the value of a good represented in the brain? Will neuroeconomics replace classical microeconomics? How does the brain implement decision-making? Are gene-defined rewards and emotions in the interests of the genes, and does rational multistep planning enable us to go beyond selfish genes to long-term plans and social contracts in the interests of the individual? This book seeks explanations of emotion and decision-making by considering these questions. The topics covered include: The nature of emotion, and a theory of emotion The functions of emotion, including a Darwinian theory of the adaptive value of emotion, which helps to illuminate many aspects of brain design and behaviour The brain mechanisms of emotion Affective states and motivated behaviour: hunger and sexual behaviour The pharmacology of emotion, and brain mechanisms for action Neuroeconomics, and the foundation of economic value Decision-making Emotional feelings, and consciousness Neural networks involved in emotion The book will be valuable for those in the fields of neuroscience and neurology, psychology, psychiatry, and philosophy

The Noisy Brain

Stochastic Dynamics as a Principle of Brain Function

Author: Edmund T. Rolls,Gustavo Deco

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780199587865

Category: Science

Page: 314

View: 2855

The activity of neurons in the brain is noisy in that the neuronal firing times are random for a given mean rate. The Noisy Brain shows that this is fundamental to understanding many aspects of brain function, including probabilistic decision-making, perception, memory recall, short-term memory, attention, and even creativity. There are many applications too of this understanding, to for example memory and attentional disorders, aging, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Unifying Perspectives in Computational and Robot Vision

Author: Danica Kragic,Ville Kyrki

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387755233

Category: Computers

Page: 206

View: 9960

Assembled in this volume is a collection of some of the state-of-the-art methods that are using computer vision and machine learning techniques as applied in robotic applications. Currently there is a gap between research conducted in the computer vision and robotics communities. This volume discusses contrasting viewpoints of computer vision vs. robotics, and provides current and future challenges discussed from a research perspective.

Visual Perception from a Computer Graphics Perspective

Author: William Thompson,Roland Fleming,Sarah Creem-Regehr,Jeanine Kelly Stefanucci

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439865493

Category: Computers

Page: 540

View: 656

This book provides an introduction to human visual perception suitable for readers studying or working in the fields of computer graphics and visualization, cognitive science, and visual neuroscience. It focuses on how computer graphics images are generated, rather than solely on the organization of the visual system itself; therefore, the text provides a more direct tie between image generation and the resulting perceptual phenomena. It covers such topics as the perception of material properties, illumination, the perception of pictorial space, image statistics, perception and action, and spatial cognition.

Experiencing Art

In the Brain of the Beholder

Author: Arthur Shimamura

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190240741

Category: Psychology

Page: 312

View: 2327

How do we appreciate a work of art? Why do we like some artworks but not others? Is there no accounting for taste? Awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship to explore connections between art, mind, and brain, Shimamura considers how we experience art. In a thoughtful and entertaining manner, the book explores how the brain interprets art by engaging our sensations, thoughts, and emotions. It describes interesting findings from psychological and brain sciences as a way to understand our aesthetic response to art. Beauty, disgust, surprise, anger, sadness, horror, and a myriad of other emotions can occur as we experience art. Some artworks may generate such feelings rather quickly, while others depend on thought and knowledge. Our response to art depends largely on what we know--from everyday knowledge about the world, from our cultural backgrounds, and from personal experience. Filled with artworks from many traditions and time points, "Experiencing Art" offers insightful ways of broadening one's approach and appreciation of art.

Shape, Contour and Grouping in Computer Vision

Author: David A. Forsyth,Joseph L. Mundy,Vito di Gesu,Roberto Cipolla

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540667229

Category: Computers

Page: 350

View: 6289

Computer vision has been successful in several important applications recently. Vision techniques can now be used to build very good models of buildings from pictures quickly and easily, to overlay operation planning data on a neuros- geon’s view of a patient, and to recognise some of the gestures a user makes to a computer. Object recognition remains a very di cult problem, however. The key questions to understand in recognition seem to be: (1) how objects should be represented and (2) how to manage the line of reasoning that stretches from image data to object identity. An important part of the process of recognition { perhaps, almost all of it { involves assembling bits of image information into helpful groups. There is a wide variety of possible criteria by which these groups could be established { a set of edge points that has a symmetry could be one useful group; others might be a collection of pixels shaded in a particular way, or a set of pixels with coherent colour or texture. Discussing this process of grouping requires a detailed understanding of the relationship between what is seen in the image and what is actually out there in the world.

Object Recognition, Attention, and Action

Author: Naoyuki Osaka,Ingo Rentschler,Irving Biederman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9784431730194

Category: Medical

Page: 250

View: 8598

Human object recognition is a classical topic both for philosophy and for the natural sciences. Ultimately, understanding of object recognition will be promoted by the cooperation of behavioral research, neurophysiology, and computation. This original book provides an excellent introduction to the issues that are involved. It contains chapters that address the ways in which humans and machines attend to, recognize, and act toward objects in the visual environment.

Articulated Motion and Deformable Objects

7th International Conference, AMDO 2012, Port d'Andratx, Mallorca, Spain, July 11-13, 2012, Proceedings

Author: Francisco Jose Perales Lopez,Robert B. Fisher,Thomas B. Moeslund

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642315674

Category: Computers

Page: 294

View: 6341

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Articulated Motion and Deformable Objects, AMDO 2012, held in Port d'Andratx, Mallorca, Spain, in July 2012. The 27 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 44 submissions. The volume also contains one full paper length invited talk. The conference dealt with the following topics: advanced computer graphics (human modeling and animation); human motion (analysis, tracking, 3D reconstruction and recognition); multimodal user interaction and applications; and affective interfaces (recognition and interpretation of emotions, ECAs -- embodied conversational agents in HCI).

The Design of Everyday Things

Psychologie und Design der alltäglichen Dinge

Author: Norman Don

Publisher: Vahlen

ISBN: 3800648105

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 3665

Apple, Audi, Braun oder Samsung machen es vor: Gutes Design ist heute eine kritische Voraussetzung für erfolgreiche Produkte. Dieser Klassiker beschreibt die fundamentalen Prinzipien, um Dinge des täglichen Gebrauchs umzuwandeln in unterhaltsame und zufriedenstellende Produkte. Don Norman fordert ein Zusammenspiel von Mensch und Technologie mit dem Ziel, dass Designer und Produktentwickler die Bedürfnisse, Fähigkeiten und Handlungsweisen der Nutzer in den Vordergrund stellen und Designs an diesen angepasst werden. The Design of Everyday Things ist eine informative und spannende Einführung für Designer, Marketer, Produktentwickler und für alle an gutem Design interessierten Menschen. Zum Autor Don Norman ist emeritierter Professor für Kognitionswissenschaften. Er lehrte an der University of California in San Diego und der Northwest University in Illinois. Mitte der Neunzigerjahre leitete Don Norman die Advanced Technology Group bei Apple. Dort prägte er den Begriff der User Experience, um über die reine Benutzbarkeit hinaus eine ganzheitliche Erfahrung der Anwender im Umgang mit Technik in den Vordergrund zu stellen. Norman ist Mitbegründer der Beratungsfirma Nielsen Norman Group und hat unter anderem Autohersteller von BMW bis Toyota beraten. „Keiner kommt an Don Norman vorbei, wenn es um Fragen zu einem Design geht, das sich am Menschen orientiert.“ Brand Eins 7/2013 „Design ist einer der wichtigsten Wettbewerbsvorteile. Dieses Buch macht Spaß zu lesen und ist von größter Bedeutung.” Tom Peters, Co-Autor von „Auf der Suche nach Spitzenleistungen“

Machine Vision

Theory, Algorithms, Practicalities

Author: E. R. Davies

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080473245

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 934

View: 389

In the last 40 years, machine vision has evolved into a mature field embracing a wide range of applications including surveillance, automated inspection, robot assembly, vehicle guidance, traffic monitoring and control, signature verification, biometric measurement, and analysis of remotely sensed images. While researchers and industry specialists continue to document their work in this area, it has become increasingly difficult for professionals and graduate students to understand the essential theory and practicalities well enough to design their own algorithms and systems. This book directly addresses this need. As in earlier editions, E.R. Davies clearly and systematically presents the basic concepts of the field in highly accessible prose and images, covering essential elements of the theory while emphasizing algorithmic and practical design constraints. In this thoroughly updated edition, he divides the material into horizontal levels of a complete machine vision system. Application case studies demonstrate specific techniques and illustrate key constraints for designing real-world machine vision systems. · Includes solid, accessible coverage of 2-D and 3-D scene analysis. · Offers thorough treatment of the Hough Transform—a key technique for inspection and surveillance. · Brings vital topics and techniques together in an integrated system design approach. · Takes full account of the requirement for real-time processing in real applications.

Natural and Artificial Computation in Engineering and Medical Applications

5th International Work-Conference on the Interplay Between Natural and Artificial Computation, IWINAC 2013, Mallorca, Spain, June 10-14, 2013. Proceedings

Author: Jose Manuel Ferrandez Vicente,Jose Ramon Alvarez Sanchez,Felix de la Paz Lopez,Fco. Javier Toledo Moreo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642386229

Category: Computers

Page: 474

View: 759

The two volume-set, LNCS 7930 and LNCS 7931, constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Work-Conference on the Interplay between Natural and Artificial Computation, IWINAC 2013, held in Mallorca, Spain, in June 2013. The 92 revised full papers presented in LNCS 7930 and LNCS 7931 were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The first part, LNCS 7930, entitled "Natural and Artificial Models in Computation and Biology”, includes all the contributions mainly related to the methodological, conceptual, formal, and experimental developments in the fields of neurophysiology and cognitive science. The second part, LNCS 7931, entitled “Natural and Artificial Computation in Engineering and Medical Applications”, contains the papers related to bioinspired programming strategies and all the contributions related to the computational solutions to engineering problems in different application domains, specially Health applications, including the CYTED “Artificial and Natural Computation for Health” (CANS) research network papers. In addition, this two volume-set reflects six interesting areas: cognitive robotics; natural computing; wetware computation; quality of life technologies; biomedical and industrial perception applications; and Web intelligence and neuroscience.

Situated Cognition

On Human Knowledge and Computer Representations

Author: William J. Clancey

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521448710

Category: Computers

Page: 406

View: 7708

This 1997 book examines recent changes in the design of intelligent machines which afford heightened interactivity with the environment.