This book demonstrates the usefulness of NMR spectroscopy for a wide variety of applications in environmental science and technology. It contains a wealth of information relating to instrumentation, sample preparation, and data interpretation. The book is divided into three sections discussing contaminant interaction, solution and condensed-phase characterization, and nutrients and natural organic matter characterization. In addition to these in-depth chapters, an introductory overview provides the basic principles of solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Each section also contains a discussion of advances in each area directly attributable to NMR spectroscopy. A final chapter suggests future directions for the deployment of this powerful technology in environmental science.
Author: Mark A. Nanny,Roger A. Minear,Jerry A. Leenheer
Publisher: Oxford University Press
The challenges faced by environmental scientists today are vast, complex, and multi-faceted. For instance, predicting the fate of an environmental pollutant or understanding ecosystem responses to climate change, necessitate a firm understanding of molecular structure and dynamics of environmental media as well as the components that exist and interact within this media. Furthermore, linking information obtained at the molecular-scale to ecosystem-level processes is a major pursuit of modern environmental research. As such, NMR spectroscopy and its scalability from the molecular-scale to the macroscopic-scale, is facilitating rapid growth in environmental science. In addition, the versatility of NMR spectroscopy has resulted in the development and implementation of different types of NMR techniques to examine the structure of various types of environmental samples, living and non-living, as well as the study of critical environmental processes. This comprehensive handbook is a collection of chapters that span from methods to how NMR is used in environmental research to gain insight into various ecosystem properties. It is organized into three parts: Part A focuses on methods used in environmental NMR which span from solution-state to magnetic resonance imaging. Part B emphasizes how NMR spectroscopy plays an essential role in understanding various types of environmental components and related processes, including different forms of organic matter found in soil, water, and air as well as how NMR is used to probe the fate of water, organic pollutants, and metals in the environment. Part C focuses on the growing field of environmental metabolomics which uses NMR as its main discovery platform. This volume highlights the immense potential of NMR spectroscopy to expand our fundamental understanding of environmental processes and how it will continue to do so well into the future. About eMagRes Handbooks eMagRes (formerly the Encyclopedia of Magnetic Resonance) publishes a wide range of online articles on all aspects of magnetic resonance in physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. The existence of this large number of articles, written by experts in various fields, is enabling the publication of a series of eMagRes Handbooks on specific areas of NMR and MRI. The chapters of each of these handbooks will comprise a carefully chosen selection of eMagRes articles. In consultation with the eMagRes Editorial Board, the eMagRes handbooks are coherently planned in advance by specially-selected Editors, and new articles are written to give appropriate complete coverage. The handbooks are intended to be of value and interest to research students, postdoctoral fellows and other researchers learning about the scientific area in question and undertaking relevant experiments, whether in academia or industry. Have the content of this handbook and the complete content of eMagRes at your fingertips! Visit: www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/ref/eMagRes
A Versatile Tool for Environmental Research
Author: Myrna J. Simpson,Andre J. Simpson
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This book teaches the analyst why it is advantageous to obtain vibrational data under different physical phases. Molecular vibrations are affected by change in physical phase, and knowledge of how certain molecular vibrations are affected by change in the chemical environment improves the analyst's ability to solve complex chemical problems. This book is invaluable for students and scientists engaged in analytical and organic chemistry, since application of IR and Raman spectroscopy is essential in identifying and verifying molecular structure. This reference provides analysts with information that enables them to acquire the maximum amount of information when sampling molecular vibrations via IR and Raman spectroscopy. Key Features * Explains why it is advantageous to obtain vibrational data under different physical phases * Compiles many vibrational studies into a single compendium * Lists group frequencies in different physical phases * Reveals that some group frequencies are more affected than others by changes in the physical phase * Demonstrates that in-phase and out-of-phase vibrations of the same functional group are not equally affected * Describes how solute-solvent complexes differ with changes in the solvent system * Shows that the amount of Fermi resonance between a fundamental vibration and a combination or overtone is altered with change of physical phase * Written by an internationally recognized expert
Author: Richard A. Nyquist
Publisher: Academic Press
As a spectroscopic method, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has seen spectacular growth over the past two decades, both as a technique and in its applications. Today the applications of NMR span a wide range of scientific disciplines, from physics to biology to medicine. Each volume of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance comprises a combination of annual and biennial reports which together provide comprehensive of the literature on this topic. This Specialist Periodical Report reflects the growing volume of published work involving NMR techniques and applications, in particular NMR of natural macromolecules which is covered in two reports: "NMR of Proteins and Acids" and "NMR of Carbohydrates, Lipids and Membranes". For those wanting to become rapidly acquainted with specific areas of NMR, this title provides unrivalled scope of coverage. Seasoned practitioners of NMR will find this an in valuable source of current methods and applications. Specialist Periodical Reports provide systematic and detailed review coverage in major areas of chemical research. Compiled by teams of leading authorities in the relevant subject areas, the series creates a unique service for the active research chemist, with regular, in-depth accounts of progress in particular fields of chemistry. Subject coverage within different volumes of a given title is similar and publication is on an annual or biennial basis.
Author: G A Webb
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
The revolutionary impetus of the NMR methods in organic chemistry has parallels in the field of boron chemistry. lIB NMR spectroscopy provided a basis for the elucida tion of structures and reactions of the boron hydrides. However, although many studies have been carried out with the higher boranes, carboranes, metalloboranes, etc. , and although certain patterns have emerged, the correlation between the observed chemical shift and the assigned structural unit is still not fully understood. Therefore, predictions in this area are still rather limited, and semiquantitative interpretations are not yet pos sible. Several years ago Eaton and Lipscomb sUpImarized the status in this field in their book "NMR Studies of Boron Hydrides and Related Compounds" and a plethora of new data has accumulated since then. The book also contained material on simple bo rane derivatives, but they were not discussed in any detail. On the other hand many systematic studies, both synthetic and spectroscopic, have been conducted on these simple boron materials in the last decade. Thus a large amount of NMR information is available, not only on lIB but also on 1 H, 1 3 C, and 14 N. However, this information is widely scattered in the literature, and often the data are not discussed at all. It see med appropriate, therefore, to collect these data and to present them in one volume.
Author: Heinrich Nöth,Bernd Wrackmeyer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Applications of NMR Spectroscopy is a book series devoted to publishing the latest advances in the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in various fields of organic chemistry, biochemistry, health and agriculture. The fifth volume of the series features several reviews focusing on NMR spectroscopic techniques for identifying natural and synthetic compounds (polymer and peptide characterization, GABA in tinnitus affected mice), medical diagnosis and therapy (gliomas) and food analysis. The spectroscopic methods highlighted in this volume include high resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and solid state NMR.
Author: Atta-ur-Rahman,M. Iqbal Choudhary
Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers
Applications of NMR Spectroscopy is a book series devoted to publishing the latest advances in the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in various fields of organic chemistry, biochemistry, health and agriculture. The fourth volume of the series features several reviews focusing on NMR spectroscopic techniques in food sciences. Readers will find references on methods used to test food quality, food color analysis, the role of Tannins in wine taste as well as NMR studies on lipid oxidation and large protein complexes.
Applications in Food Sciences
Author: Atta-ur-Rahman,M. Iqbal Chaudhary
Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers
Spin Dynamics: Basics of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Second Edition is a comprehensive and modern introduction which focuses on those essential principles and concepts needed for a thorough understanding of the subject, rather than the practical aspects. The quantum theory of nuclear magnets is presented within a strong physical framework, supported by figures. The book assumes only a basic knowledge of complex numbers and matrices, and provides the reader with numerous worked examples and exercises to encourage understanding. With the explicit aim of carefully developing the subject from the beginning, the text starts with coverage of quarks and nucleons and progresses through to a detailed explanation of several important NMR experiments, including NMR imaging, COSY, NOESY and TROSY. Completely revised and updated, the Second Edition features new material on the properties and distributions of isotopes, chemical shift anisotropy and quadrupolar interactions, Pake patterns, spin echoes, slice selection in NMR imaging, and a complete new chapter on the NMR spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei. New appendices have been included on Euler angles, and coherence selection by field gradients. As in the first edition, all material is heavily supported by graphics, much of which is new to this edition. Written for undergraduates and postgraduate students taking a first course in NMR spectroscopy and for those needing an up-to-date account of the subject, this multi-disciplinary book will appeal to chemical, physical, material, life, medical, earth and environmental scientists. The detailed physical insights will also make the book of interest for experienced spectroscopists and NMR researchers. • An accessible and carefully written introduction, designed to help students to fully understand this complex and dynamic subject • Takes a multi-disciplinary approach, focusing on basic principles and concepts rather than the more practical aspects • Presents a strong pedagogical approach throughout, with emphasis placed on individual spins to aid understanding • Includes numerous worked examples, problems, further reading and additional notes Praise from the reviews of the First Edition: "This is an excellent book... that many teachers of NMR spectroscopy will cherish... It deserves to be a ‘classic’ among NMR spectroscopy texts." NMR IN BIOMEDICINE "I strongly recommend this book to everyone…it is probably the best modern comprehensive description of the subject." ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, INTERNATIONAL EDITION
Basics of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Author: Malcolm H. Levitt
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful and widely used techniques in chemical research for investigating structures and dynamics of molecules. Advanced methods can even be utilized for structure determinations of biopolymers, for example proteins or nucleic acids. NMR is also used in medicine for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The method is based on spectral lines of different atomic nuclei that are excited when a strong magnetic field and a radiofrequency transmitter are applied. The method is very sensitive to the features of molecular structure because also the neighboring atoms influence the signals from individual nuclei and this is important for determining the 3D-structure of molecules. This new edition of the popular classic has a clear style and a highly practical, mostly non-mathematical approach. Many examples are taken from organic and organometallic chemistry, making this book an invaluable guide to undergraduate and graduate students of organic chemistry, biochemistry, spectroscopy or physical chemistry, and to researchers using this well-established and extremely important technique. Problems and solutions are included.
Basic Principles, Concepts and Applications in Chemistry
Author: Harald Günther
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Reviews the state of the art in analytical NMR, including many specialist applications in NMR spectroscopy. Emphasizing actual practice with modern instruments, the text presents the fundamentals of NMR, experimental procedures for various applications, and NMR automation. Considers a wide range of applications of NMR, from the simplest uses in quality control to advanced pulsed experiments for examination of complex mixtures and biological specimens.
Author: L. D. Field,S. Sternhell
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Biochemistry: Principles and Applications focuses on the principles and applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in biochemistry. Topics covered include experimental methods in NMR; the mechanisms of NMR relaxation; chemical and paramagnetic shifts; spin-spin splitting; the use of NMR in investigations of biopolymers and biomolecular interactions; and molecular dynamics in biological and biochemical systems. This text is comprised of eight chapters; the first of which gives an overview of NMR spectroscopy and its use in studies of biological systems. The n...
Principles and Applications
Author: Thomas L. James
This is the second edition of a unique book in the field of in vivo NMR covering in detail the technical and biophysical aspects of the technique. The contents of the book are appropriate to both beginners and experienced users of in vivo NMR spectroscopy. The new edition is focussed on bringing the reader practical insights and advice, but is also geared towards use as a study aid and in NMR courses. Recent advances in NMR spectroscopy, like high field NMR, hyperpolarized NMR and new localization and editing techniques have been included. An extensive and updated treatment of radiofrequency pulses is given, together with several tables and recipes for their generation. Solutions to the exercises within this text can be found here
Principles and Techniques
Author: Robin A. de Graaf
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Organic Chemistry, Second Edition focuses on the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to problems in organic chemistry and the theories involved in this kind of spectroscopy. The book first discusses the theory of nuclear magnetic resonance, including dynamic and magnetic properties of atomic nuclei, nuclear resonance, and relaxation process. The manuscript also examines the experimental method. Topics include experimental factors that influence resolution and the shapes of absorption lines; measurement of line positions and identification of the chemical shift; and measurement of intensities. The text reviews the theories of chemical effects in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spin-spin multiplicity and the theory and applications of multiple irradiation. The book also tackles the theory of chemical shift, including the classification of shielding effects, local diamagnetic proton shielding, solvent effects, and contact shifts. The publication is a dependable source of data for readers interested in the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
International Series in Organic Chemistry
Author: L. M. Jackman,S. Sternhell
Application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Organic Chemistry, Second Edition covers the theoretical background necessary for the intelligent application of NMR spectroscopy to common problems encountered in organic chemistry. This book is composed of five parts, and begins with introduction to the theory and practice of nuclear magnetic resonance. The succeeding chapter deals with the theory of chemical effects in NMR spectroscopy. These topics are followed by a discussion on the application of chemical shift to organic compound analysis and the principles of the spin-spin coupling .The final chapter considers the applications of time- dependent phenomena in NMR spectroscopy. This book will prove useful to analytical chemists and researchers in the allied fields.
Author: L. M. Jackman,S. Sternhell
Metabolomics, the global characterisation of the small molecule complement involved in metabolism, has evolved into a powerful suite of approaches for understanding the global physiological and pathological processes occurring in biological organisms. The diversity of metabolites, the wide range of metabolic pathways and their divergent biological contexts require a range of methodological strategies and techniques. Methodologies for Metabolomics provides a comprehensive description of the newest methodological approaches in metabolomic research. The most important technologies used to identify and quantify metabolites, including nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry, are highlighted. The integration of these techniques with classical biological methods is also addressed. Furthermore, the book presents statistical and chemometric methods for evaluation of the resultant data. The broad spectrum of topics includes a vast variety of organisms, samples and diseases, ranging from in vivo metabolomics in humans and animals to in vitro analysis of tissue samples, cultured cells and biofluids.
Experimental Strategies and Techniques
Author: Norbert W. Lutz,Jonathan V. Sweedler,Ron A. Wevers
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
For almost a decade, quantitative NMR spectroscopy (qNMR) has been established as valuable tool in drug analysis. In all disciplines, i. e. drug identification, impurity profiling and assay, qNMR can be utilized. Separation techniques such as high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, super fluid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis techniques, govern the purity evaluation of drugs. However, these techniques are not always able to solve the analytical problems often resulting in insufficient methods. Nevertheless such methods find their way into international pharmacopoeias. Thus, the aim of the book is to describe the possibilities of qNMR in pharmaceutical analysis. Beside the introduction to the physical fundamentals and techniques the principles of the application in drug analysis are described: quality evaluation of drugs, polymer characterization, natural products and corresponding reference compounds, metabolism, and solid phase NMR spectroscopy for the characterization drug substances, e.g. the water content, polymorphism, and drug formulations, e.g. tablets, powders. This part is accompanied by more special chapters dealing with representative examples. They give more detailed information by means of concrete examples. Combines theory, techniques, and concrete applications—all of which closely resemble the laboratory experience Considers international pharmacopoeias, addressing the concern for licensing Features the work of academics and researchers, appealing to a broad readership
Author: Iwona Wawer,Bernd Diehl
High Resolution NMR provides a broad treatment of the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as it is used in the chemical sciences. It is written at an "intermediate" level, with mathematics used to augment, rather than replace, clear verbal descriptions of the phenomena. The book is intended to allow a graduate student, advanced undergraduate, or researcher to understand NMR at a fundamental level, and to see illustrations of the applications of NMR to the determination of the structure of small organic molecules and macromolecules, including proteins. Emphasis is on the study of NMR in liquids, but the treatment also includes high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. Careful attention is given to developing and interrelating four approaches - steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The presentation is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintance with the general principles of quantum mechanics, but no extensive background in quantum theory or proficiency in mathematics is required. Likewise, no previous background in NMR is assumed, since the book begins with a description of the basic physics, together with a brief account of the historical development of the field. This third edition of High Resolution NMR preserves the "conversational" approach of the previous editions that has been well accepted as a teaching tool. However, more than half the material is new, and the remainder has been revised extensively. Problems are included to reinforce concepts in the book. Uses mathematics to augment, not replace, verbal explanations Written in a clear and conversational style Follows the successful format and approach of two previous editions Revised and updated extensively--about 70 percent of the text is new Includes problems and references to additional reading at the end of each chapter
Theory and Chemical Applications
Author: Edwin D. Becker
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy is a dynamic way for scientists of all kinds to investigate the physical, chemical, and biological properties of matter. Its many applications make it a versatile tool previously subject to monolithic treatment in reference-style texts. Based on a course taught for over ten years at Brandeis University, this is the first textbook on NMR spectroscopy for a one-semester course or self-instruction. In keeping with the authors' efforts to make it a useful textbook, they have included problems at the end of each chapter. The book not only covers the latest developments in the field, such as GOESY (Gradient Enhanced Overhauser Spectroscopy) and multidimensional NMR, but includes practical examples using real spectra and associated problem sets. Assuming the reader has a background of chemistry, physics and calculus, this textbook will be ideal for graduate students in chemistry and biochemistry, as well as biology, physics, and biophysics. NMR for Physical and Biological Scientists will also be useful to medical schools, research facilities, and the many chemical, pharmaceutical, and biotech firms that offer in-house instruction on NMR spectroscopy.
Author: Thomas C. Pochapsky,Susan Pochapsky
Publisher: Garland Science
Refractory organic substances (ROS) are an essential part of the biogeochemical carbon cycle. Wherever there is life on earth, there will also be ROS in the form of poorly biodegradable leftovers of organisms and as a source for new life. Furthermore, it is now beyond doubt that ROS are closely related to the carbon intensity identified as one of the driving forces in the dynamics of green house gas emission, such that ROS play a key role in sustainable development. Refractory Organic Substances in the Environment provides the results of six years of top–priority research, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). This research program investigated the structure and function of ROS in different parts of the environment, from a chemical, physical, biological, and soil scientific point of view. It included the first systematic study of a set of reference samples from Central Europe, originating from a bog lake, soil seepage water, groundwater, and from the wastewaters of a brown coal processing plant and a secondary effluent. Thus, this work not only highlights the structural features obtained from the application of advanced analytical tools, but also the function in anthropogenically influenced aquatic systems and soils. Of special interest to students and researchers in life sciences.
Author: F. H. Frimmel
Publisher: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH