Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Agriculture

Author: Philip E. Pfeffer,Walter V. Gerasimowicz

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849368646

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 456

View: 8174

This informative publication presents the broad application of nuclear magnetic resonance to many of today's problem areas in agriculture. Solid-state NMR methodology is covered, with its applications to the study of intact agricultural matrices such as plant cell walls, photosynthetic chloroplast membranes, forages, wood cellulose, and soils. In vivo solution NMR methodology and its applications to the study of different functioning plant tissues and their biochemical responses to various pathological, physiological, and toxicological stresses are illustrated with examples using 31P, 13C, 23Na, and 15N resonance methods. An introductory chapter presents a review of the in vivo literature and some basic principles and requirements for carrying out such experiments. A special section focuses on state-of-the-art 13C and 1H high-resolution multidimensional methods and their application to the study of agricultural toxins; biologically active components, including their structures and biosyntheses, and dynamic measurements of relaxation phenomena associated with cross relaxation in water bound to food proteins.

NMR Applications in Biopolymers

Author: John W. Finley,Siegfried J. Schmidt,A.S. Serianni

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146845868X

Category: Science

Page: 526

View: 9243

Elucidating the structures of biopolymers as they exist in nature has long been a goal of biochemists and biologists. Understanding how these substances interact with themselves, other solutes, and solvents can provide useful insights into many areas of biochemistry, agriculture, food science and medicine. Knowledge of the structure of a protein or complex carbohydrate in its native form provides guidelines for the chemical or genetic modifications often desired to optimize these compounds to specific needs and applications. For example, in the pharmaceutical industry, structure-function relationships involving biopolymers are studied rou tinely as a means to design new drugs and improve their efficacies. The tools to conduct structure investigations of biopolymers at the molecular level are limited in number. Historically X-ray crystallography has been the most attractive method to conduct studies of this type. How ever, X-ray methods can only be applied to highly ordered, crystalline materials, thus obviating studies of solution dynamics that are often critical to attaining a global understanding of biopolymer behavior. In recent years, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has evolved to become a powerful tool to probe the structures of biopolymers in solution and in the solid state. NMR provides a means to study the dynamics of polymers in solution, and to examine the effects of solute, solvent and' other factors~n polymer behavior. With the development of 2D and 3D forms of NMR spectroscopy, it is now possible to assess the solution conforma tions of small proteins, oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides.

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy

Applications in Food Sciences

Author: Atta-ur-Rahman,M. Iqbal Chaudhary

Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers

ISBN: 1681081431

Category: Science

Page: 290

View: 1202

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy is a book series devoted to publishing the latest advances in the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in various fields of organic chemistry, biochemistry, health and agriculture. The fourth volume of the series features several reviews focusing on NMR spectroscopic techniques in food sciences. Readers will find references on methods used to test food quality, food color analysis, the role of Tannins in wine taste as well as NMR studies on lipid oxidation and large protein complexes.

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy; Vol. 6

Author: Atta-ur- Rahman,M. Iqbal Choudhary

Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers

ISBN: 1681084392

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 8695

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy is a book series devoted to publishing the latest advances in the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in various fields of organic chemistry, biochemistry, health and agriculture. The sixth volume of the series features reviews focusing on NMR spectroscopic techniques for studying tautomerism, applications in medical diagnosis, in food chemistry and identifying secondary metabolites.

Optical Monitoring of Fresh and Processed Agricultural Crops

Author: Manuela Zude

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420054033

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 576

View: 9276

In an age of heightened nutritional awareness, assuring healthy human nutrition and improving the economic success of food producers are top priorities for agricultural economies. In the context of these global changes, new innovative technologies are necessary for appropriate agro-food management from harvest and storage, to marketing and consumer consumption. Optical Monitoring of Fresh and Processed Agricultural Crops takes a task-oriented approach, providing essential applications for a better understanding of non-invasive sensory tools used for raw, processed, and stored agricultural crops. This authoritative volume presents interdisciplinary optical methods technologies feasible for in-situ analyses, such as: Vision systems VIS/NIR spectroscopy Hyperspectral camera systems Scattering Time and spatial-resolved approaches Fluorescence Sensorfusion Written by an Internationally Recognized Team of Experts Using a framework of new approaches, this text illustrates how cutting-edge sensor tools can perform rapid and non-destructive analysis of biochemical, physical, and physiological properties, such as maturity stage, nutritional value, and neoformed compounds appearing during processing. These are critical components to maximizing nutritional quality and safety of fruits and vegetables and decreasing economic losses due to produce decay. Quality control systems are quickly gaining a foothold in food manufacturing facilities, making Optical Monitoring of Fresh and Processed Agricultural Crops a valuable resource for agricultural technicians and developers working to maintain nutritional product value and approaching a fine-tuned control process in the crop supply chain.


A legacy of stingless bees

Author: Patricia Vit,Silvia R. M. Pedro,David Roubik

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146144960X

Category: Science

Page: 654

View: 9180

The stingless bees are one of the most diverse, attractive, fascinating, conspicuous and useful of all the insect groups of the tropical world. This is a formidable and contentious claim but I believe it can be backed up. They are fifty times more species rich than the honey bees, the other tribe of highly eusocial bees. They are ubiquitous in the tropics and thrive in tropical cities. In rural areas, they nest in a diversity of sites and are found on the flowers of a broad diversity of crop plants. Their role in natural systems is barely studied but they almost certainly deserve that hallowed title of keystone species. They are popular with the general public and are greatly appreciated in zoos and gardens. The chapters of this book provide abundant further evidence of the ecological and economic importance of stingless bees.

Fishery Products

Quality, Safety and Authenticity

Author: Hartmut Rehbein,Jorg Oehlenschlager

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444322675

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 496

View: 379

Food quality and safety issues continue to dominate the press, with most food companies spending large amounts of money to ensure that the food quality and assessment procedures in place are adequate and produce good and safe food. This holds true for companies and laboratories responsible for the processing of fish into various products, those responsible for researching safe new products, and departments within other companies supporting these functions. Fishery Products brings together details of all the major methodologies used to assess the quality of fishery products in the widest sense. Subject coverage of this important book includes chapters on assessment of authenticity, and several chapters on quality assessment using various methods, such as: Texture measurement Electronic nose and tongue NMR Colour measurement This timely volume will serve as a vital tool for all those working in the processing of fishery and aquaculture products: including laboratory personnel working in regulatory bodies, food quality control personnel, food scientists, food technologists, nutritionists, seafood trade bodies, seafood labelling regulatory bodies, government food protection agencies and environmental health personnel. Libraries in research establishments and universities where food science, food technology, nutrition, aquaculture, fisheries and biological sciences are studied and taught should have copies of this important publication on their shelves.

Interpreting Infrared, Raman, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra

Author: Richard A. Nyquist

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080535135

Category: Science

Page: 1068

View: 1125

This book teaches the analyst why it is advantageous to obtain vibrational data under different physical phases. Molecular vibrations are affected by change in physical phase, and knowledge of how certain molecular vibrations are affected by change in the chemical environment improves the analyst's ability to solve complex chemical problems. This book is invaluable for students and scientists engaged in analytical and organic chemistry, since application of IR and Raman spectroscopy is essential in identifying and verifying molecular structure. This reference provides analysts with information that enables them to acquire the maximum amount of information when sampling molecular vibrations via IR and Raman spectroscopy. Key Features * Explains why it is advantageous to obtain vibrational data under different physical phases * Compiles many vibrational studies into a single compendium * Lists group frequencies in different physical phases * Reveals that some group frequencies are more affected than others by changes in the physical phase * Demonstrates that in-phase and out-of-phase vibrations of the same functional group are not equally affected * Describes how solute-solvent complexes differ with changes in the solvent system * Shows that the amount of Fermi resonance between a fundamental vibration and a combination or overtone is altered with change of physical phase * Written by an internationally recognized expert

Fundamentals of Nuclear Science - Application in Agriculture

Author: H. Chandrasekharan,Navindu Gupta

Publisher: Northern Book Centre

ISBN: 9788172112004

Category: Nuclear energy

Page: 260

View: 2464

This book is based on the compilation of lecture notes on nuclear techniques in agriculture and biology, prepared and updated for students of PG School, IARI, New Delhi during the past 16 years. The book contains three parts, namely, Fundamentals of Nuclear Science (covering the basic features), Applications (comprising essential application with focus on agriculture) and Appendices (consisting of bibliography, nuclear terms, radioactive decay charts, select constants and abbreviations used). Salient Features • Language is lucid and informal. • Unique in terms of its contents and 88 illustrations and 11 photographs that simplify and encourage the readers in understanding the approach and theory. • Recent developments in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance have been discussed. • Provides a comprehensive view of the potentialities of nuclear science and its application. • Contains clarity and high level of precision in presenting the subject matter. • A detailed bibliography for further reading. • Detail contents at the begining facilitate quick revision. • Can be used either as a textbook or for supplementary reading in colleges, universities and research institutions dealing with applications of nuclear techniques. • Would be of immense help to the academic community at large. In short, the flawless presentation on various aspects of nuclear applications is expected to enrich biologists and agricultural scientists to easily understand not only the basic concepts but also essentials on the application of the nuclear energy in a variety of ways for research and in agriculture.

Handbook of Seafood Quality, Safety and Health Applications

Author: Cesarettin Alasalvar,Kazuo Miyashita,Fereidoon Shahidi,Udaya Wanasundara

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444347760

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 576

View: 6631

The global market for seafood products continues to increase year by year. Food safety considerations are as crucial as ever in this sector, and higher standards of quality are demanded even as products are shipped greater distances around the world. The current global focus on the connection between diet and health drives growth in the industry and offers commercial opportunities on a number of fronts. There is great interest in the beneficial effects of marine functional compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Seafoods are well-known as low calorie foods, and research continues into the nutritional effects on, for example, obesity and heart disease. In addition, by-products of marine food processing can be used in nutraceutical applications. This book is a resource for those interested in the latest advances in the science and technology of seafood quality and safety as well as new developments in the nutritional effects and applications of marine foods. It includes chapters on the practical evaluation of seafood quality; novel approaches in preservation techniques; flavour chemistry and analysis; textural quality and measurement; packaging; the control of food-borne pathogens and seafood toxins. New research on the health-related aspects of marine food intake are covered, as well as the use of seafoods as sources of bioactives and nutraceuticals. The book is directed at scientists and technologists in academia, government laboratories and the seafood industries, including quality managers, processors and sensory scientists.

NMR — Konzepte und Methoden

Author: Daniel Canet

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642791220

Category: Science

Page: 245

View: 6499

Daniel Canet hat aus Seminaren und Vorlesungen an der Universität Nancy I die wesentlichen Themen der Kernresonanzspektroskopie ausgewählt. Er stellt die physikalischen Zusammenhänge so dar, daß sich eine große Gruppe für das Buch interessiert: Chemiker, Biochemiker - und auch Mediziner, in deren Diagnostik auch die spektroskopischen Aspekte eine immer größere Rolle spielen. Das Buch ist auf drei Ebenen geschrieben: als Einführung in das physikalische Phänomen, als Lehrbuch für Chemiker nach dem Vordiplom und als eine Darstellung der quantenchemischen Modelle, die zum Verständnis der Spindynamik, der Multipuls- und multidimensionalen Verfahren nötig sind. Hier unterscheidet sich Canets Buch von anderen Einführungen.

Diterpene Resin Acids

A Compilation of Infrared, Mass, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Ultraviolet Spectra and Gas Chromatographic Retention Data (of the Methyl Esters)

Author: Duane F. Zinkel,Lester C. Zank,Martin F. Wesolowski

Publisher: N.A


Category: Gums and resin

Page: 191

View: 2140

Plant Bioactives and Drug Discovery

Principles, Practice, and Perspectives

Author: Valdir Cechinel-Filho

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118259920

Category: Science

Page: 586

View: 7244

An in-depth exploration of the applications of plant bioactive metabolites in drug research and development Highlighting the complexity and applications of plant bioactive metabolites in organic and medicinal chemistry, Plant Bioactives and Drug Discovery: Principles, Practice, and Perspectives provides an in-depth overview of the ways in which plants can inform drug research and development. An edited volume featuring multidisciplinary international contributions from acclaimed scientists researching bioactive natural products, the book provides an incisive overview of one of the most important topics in pharmaceutical studies today. With coverage of strategic methods of natural compound isolation, structural manipulation, natural products in clinical trials, quality control, and more, and featuring case studies on medicinal plants, the book serves as a definitive guide to the field of plant biodiversity as it relates to medicine. In addition, chapters on using natural products as drugs that target specific disease areas, including neurological disorders, inflammation, infectious diseases, and cancer, illustrate the myriad possibilities for therapeutic applications. Wide ranging and comprehensive, Plant Bioactives and Drug Discovery also includes important information on marketing, regulations, intellectual property rights, and academic-industry collaboration as they relate to plant-based drug research, making it an essential resource for advanced students and academic and industry professionals working in biochemical, pharmaceutical, and related fields.

Single-Sided NMR

Author: Federico Casanova,Juan Perlo,Bernhard Blümich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642163074

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 244

View: 2119

This book describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications in medicine, materials science, and chemical engineering. It will be the first comprehensive account of this new device and its applications. Among the key advances of this method is that images can be obtained in much shorter times than originally anticipated, and that even vector maps of flow fields can be measured although the magnetic fields are highly inhomogeneous. Furthermore, the equipment is small, mobile and affordable to small and medium enterprises and can be located in doctors’ offices.

Magnetic Resonance in Food Science

Latest Developments

Author: P. S. Belton,A. M. Gil,D. Rutledge,G. A. Webb

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9780854048861

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 8677

The term magnetic resonance covers a wide range of techniques, spectroscopy, relaxation and imaging. In turn, these areas are evolving and leading to various new applications of NMR and ESR in food science and nutrition. From assessment of meat quality, through to a study of beer components and the effect of microwaves on potato texture, Magnetic Resonance in Food Science: Latest Developments provides an account of the state of the art in this lively area. Coverage includes: recent developments in magnetic resonance; human aspects of food; structure and dynamics in food; and food quality control. With contributions from international experts, this book is essential reading for academics and industrialists in food science. It is the latest in a series of titles in this area published by the RSC.

The Role of Organic Matter in Modern Agriculture

Author: Yona Chen,Y. Avnimelech

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789024733606

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 306

View: 8410

The use of organic residues as a means of maintaining and increasing soil fertility is of long-standing. This tradition has been somewhat neglected since the introduc tion of mineral fertilizers at low cost. More and more farmers and scientists are now showing renewed interest in the proper and effective use of org~tnic residues, composts and other recycled organic additives. The role and function of organic amendments in modern agricultural systems have become topics of major interest in the scientific and agricultural communities. Research work on residue disposal has provided new concepts on the interaction between organic components and soils as well as new handling technologies (e. g. pelletizing of organic residues). The trend to conserve energy has led scientists to study the minimal tillage system, to find ways of replacing conventional inorganic fertilizers with natural organic prod ucts or microbial preparations, and to develop new composting methods. The drive to achieve higher yields in commercial greenhouse farming has led to a search for optimum substrates as growth media and for improved management techniques. This has led to the introduction of organic substitutes for peat, nota bly those originating from agricultural wastes. Another important aspect is the current interest in organic farming, where use of synthetic chemicals is avoided or prohibited. An increasing percentage of the population in highly developed countries is willing to pay premium prices for food produced on soils where inorganic fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals have not been used.