This informative publication presents the broad application of nuclear magnetic resonance to many of today's problem areas in agriculture. Solid-state NMR methodology is covered, with its applications to the study of intact agricultural matrices such as plant cell walls, photosynthetic chloroplast membranes, forages, wood cellulose, and soils. In vivo solution NMR methodology and its applications to the study of different functioning plant tissues and their biochemical responses to various pathological, physiological, and toxicological stresses are illustrated with examples using 31P, 13C, 23Na, and 15N resonance methods. An introductory chapter presents a review of the in vivo literature and some basic principles and requirements for carrying out such experiments. A special section focuses on state-of-the-art 13C and 1H high-resolution multidimensional methods and their application to the study of agricultural toxins; biologically active components, including their structures and biosyntheses, and dynamic measurements of relaxation phenomena associated with cross relaxation in water bound to food proteins.
Author: Philip E. Pfeffer,Walter V. Gerasimowicz
Publisher: CRC Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
Elucidating the structures of biopolymers as they exist in nature has long been a goal of biochemists and biologists. Understanding how these substances interact with themselves, other solutes, and solvents can provide useful insights into many areas of biochemistry, agriculture, food science and medicine. Knowledge of the structure of a protein or complex carbohydrate in its native form provides guidelines for the chemical or genetic modifications often desired to optimize these compounds to specific needs and applications. For example, in the pharmaceutical industry, structure-function relationships involving biopolymers are studied rou tinely as a means to design new drugs and improve their efficacies. The tools to conduct structure investigations of biopolymers at the molecular level are limited in number. Historically X-ray crystallography has been the most attractive method to conduct studies of this type. How ever, X-ray methods can only be applied to highly ordered, crystalline materials, thus obviating studies of solution dynamics that are often critical to attaining a global understanding of biopolymer behavior. In recent years, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has evolved to become a powerful tool to probe the structures of biopolymers in solution and in the solid state. NMR provides a means to study the dynamics of polymers in solution, and to examine the effects of solute, solvent and' other factors~n polymer behavior. With the development of 2D and 3D forms of NMR spectroscopy, it is now possible to assess the solution conforma tions of small proteins, oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides.
Author: John W. Finley,Siegfried J. Schmidt,A.S. Serianni
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Applications of NMR Spectroscopy is a book series devoted to publishing the latest advances in the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in various fields of organic chemistry, biochemistry, health and agriculture. The fourth volume of the series features several reviews focusing on NMR spectroscopic techniques in food sciences. Readers will find references on methods used to test food quality, food color analysis, the role of Tannins in wine taste as well as NMR studies on lipid oxidation and large protein complexes.
Applications in Food Sciences
Author: Atta-ur-Rahman,M. Iqbal Chaudhary
Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers
Combines clear and concise discussions of key NMR concepts with succinct and illustrative examples Designed to cover a full course in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy, this text offers complete coverage of classic (one-dimensional) NMR as well as up-to-date coverage of two-dimensional NMR and other modern methods. It contains practical advice, theory, illustrated applications, and classroom-tested problems; looks at such important ideas as relaxation, NOEs, phase cycling, and processing parameters; and provides brief, yet fully comprehensible, examples. It also uniquely lists all of the general parameters for many experiments including mixing times, number of scans, relaxation times, and more. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: An Introduction to Principles, Applications, and Experimental Methods, 2nd Edition begins by introducing readers to NMR spectroscopy - an analytical technique used in modern chemistry, biochemistry, and biology that allows identification and characterization of organic, and some inorganic, compounds. It offers chapters covering: Experimental Methods; The Chemical Shift; The Coupling Constant; Further Topics in One-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy; Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy; Advanced Experimental Methods; and Structural Elucidation. Features classical analysis of chemical shifts and coupling constants for both protons and other nuclei, as well as modern multi‐pulse and multi-dimensional methods Contains experimental procedures and practical advice relative to the execution of NMR experiments Includes a chapter-long, worked-out problem that illustrates the application of nearly all current methods Offers appendices containing the theoretical basis of NMR, including the most modern approach that uses product operators and coherence-level diagrams By offering a balance between volumes aimed at NMR specialists and the structure-determination-only books that focus on synthetic organic chemists, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: An Introduction to Principles, Applications, and Experimental Methods, 2nd Edition is an excellent text for students and post-graduate students working in analytical and bio-sciences, as well as scientists who use NMR spectroscopy as a primary tool in their work.
An Introduction to Principles, Applications, and Experimental Methods
Author: Joseph B. Lambert,Eugene Mazzola,Clark D. Ridge
This book is about pulse nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), with its techniques, the information to be obtained, and practical advice on performing experiments. The emphasis is on the motivation and physical ideas underlying NMR experiments and the actual techniques, including the hardware used. The level is generally suitable for those to whom pulse NMR is a new technique, be they students in chemistry or physics on the one hand and research workers in biology, geology, or agriculture, on the other. The book can be used for a senior or first year graduate course where it could supplement the standard NMR texts.
A Nuts and Bolts Approach
Author: Eiichi Fukushima
Publisher: CRC Press
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Biochemistry: Principles and Applications focuses on the principles and applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in biochemistry. Topics covered include experimental methods in NMR; the mechanisms of NMR relaxation; chemical and paramagnetic shifts; spin-spin splitting; the use of NMR in investigations of biopolymers and biomolecular interactions; and molecular dynamics in biological and biochemical systems. This text is comprised of eight chapters; the first of which gives an overview of NMR spectroscopy and its use in studies of biological systems. The n...
Principles and Applications
Author: Thomas L. James
Properties and applications of high surface area materials depend on interfacial phenomena, including diffusion, sorption, dissolution, solvation, surface reactions, catalysis, and phase transitions. Among the physicochemical methods that give useful information regarding these complex phenomena, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the most universal, yielding detailed structural data regarding molecules, solids, and interfaces. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Interfacial Phenomena summarizes NMR research results collected over the past three decades for a wide range of materials—from nanomaterials and nanocomposites to biomaterials, cells, tissues, and seeds. This book describes the applications of important new NMR spectroscopic methods to a variety of useful materials and compares them with results from other techniques such as adsorption, differential scanning calorimetry, thermally stimulated depolarization current, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and small-angle and wide-angle x-ray scattering. The text explores the application of NMR spectroscopy to examine interfacial phenomena in objects of increasing complexity, beginning with unmodified and modified silica materials. It then describes properties of various mixed oxides with comparisons to individual oxides and also describes carbon materials such as graphite and carbon nanotubes. Chapters deal with carbon–mineral hybrids and their mosaic surface structures, and interfacial phenomena at the surface of natural and synthetics polymers. They also explore a variety of biosystems, which are much more complex, including biomacromolecules (proteins, DNA, and lipids), cells and tissues, and seeds and herbs. The authors cover trends in interfacial phenomena investigations, and the final chapter describes NMR and other methods used in the book. This text presents a comprehensive description of a large array of hard and soft materials, allowing the analysis of the structure–property relationships and generalities on the interfacial behavior of materials and adsorbates.
Author: Vladimir M. Gun'ko,Vladimir V. Turov
Publisher: CRC Press
This book focuses on starch polymers including starch genetics, biotechnological and chemical modification, nanostructures, processing, characterization, properties and applications. This books topic is in a cutting edge and emerging technology area of biomaterials, nanomaterials and renewable materials, and will involve international experts in diverse fields from genetic engineering to applications. Focuses on cutting edge applications of starch polymers, including starch genetics and Rheology Contains working examples and provides real problems and solutions in the area of biomaterials, nanomaterials, and renewable materials Provides systematic and in-depth coverage and critical assessment of all starch properties and applications from top scientists in the industry
From Genetic Engineering to Green Applications
Author: P. Halley,L. Averous
During the last two decades, the use of NMR spectroscopy for the characterization and analysis of food materials has flourished, and this trend continues to increase today. Currently, there exists no book that fulfils specifically the needs of food scientists that are interested in adding or expanding the use of NMR spectroscopy in their arsenal of food analysis techniques. Current books and monographs are rather addressed to experienced researchers in food analysis providing new information in the field. This book, written by acknowledged experts in the field, fills the gap by offering a day to day NMR guide for the food scientist, affording not only the basic theoretical aspects of NMR spectroscopy, but also practical information on sample preparation, experimental conditions and data analysis. Current developments in the field covered in this book are the availability of solid state NMR experiments such as CP/MAS and more importantly HR-MAS NMR for the analysis of semisolid foods, and the increasing use of chemometrics to analyze NMR data in food metabonomics. Moreover, this book contains an up to date discussion of MRI in food analysis including topics such as food processing and natural changes in food such as ripening. The book is a compact and complete source of information for food scientists who wish to apply methodologies based on NMR spectroscopy in food analysis. It contains information so far scattered in the primary literature, in NMR treatises and food analysis books, in a concise format that makes it appealing to food scientists who have no or minimal experience in magnetic resonance techniques. The inclusion of practical information about NMR instrumentation, experiment setup, acquisition and spectral analysis for the study of different food categories make this book a hands-on manual for food scientists wishing to implement novel NMR spectroscopy-based analytical techniques in their field.
Author: Apostolos Spyros,Photis Dais
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Category: Technology & Engineering
Covers all MR spectroscopy techniques and their clinical applications in neurological disorders, malignancies and musculoskeletal diseases.
Techniques and Applications
Author: Peter B. Barker,Alberto Bizzi,Nicola De Stefano,Doris D. M. Lin
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
NMR Spectroscopy in Liquids and Solids provides an introduction of the general concepts behind Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and its applications, including how to perform adequate NMR experiments and interpret data collected in liquids and solids to characterize molecule systems in terms of their structure and dynamics. The book is composed of ten chapters. The first three chapters consider the theoretical basis of NMR spectroscopy, the theory of NMR relaxation, and the practice of relaxation measurements. The middle chapters discuss the general aspects of molecular dynamics and their relationships to NMR, NMR spectroscopy and relaxation studies in solutions, and special issues related to NMR in solutions. The remaining chapters introduce general principles and strategies involved in solid-state NMR studies, provide examples of applications of relaxation for the determination of molecular dynamics in diamagnetic solids, and discuss special issues related to solid state NMR— including NMR relaxation in paramagnetic solids. All chapters are accompanied by references and recommended literature for further reading. Many practical examples of multinuclear NMR and relaxation experiments and their interpretations are also presented. The book is ideal for scientists new to NMR, students, and investigators working in the areas of chemistry, biochemistry, biology, pharmaceutical sciences, or materials science.
Author: Vladimir I. Bakhmutov
Publisher: CRC Press
This book teaches the analyst why it is advantageous to obtain vibrational data under different physical phases. Molecular vibrations are affected by change in physical phase, and knowledge of how certain molecular vibrations are affected by change in the chemical environment improves the analyst's ability to solve complex chemical problems. This book is invaluable for students and scientists engaged in analytical and organic chemistry, since application of IR and Raman spectroscopy is essential in identifying and verifying molecular structure. This reference provides analysts with information that enables them to acquire the maximum amount of information when sampling molecular vibrations via IR and Raman spectroscopy. Key Features * Explains why it is advantageous to obtain vibrational data under different physical phases * Compiles many vibrational studies into a single compendium * Lists group frequencies in different physical phases * Reveals that some group frequencies are more affected than others by changes in the physical phase * Demonstrates that in-phase and out-of-phase vibrations of the same functional group are not equally affected * Describes how solute-solvent complexes differ with changes in the solvent system * Shows that the amount of Fermi resonance between a fundamental vibration and a combination or overtone is altered with change of physical phase * Written by an internationally recognized expert
Author: Richard A. Nyquist
Publisher: Academic Press
This book describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications in medicine, materials science, and chemical engineering. It will be the first comprehensive account of this new device and its applications. Among the key advances of this method is that images can be obtained in much shorter times than originally anticipated, and that even vector maps of flow fields can be measured although the magnetic fields are highly inhomogeneous. Furthermore, the equipment is small, mobile and affordable to small and medium enterprises and can be located in doctors’ offices.
Author: Federico Casanova,Juan Perlo,Bernhard Blümich
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Technology & Engineering
This book presents the basics of the non-invasive geophysical method for groundwater investigation, called Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) or Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR), and its practical application to the problems of groundwater localization and aquifer characterization. The method is based on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phenomenon and is selectively sensitive to groundwater. The main aims of the author are to teach the reader the basic principles of the method as well as to formulate consistent approximate models, leading to reasonably simple inverse problems. Containing an extensive bibliography, numerous practical and numerical examples as well as a detailed presentation of the nuts and bolts of the method based on the long-term experience of SNMR development and practical use, this book is useful for students, scientists and professional engineers working in the field of hydrogeophysics and hydrogeology. Contents 1. SNMR Imaging for Groundwater. 2. The Basics of NMR. 3. Forward Modeling. 4. Inversion. 5. Link Between SNMR and Aquifer Parameters.
Author: Anatoly Legtchenko
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Technology & Engineering
Spin Dynamics: Basics of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Second Edition is a comprehensive and modern introduction which focuses on those essential principles and concepts needed for a thorough understanding of the subject, rather than the practical aspects. The quantum theory of nuclear magnets is presented within a strong physical framework, supported by figures. The book assumes only a basic knowledge of complex numbers and matrices, and provides the reader with numerous worked examples and exercises to encourage understanding. With the explicit aim of carefully developing the subject from the beginning, the text starts with coverage of quarks and nucleons and progresses through to a detailed explanation of several important NMR experiments, including NMR imaging, COSY, NOESY and TROSY. Completely revised and updated, the Second Edition features new material on the properties and distributions of isotopes, chemical shift anisotropy and quadrupolar interactions, Pake patterns, spin echoes, slice selection in NMR imaging, and a complete new chapter on the NMR spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei. New appendices have been included on Euler angles, and coherence selection by field gradients. As in the first edition, all material is heavily supported by graphics, much of which is new to this edition. Written for undergraduates and postgraduate students taking a first course in NMR spectroscopy and for those needing an up-to-date account of the subject, this multi-disciplinary book will appeal to chemical, physical, material, life, medical, earth and environmental scientists. The detailed physical insights will also make the book of interest for experienced spectroscopists and NMR researchers. • An accessible and carefully written introduction, designed to help students to fully understand this complex and dynamic subject • Takes a multi-disciplinary approach, focusing on basic principles and concepts rather than the more practical aspects • Presents a strong pedagogical approach throughout, with emphasis placed on individual spins to aid understanding • Includes numerous worked examples, problems, further reading and additional notes Praise from the reviews of the First Edition: "This is an excellent book... that many teachers of NMR spectroscopy will cherish... It deserves to be a ‘classic’ among NMR spectroscopy texts." NMR IN BIOMEDICINE "I strongly recommend this book to everyone…it is probably the best modern comprehensive description of the subject." ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, INTERNATIONAL EDITION
Basics of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Author: Malcolm H. Levitt
The challenges faced by environmental scientists today are vast, complex, and multi-faceted. For instance, predicting the fate of an environmental pollutant or understanding ecosystem responses to climate change, necessitate a firm understanding of molecular structure and dynamics of environmental media as well as the components that exist and interact within this media. Furthermore, linking information obtained at the molecular-scale to ecosystem-level processes is a major pursuit of modern environmental research. As such, NMR spectroscopy and its scalability from the molecular-scale to the macroscopic-scale, is facilitating rapid growth in environmental science. In addition, the versatility of NMR spectroscopy has resulted in the development and implementation of different types of NMR techniques to examine the structure of various types of environmental samples, living and non-living, as well as the study of critical environmental processes. This comprehensive handbook is a collection of chapters that span from methods to how NMR is used in environmental research to gain insight into various ecosystem properties. It is organized into three parts: Part A focuses on methods used in environmental NMR which span from solution-state to magnetic resonance imaging. Part B emphasizes how NMR spectroscopy plays an essential role in understanding various types of environmental components and related processes, including different forms of organic matter found in soil, water, and air as well as how NMR is used to probe the fate of water, organic pollutants, and metals in the environment. Part C focuses on the growing field of environmental metabolomics which uses NMR as its main discovery platform. This volume highlights the immense potential of NMR spectroscopy to expand our fundamental understanding of environmental processes and how it will continue to do so well into the future. About eMagRes Handbooks eMagRes (formerly the Encyclopedia of Magnetic Resonance) publishes a wide range of online articles on all aspects of magnetic resonance in physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. The existence of this large number of articles, written by experts in various fields, is enabling the publication of a series of eMagRes Handbooks on specific areas of NMR and MRI. The chapters of each of these handbooks will comprise a carefully chosen selection of eMagRes articles. In consultation with the eMagRes Editorial Board, the eMagRes handbooks are coherently planned in advance by specially-selected Editors, and new articles are written to give appropriate complete coverage. The handbooks are intended to be of value and interest to research students, postdoctoral fellows and other researchers learning about the scientific area in question and undertaking relevant experiments, whether in academia or industry. Have the content of this handbook and the complete content of eMagRes at your fingertips! Visit: www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/ref/eMagRes
A Versatile Tool for Environmental Research
Author: Myrna J. Simpson,Andre J. Simpson
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Taking the reader through the underlying principles of molecular translational dynamics, this book outlines the ways in which magnetic resonance, through the use of magnetic field gradients, can reveal those dynamics. The measurement of diffusion and flow, over different length and time scales, provides unique insight regarding fluid interactions with porous materials, as well as molecular organisation in soft matter and complex fluids. The book covers both time and frequency domain methodologies, as well as advances in scattering and diffraction methods, multidimensional exchange and correlation experiments and orientational correlation methods ideal for studying anisotropic environments. At the heart of these new methods resides the ubiquitous spin echo, a phenomenon whose discovery underpins nearly every major development in magnetic resonance methodology. Measuring molecular translational motion does not require high spectral resolution and so finds application in new NMR technologies concerned with 'outside the laboratory' applications, in geophysics and petroleum physics, in horticulture, in food technology, in security screening, and in environmental monitoring.
Principles of Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo NMR
Author: Paul T. Callaghan
Publisher: OUP Oxford