Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Agriculture

Author: Philip E. Pfeffer,Walter V. Gerasimowicz

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849368646

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 456

View: 7654

This informative publication presents the broad application of nuclear magnetic resonance to many of today's problem areas in agriculture. Solid-state NMR methodology is covered, with its applications to the study of intact agricultural matrices such as plant cell walls, photosynthetic chloroplast membranes, forages, wood cellulose, and soils. In vivo solution NMR methodology and its applications to the study of different functioning plant tissues and their biochemical responses to various pathological, physiological, and toxicological stresses are illustrated with examples using 31P, 13C, 23Na, and 15N resonance methods. An introductory chapter presents a review of the in vivo literature and some basic principles and requirements for carrying out such experiments. A special section focuses on state-of-the-art 13C and 1H high-resolution multidimensional methods and their application to the study of agricultural toxins; biologically active components, including their structures and biosyntheses, and dynamic measurements of relaxation phenomena associated with cross relaxation in water bound to food proteins.

NMR Applications in Biopolymers

Author: John W. Finley,Siegfried J. Schmidt,A.S. Serianni

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146845868X

Category: Science

Page: 526

View: 6532

Elucidating the structures of biopolymers as they exist in nature has long been a goal of biochemists and biologists. Understanding how these substances interact with themselves, other solutes, and solvents can provide useful insights into many areas of biochemistry, agriculture, food science and medicine. Knowledge of the structure of a protein or complex carbohydrate in its native form provides guidelines for the chemical or genetic modifications often desired to optimize these compounds to specific needs and applications. For example, in the pharmaceutical industry, structure-function relationships involving biopolymers are studied rou tinely as a means to design new drugs and improve their efficacies. The tools to conduct structure investigations of biopolymers at the molecular level are limited in number. Historically X-ray crystallography has been the most attractive method to conduct studies of this type. How ever, X-ray methods can only be applied to highly ordered, crystalline materials, thus obviating studies of solution dynamics that are often critical to attaining a global understanding of biopolymer behavior. In recent years, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has evolved to become a powerful tool to probe the structures of biopolymers in solution and in the solid state. NMR provides a means to study the dynamics of polymers in solution, and to examine the effects of solute, solvent and' other factors~n polymer behavior. With the development of 2D and 3D forms of NMR spectroscopy, it is now possible to assess the solution conforma tions of small proteins, oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides.

Fundamentals of Nuclear Science - Application in Agriculture

Author: H. Chandrasekharan,Navindu Gupta

Publisher: Northern Book Centre

ISBN: 9788172112004

Category: Nuclear energy

Page: 260

View: 1343

This book is based on the compilation of lecture notes on nuclear techniques in agriculture and biology, prepared and updated for students of PG School, IARI, New Delhi during the past 16 years. The book contains three parts, namely, Fundamentals of Nuclear Science (covering the basic features), Applications (comprising essential application with focus on agriculture) and Appendices (consisting of bibliography, nuclear terms, radioactive decay charts, select constants and abbreviations used). Salient Features • Language is lucid and informal. • Unique in terms of its contents and 88 illustrations and 11 photographs that simplify and encourage the readers in understanding the approach and theory. • Recent developments in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance have been discussed. • Provides a comprehensive view of the potentialities of nuclear science and its application. • Contains clarity and high level of precision in presenting the subject matter. • A detailed bibliography for further reading. • Detail contents at the begining facilitate quick revision. • Can be used either as a textbook or for supplementary reading in colleges, universities and research institutions dealing with applications of nuclear techniques. • Would be of immense help to the academic community at large. In short, the flawless presentation on various aspects of nuclear applications is expected to enrich biologists and agricultural scientists to easily understand not only the basic concepts but also essentials on the application of the nuclear energy in a variety of ways for research and in agriculture.

Magnetic Resonance in Food Science

Latest Developments

Author: P. S. Belton,A. M. Gil,D. Rutledge,G. A. Webb

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9780854048861

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 3007

The term magnetic resonance covers a wide range of techniques, spectroscopy, relaxation and imaging. In turn, these areas are evolving and leading to various new applications of NMR and ESR in food science and nutrition. From assessment of meat quality, through to a study of beer components and the effect of microwaves on potato texture, Magnetic Resonance in Food Science: Latest Developments provides an account of the state of the art in this lively area. Coverage includes: recent developments in magnetic resonance; human aspects of food; structure and dynamics in food; and food quality control. With contributions from international experts, this book is essential reading for academics and industrialists in food science. It is the latest in a series of titles in this area published by the RSC.

Saponins Used in Food and Agriculture

Author: George R. Waller,Kazuo Yamasaki

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146130413X

Category: Science

Page: 453

View: 8098

''A wealth of information...these two volumes will be immensely valuable to anyone having to deal with this difficult group of compounds.'' ---Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, from a review of Saponins Used in Traditional and Modern Medicine and Saponins Used in Food and Agriculture ''A valuable contribution to the literature.'' ---The Quarterly Review of Biology, December 1997

Optical Monitoring of Fresh and Processed Agricultural Crops

Author: Manuela Zude

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420054033

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 576

View: 6758

In an age of heightened nutritional awareness, assuring healthy human nutrition and improving the economic success of food producers are top priorities for agricultural economies. In the context of these global changes, new innovative technologies are necessary for appropriate agro-food management from harvest and storage, to marketing and consumer consumption. Optical Monitoring of Fresh and Processed Agricultural Crops takes a task-oriented approach, providing essential applications for a better understanding of non-invasive sensory tools used for raw, processed, and stored agricultural crops. This authoritative volume presents interdisciplinary optical methods technologies feasible for in-situ analyses, such as: Vision systems VIS/NIR spectroscopy Hyperspectral camera systems Scattering Time and spatial-resolved approaches Fluorescence Sensorfusion Written by an Internationally Recognized Team of Experts Using a framework of new approaches, this text illustrates how cutting-edge sensor tools can perform rapid and non-destructive analysis of biochemical, physical, and physiological properties, such as maturity stage, nutritional value, and neoformed compounds appearing during processing. These are critical components to maximizing nutritional quality and safety of fruits and vegetables and decreasing economic losses due to produce decay. Quality control systems are quickly gaining a foothold in food manufacturing facilities, making Optical Monitoring of Fresh and Processed Agricultural Crops a valuable resource for agricultural technicians and developers working to maintain nutritional product value and approaching a fine-tuned control process in the crop supply chain.

Issues in Agriculture and the Environment: 2011 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464966060

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 606

View: 9377

Issues in Agriculture and the Environment / 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Agriculture and the Environment. The editors have built Issues in Agriculture and the Environment: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Agriculture and the Environment in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Agriculture and the Environment / 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Environmental Chemistry

Author: Mark A. Nanny,Roger A. Minear,Jerry A. Leenheer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198025801

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 7711

This book demonstrates the usefulness of NMR spectroscopy for a wide variety of applications in environmental science and technology. It contains a wealth of information relating to instrumentation, sample preparation, and data interpretation. The book is divided into three sections discussing contaminant interaction, solution and condensed-phase characterization, and nutrients and natural organic matter characterization. In addition to these in-depth chapters, an introductory overview provides the basic principles of solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Each section also contains a discussion of advances in each area directly attributable to NMR spectroscopy. A final chapter suggests future directions for the deployment of this powerful technology in environmental science.

Silicon in Agriculture

Author: L.E. Datnoff,G.H. Snyder,G.H. Korndörfer

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080541228

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 424

View: 5706

Presenting the first book to focus on the importance of silicon for plant health and soil productivity and on our current understanding of this element as it relates to agriculture. Long considered by plant physiologists as a non-essential element, or plant nutrient, silicon was the center of attention at the first international conference on Silicon in Agriculture, held in Florida in 1999. Ninety scientists, growers, and producers of silicon fertilizer from 19 countries pondered a paradox in plant biology and crop science. They considered the element Si, second only to oxygen in quantity in soils, and absorbed by many plants in amounts roughly equivalent to those of such nutrients as sulfur or magnesium. Some species, including such staples as rice, may contain this element in amounts as great as or even greater than any other inorganic constituent. Compilations of the mineral composition of plants, however, and much of the plant physiological literature largely ignore this element. The participants in Silicon in Agriculture explored that extraordinary discrepancy between the silicon content of plants and that of the plant research enterprise. The participants, all of whom are active in agricultural science, with an emphasis on crop production, presented, and were presented with, a wealth of evidence that silicon plays a multitude of functions in the real world of plant life. Many soils in the humid tropics are low in plant available silicon, and the same condition holds in warm to hot humid areas elsewhere. Field experience, and experimentation even with nutrient solutions, reveals a multitude of functions of silicon in plant life. Resistance to disease is one, toleration of toxic metals such as aluminum, another. Silicon applications often minimize lodging of cereals (leaning over or even becoming prostrate), and often cause leaves to assume orientations more favorable for light interception. For some crops, rice and sugarcane in particular, spectacular yield responses to silicon application have been obtained. More recently, other crop species including orchids, daisies and yucca were reported to respond to silicon accumulation and plant growth/disease control. The culture solutions used for the hydroponic production of high-priced crops such as cucumbers and roses in many areas (The Netherlands for example) routinely included silicon, mainly for disease control. The biochemistry of silicon in plant cell walls, where most of it is located, is coming increasingly under scrutiny; the element may act as a crosslinking element between carbohydrate polymers. There is an increased conviction among scientists that the time is at hand to stop treating silicon as a plant biological nonentity. The element exists, and it matters.

The Role of Organic Matter in Modern Agriculture

Author: Yona Chen,Y. Avnimelech

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789024733606

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 306

View: 4249

The use of organic residues as a means of maintaining and increasing soil fertility is of long-standing. This tradition has been somewhat neglected since the introduc tion of mineral fertilizers at low cost. More and more farmers and scientists are now showing renewed interest in the proper and effective use of org~tnic residues, composts and other recycled organic additives. The role and function of organic amendments in modern agricultural systems have become topics of major interest in the scientific and agricultural communities. Research work on residue disposal has provided new concepts on the interaction between organic components and soils as well as new handling technologies (e. g. pelletizing of organic residues). The trend to conserve energy has led scientists to study the minimal tillage system, to find ways of replacing conventional inorganic fertilizers with natural organic prod ucts or microbial preparations, and to develop new composting methods. The drive to achieve higher yields in commercial greenhouse farming has led to a search for optimum substrates as growth media and for improved management techniques. This has led to the introduction of organic substitutes for peat, nota bly those originating from agricultural wastes. Another important aspect is the current interest in organic farming, where use of synthetic chemicals is avoided or prohibited. An increasing percentage of the population in highly developed countries is willing to pay premium prices for food produced on soils where inorganic fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals have not been used.

Magnetic Resonance in Food Science

Challenges in a Changing World

Author: María Guđjónsdóttir,P. S. Belton

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 0854041176

Category: Medical

Page: 260

View: 7023

The term magnetic resonance covers a wide range of techniques, spectroscopy, relaxation and imaging. In turn, these areas are evolving and leading to various new applications of NMR and ESR in food science and nutrition. This book is part of the continuing series of proceedings of the biennial conferences on applications of magnetic resonance to food science. As always, the aim of the book is to bring the reader up-to-date with the state-of-the-art of the subject. The speakers came from Europe, North and South America, Asia and Australasia giving a global perspective to the event. The range of the conference was broad covering sensory science, authenticity, functionality, solid state methods and new methods. Magnetic Resonance in Food Science is a global survey written by leading authorities. It provides readers with an awareness of current activity in the field and potential applications.

New Directions for Biosciences Research in Agriculture

High-Reward Opportunities

Author: Committee on Biosciences,Research in Agriculture,Board on Agriculture,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309564336

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 115

View: 3313

Authored by an integrated committee of plant and animal scientists, this review of newer molecular genetic techniques and traditional research methods is presented as a compilation of high-reward opportunities for agricultural research. Directed to the Agricultural Research Service and the agricultural research community at large, the volume discusses biosciences research in genetic engineering, animal science, plant science, and plant diseases and insect pests. An optimal climate for productive research is discussed.

Issues in Applied Agriculture: 2011 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464965188

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1061

View: 2677

Issues in Applied Agriculture / 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Applied Agriculture. The editors have built Issues in Applied Agriculture: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Applied Agriculture in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Applied Agriculture: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy

Applications in Food Sciences

Author: Atta-ur-Rahman,M. Iqbal Chaudhary

Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers

ISBN: 1681081431

Category: Science

Page: 290

View: 8921

Applications of NMR Spectroscopy is a book series devoted to publishing the latest advances in the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in various fields of organic chemistry, biochemistry, health and agriculture. The fourth volume of the series features several reviews focusing on NMR spectroscopic techniques in food sciences. Readers will find references on methods used to test food quality, food color analysis, the role of Tannins in wine taste as well as NMR studies on lipid oxidation and large protein complexes.

Inositol Phosphates

Linking Agriculture and the Environment

Author: Benjamin L. Turner,Alan E. Richardson,Edward J. Mullaney

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1845931521

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 4666

This book brings together critical reviews on inositol phosphates in agriculture, ecology, and the environment. It includes 16 chapters covering a diverse range of topics, including the synthesis and hydrolysis of inositol phosphates, their role in animal nutrition, and their fate in soils and aquatic ecosystems.

Magnetic Resonance in Food Science

Food for Thought

Author: John van Duynhoven,H. Van As,P. S. Belton,G a Webb

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1849736340

Category: Science

Page: 235

View: 4894

Based on the proceedings of the 11th International Conference on the Applications of Magnetic Resonance in Food Science presenting the latest innovations in magnetic resonance and in particular new applications to understanding the functionality of foods, their processing and stability and their impact on health, perception and behaviour. ?