Mixture Formation in Internal Combustion Engines

Author: Carsten Baumgarten

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540308369

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 294

View: 6256

A systematic control of mixture formation with modern high-pressure injection systems enables us to achieve considerable improvements of the combustion pr- ess in terms of reduced fuel consumption and engine-out raw emissions. However, because of the growing number of free parameters due to more flexible injection systems, variable valve trains, the application of different combustion concepts within different regions of the engine map, etc., the prediction of spray and m- ture formation becomes increasingly complex. For this reason, the optimization of the in-cylinder processes using 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) becomes increasingly important. In these CFD codes, the detailed modeling of spray and mixture formation is a prerequisite for the correct calculation of the subsequent processes like ignition, combustion and formation of emissions. Although such simulation tools can be viewed as standard tools today, the predictive quality of the sub-models is c- stantly enhanced by a more accurate and detailed modeling of the relevant pr- esses, and by the inclusion of new important mechanisms and effects that come along with the development of new injection systems and have not been cons- ered so far. In this book the most widely used mathematical models for the simulation of spray and mixture formation in 3D CFD calculations are described and discussed. In order to give the reader an introduction into the complex processes, the book starts with a description of the fundamental mechanisms and categories of fuel - jection, spray break-up, and mixture formation in internal combustion engines.

Modeling Engine Spray and Combustion Processes

Author: Gunnar Stiesch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540006824

Category: Computers

Page: 282

View: 5913

The utilization of mathematical models to numerically describe the performance of internal combustion engines is of great significance in the development of new and improved engines. Today, such simulation models can already be viewed as standard tools, and their importance is likely to increase further as available com puter power is expected to increase and the predictive quality of the models is constantly enhanced. This book describes and discusses the most widely used mathematical models for in-cylinder spray and combustion processes, which are the most important subprocesses affecting engine fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The relevant thermodynamic, fluid dynamic and chemical principles are summarized, and then the application of these principles to the in-cylinder processes is ex plained. Different modeling approaches for the each subprocesses are compared and discussed with respect to the governing model assumptions and simplifica tions. Conclusions are drawn as to which model approach is appropriate for a specific type of problem in the development process of an engine. Hence, this book may serve both as a graduate level textbook for combustion engineering stu dents and as a reference for professionals employed in the field of combustion en gine modeling. The research necessary for this book was carried out during my employment as a postdoctoral scientist at the Institute of Technical Combustion (ITV) at the Uni versity of Hannover, Germany and at the Engine Research Center (ERC) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.

Urea-SCR Technology for deNOx After Treatment of Diesel Exhausts

Author: Isabella Nova,Enrico Tronconi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1489980717

Category: Science

Page: 716

View: 7554

Urea-SCR Technology for deNOx After Treatment of Diesel Exhausts presents a complete overview of the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by ammonia/urea. The book starts with an illustration of the technology in the framework of the current context (legislation, market, system configurations), covers the fundamental aspects of the SCR process (catalysts, chemistry, mechanism, kinetics) and analyzes its application to useful topics such as modeling of full scale monolith catalysts, control aspects, ammonia injections systems and integration with other devices for combined removal of pollutants.

Internal combustion engines

Author: Paswan N.,Kadirov S.

Publisher: Мультимедийное издательство Стрельбицкого

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 6767

The textbook “Internal Combustion Engines” by Professor Sarvar Kadirov and Dr. Nawal K. Paswan has been recommended by the Ministry of Higher Education of the Republic Of Uzbekistan, as the main textbook for students studying on the specialties: “Technical exploitation of automobiles” and “Landline transport machines”. The first version of the textbook in Russian was published under the title “Automobile and Tractor Engines” in 1990 by the publishing house “Uchitel” (Tashkent). This textbook has been bought by 15 countries of East for the Technical University Students (Iran, Turkey, Egypt, China, India and etc.).

Handbook of Air Pollution from Internal Combustion Engines

Pollutant Formation and Control

Author: Eran Sher

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080532752

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 663

View: 7943

This handbook is an important and valuable source for engineers and researchers in the area of internal combustion engines pollution control. It provides an excellent updated review of available knowledge in this field and furnishes essential and useful information on air pollution constituents, mechanisms of formation, control technologies, effects of engine design, effects of operation conditions, and effects of fuel formulation and additives. The text is rich in explanatory diagrams, figures and tables, and includes a considerable number of references. An important resource for engineers and researchers in the area of internal combustion engines and pollution control Presents and excellent updated review of the available knowledge in this area Written by 23 experts Provides over 700 references and more than 500 explanatory diagrams, figures and tables

Simulating Combustion

Simulation of combustion and pollutant formation for engine-development

Author: Günter Merker,Christian Schwarz,Gunnar Stiesch,Frank Otto

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540306269

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 402

View: 2535

The numerical simulation of combustion processes in internal combustion engines, including also the formation of pollutants, has become increasingly important in the recent years, and today the simulation of those processes has already become an indispensable tool when - veloping new combustion concepts. While pure thermodynamic models are well-established tools that are in use for the simulation of the transient behavior of complex systems for a long time, the phenomenological models have become more important in the recent years and have also been implemented in these simulation programs. In contrast to this, the thr- dimensional simulation of in-cylinder combustion, i. e. the detailed, integrated and continuous simulation of the process chain injection, mixture formation, ignition, heat release due to combustion and formation of pollutants, has been significantly improved, but there is still a number of challenging problems to solve, regarding for example the exact description of s- processes like the structure of turbulence during combustion as well as the appropriate choice of the numerical grid. While chapter 2 includes a short introduction of functionality and operating modes of internal combustion engines, the basics of kinetic reactions are presented in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the physical and chemical processes taking place in the combustion chamber are described. Ch- ter 5 is about phenomenological multi-zone models, and in chapter 6 the formation of poll- ants is described.

Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals 2E

Author: John Heywood

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN: 1260116115

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1056

View: 9788

The long-awaited revision of the most respected resource on Internal Combustion Engines --covering the basics through advanced operation of spark-ignition and diesel engines. Written by one of the most recognized and highly regarded names in internal combustion engines this trusted educational resource and professional reference covers the key physical and chemical processes that govern internal combustion engine operation and design. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, Second Edition, has been thoroughly revised to cover recent advances, including performance enhancement, efficiency improvements, and emission reduction technologies. Highly illustrated and cross referenced, the book includes discussions of these engines’ environmental impacts and requirements. You will get complete explanations of spark-ignition and compression-ignition (diesel) engine operating characteristics as well as of engine flow and combustion phenomena and fuel requirements. Coverage includes:•Engine types and their operation•Engine design and operating parameters•Thermochemistry of fuel-air mixtures•Properties of working fluids•Ideal models of engine cycles•Gas exchange processes•Mixture preparation in spark-ignition engines•Charge motion within the cylinder•Combustion in spark-ignition engines•Combustion in compression-ignition engines•Pollutant formation and control•Engine heat transfer•Engine friction and lubrication•Modeling real engine flow and combustion processes•Engine operating characteristics

Internal Combustion Engine Handbook

Basics, Components, Systems, and Perspectives

Author: Richard Van Basshuysen,Fred Schäfer

Publisher: SAE

ISBN: 9780768011395

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 811

View: 3319

Illustrating the latest level of knowledge in engine development, paying particular attention to the presentation of theory and practice, this handbook covers all of this component's complexities, including an insightful look into the internal combustion engine's future viability.

Modelling Diesel Combustion

Author: P. A. Lakshminarayanan,Yoghesh V. Aghav

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 904813885X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 305

View: 4319

Phenomenology of Diesel Combustion and Modeling Diesel is the most efficient combustion engine today and it plays an important role in transport of goods and passengers on land and on high seas. The emissions must be controlled as stipulated by the society without sacrificing the legendary fuel economy of the diesel engines. These important drivers caused innovations in diesel engineering like re-entrant combustion chambers in the piston, lower swirl support and high pressure injection, in turn reducing the ignition delay and hence the nitric oxides. The limits on emissions are being continually reduced. The- fore, the required accuracy of the models to predict the emissions and efficiency of the engines is high. The phenomenological combustion models based on physical and chemical description of the processes in the engine are practical to describe diesel engine combustion and to carry out parametric studies. This is because the injection process, which can be relatively well predicted, has the dominant effect on mixture formation and subsequent course of combustion. The need for improving these models by incorporating new developments in engine designs is explained in Chapter 2. With “model based control programs” used in the Electronic Control Units of the engines, phenomenological models are assuming more importance now because the detailed CFD based models are too slow to be handled by the Electronic Control Units. Experimental work is necessary to develop the basic understanding of the pr- esses.

Combustion of Liquid Fuel Sprays

Author: Alan Williams

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN: 1483101584

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 300

View: 7174

Combustion of Liquid Fuel Sprays outlines the fundamentals of the combustion of sprays in a unified way which may be applied to any technological application. The book begins with a discussion of the general nature of spray combustion, the sources of liquid fuels used in spray combustion, biomass sources of liquid fuels, and the nature and properties of fuel oils. Subsequent chapters focus on the properties of sprays, the atomization of liquid fuels, and the theoretical modeling of the behavior of a spray flame in a combustion chamber. The nature and control of pollutants from spray combustion, the formation of deposits in oil-fired systems, and the combustion of sprays in furnaces and engines are elucidated as well. The text is intended for students undertaking courses or research in fuel, combustion, and energy studies.

Soot Formation in Combustion

Mechanisms and Models

Author: Henning Bockhorn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642851673

Category: Science

Page: 596

View: 5953

Soot Formation in Combustion represents an up-to-date overview. The contributions trace back to the 1991 Heidelberg symposium entitled "Mechanism and Models of Soot Formation" and have all been reedited by Prof. Bockhorn in close contact with the original authors. The book gives an easy introduction to the field for newcomers, and provides detailed treatments for the specialists. The following list of contents illustrates the topics under review:

Flow and Combustion in Advanced Gas Turbine Combustors

Author: Johannes Janicka,AMSINI SADIKI,Michael Schäfer,Christof Heeger

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400753209

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 492

View: 5320

With regard to both the environmental sustainability and operating efficiency demands, modern combustion research has to face two main objectives, the optimization of combustion efficiency and the reduction of pollutants. This book reports on the combustion research activities carried out within the Collaborative Research Center (SFB) 568 “Flow and Combustion in Future Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers” funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). This aimed at designing a completely integrated modeling and numerical simulation of the occurring very complex, coupled and interacting physico-chemical processes, such as turbulent heat and mass transport, single or multi-phase flows phenomena, chemical reactions/combustion and radiation, able to support the development of advanced gas turbine chamber concepts

Applied Optical Measurements

Author: Markus Lehner,Dieter Mewes

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642584969

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 463

View: 8740

This book provides a compilation of important optical techniques applied to experiments in heat and mass transfer, multiphase flow and combustion. The emphasis of this book is on the application of these techniques to various engineering problems. The contributions are aiming to provide practicing engineers, both in industry and research, with the recent state of science in the application of advanced optical measurements. The book is written by selected specialists representing leading experts in this field who present new information for the possibilities of these techniques and give stimulation of new ideas for their application.

Introduction to Modeling and Control of Internal Combustion Engine Systems

Author: L. Guzzella,Christopher H. Onder

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540222743

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 300

View: 8355

Internal combustion engines still have a potential for substantial improvements, particularly with regard to fuel efficiency and environmental compatibility. These goals can be achieved with help of control systems. Modeling and Control of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) addresses these issues by offering an introduction to cost-effective model-based control system design for ICE. The primary emphasis is put on the ICE and its auxiliary devices. Mathematical models for these processes are developed in the text and selected feedforward and feedback control problems are discussed. The appendix contains a summary of the most important controller analysis and design methods, and a case study that analyzes a simplified idle-speed control problem. The book is written for students interested in the design of classical and novel ICE control systems.

Droplets and Sprays

Author: Sergei Sazhin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1447163869

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 345

View: 334

Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Including case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications, it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.