Physical Modelling in Geotechnics, Volume 1

Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics (ICPMG 2018), July 17-20, 2018, London, United Kingdom

Author: Andrew McNamara,Sam Divall,Richard Goodey,Neil Taylor,Sarah Stallebrass,Jignasha Panchal

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0429797680

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 776

View: 2261

Physical Modelling in Geotechnics collects more than 1500 pages of peer-reviewed papers written by researchers from over 30 countries, and presented at the 9th International Conference on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics 2018 (City, University of London, UK 17-20 July 2018). The ICPMG series has grown such that two volumes of proceedings were required to publish all contributions. The books represent a substantial body of work in four years. Physical Modelling in Geotechnics contains 230 papers, including eight keynote and themed lectures representing the state-of-the-art in physical modelling research in aspects as diverse as fundamental modelling including sensors, imaging, modelling techniques and scaling, onshore and offshore foundations, dams and embankments, retaining walls and deep excavations, ground improvement and environmental engineering, tunnels and geohazards including significant contributions in the area of seismic engineering. ISSMGE TC104 have identified areas for special attention including education in physical modelling and the promotion of physical modelling to industry. With this in mind there is a special themed paper on education, focusing on both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching as well as practicing geotechnical engineers. Physical modelling has entered a new era with the advent of exciting work on real time interfaces between physical and numerical modelling and the growth of facilities and expertise that enable development of so called ‘megafuges’ of 1000gtonne capacity or more; capable of modelling the largest and most complex of geotechnical challenges. Physical Modelling in Geotechnics will be of interest to professionals, engineers and academics interested or involved in geotechnics, geotechnical engineering and related areas. The 9th International Conference on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics was organised by the Multi Scale Geotechnical Engineering Research Centre at City, University of London under the auspices of Technical Committee 104 of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE). City, University of London, are pleased to host the prestigious international conference for the first time having initiated and hosted the first regional conference, Eurofuge, ten years ago in 2008. Quadrennial regional conferences in both Europe and Asia are now well established events giving doctoral researchers, in particular, the opportunity to attend an international conference in this rapidly evolving specialist area. This is volume 1 of a 2-volume set.

Scour and Erosion

Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Scour and Erosion, Perth, Australia, 2-4 December 2014

Author: Liang Cheng,Scott Draper,Hongwei An

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1138027324

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 818

View: 7594

The 7th International Conference on Scour and Erosion (ICSE 2014) was organised by the School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering and the Centre for Offshore Foundation Systems at the University of Western Australia under the guidance of the Technical Committee 213 for Scour and Erosion of the International Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE). This biennial conference draws together leading academics, scientists and engineers engaged in scour and erosion research to present and exchange their latest scientific findings. These proceedings, together with the six previous proceedings dating from 2002, present a rare collection of technical and scientific developments in scour and erosion research which have been established over the last 12 years. This book includes state-of-the-art papers in scour and erosion from ICSE 2014, covering the 6 themes of: internal erosion, sediment transport, advanced numerical modelling of scour and erosion, terrestrial scour and erosion, river/bridge scour and erosion, and marine scour and erosion. The proceedings include 5 keynote lectures from world leading researches cutting across the themes of scour and erosion, together with 87 peer-reviewed papers from 19 countries. This book is ideal for researchers and industry working at the forefront of scour and erosion, both with application to rivers and marine operations.

Hydrodynamics Around Cylindrical Structures

Author: B Mutlu Sumer,Jørgen Fredsøe

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 981449805X


Page: 548

View: 8807

This book discusses the subject of wave/current flow around a cylinder, the forces induced on the cylinder by the flow, and the vibration pattern of slender structures in a marine environment. The primary aim of the book is to describe the flow pattern and the resulting load which develops when waves or current meet a cylinder. Attention is paid to the special case of a circular cylinder. The development in the forces is related to the various flow patterns and is discussed in detail. Regular as well as irregular waves are considered, and special cases like wall proximities (pipelines) are also investigated. The book is intended for MSc students with some experience in basic fluid mechanics and for PhD students. Contents:Flow Around a Cylinder in Steady CurrentForces on a Cylinder in Steady CurrentFlow Around a Cylinder in Oscillatory FlowsForces on a Cylinder in Regular WavesMathematical and Numerical Treatment of Flow Around a CylinderDiffraction Effect. Forces on Large BodiesForces on a Cylinder in Irregular WavesFlow-Induced Vibrations of a Free Cylinder in Steady CurrentsFlow-Induced Vibrations of a Free Cylinder in WavesVibrations of Marine PipelinesMathematical Modelling of Flow-Induced Vibrations. Readership: Civil and ocean engineers. keywords:Pipelines;Offshore Structures;Hydroelastic Vibrations;Flow-induced Vibrations;Forces on Offshore Structures;Flow Around Offshore Structures;Wave Loading;Vibrations;Waves;Steady Currents;Pipeline Stability;Diffraction;Irregular Waves;Oscillatory Flow;Mathematical Modelling;Coastal Structures;Marine Structure;Flow Loading;Vibration of Marine Pipelines “The figures are very good. Many of them are photographs and sketches of aspects of flow that are sometimes difficult to explain in words. The references are extensive, quoting many recent papers. The treatment of the subjects is up-to-date and particularly the chapters on numerical simulation and vibrations contain excellent synopses of new research, much of it by the authors themselves. The style is lucid and the text is well-organized. This book can be highly recommended to anyone who deals with cylindrical structures.” Professor J W Kamphuis Coastal Engineering

Liquefaction Around Marine Structures

(With CD-ROM)

Author: B Mutlu Sumer

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814603732

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 472

View: 861

This book, whose primary aim is to describe liquefaction processes and their implications for marine structures such as pipelines, sea outfalls, quay walls and caisson breakwaters, discusses the subject of soil liqeufaction in the marine environment. In addition, the physics of liquefaction (including examples illustrating the catastrophic consequences of soil liquefaction with regard to marine structures) are described, and the mathematical modelling of liqeufaction is treated in detail. Also, carefully selected numerical examples support the discussion of assessing liquefaction potential, and benchmark cases such as buried gas pipelines and their floatation, caisson breakwaters, cover stones and their interaction with liquefied soil along with counter measures are investigated. Contents:Introduction and Physics of LiquefactionBiot Equations and Their SolutionsResidual LiquefactionMomentary LiquefactionFloatation of Buried PipelinesSinking of Pipelines and Marine ObjectsLiquefaction Under Standing WavesLiquefaction at Gravity StructuresStability of Rock Berms in Liquefied SoilImpact of Seismic-Induced LiquefactionCounter Measures Readership: Professionals and researchers in the area of coastal, ocean and marine civil engineering; graduate and post graduate students. Key Features:Physics of liquefactionMathematical modellingAssessment of liquefaction potential, supported by numerical examplesBenchmark cases such as buried gas pipelines, caisson structures, etc.Keywords:Soil Liquefaction;Marine Environment;Mathematical Modelling;Pipelines;Caisson BreakwatersReviews: “This is a well-written and comprehensive book describing the physics and processes of seabed liquefaction around marine structures. Overall, this book is highly recommended for all professionals and researchers interested in seabed soil liquefaction and the stability of marine structures, and is indeed suitable as a textbook for graduate/postgraduate students in this field.” J. Ocean Eng. Mar. Energy

The Theory and Practice of Hydrodynamics and Vibration

Author: Subrata K Chakrabarti

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9813102462


Page: 484

View: 6770

This book covers the basics of the hydrodynamics and vibration of structures subjected to environmental loads. It describes the interaction of hydrodynamics with the associated vibration of structures, giving simple explanations. Emphasis is placed on the applications of the theory to practical problems. Several case studies are provided to show how the theory outlined in the book is applied in the design of structures. Background material needed for understanding fluid-induced vibrations of structures is given to make the book reasonably self-sufficient. Examples are taken mainly from the novel structures that are of interest today, including ocean and offshore structures and components. Besides being a text for undergraduates, this book can serve as a handy reference for design engineers and consultants involved in the design of structures subjected to dynamics and vibration.

Water Wave Mechanics for Engineers and Scientists

Author: Robert G Dean,Robert A Dalrymple

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9814365696

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 368

View: 2206

This book is intended as an introduction to classical water wave theory for the college senior or first year graduate student. The material is self-contained; almost all mathematical and engineering concepts are presented or derived in the text, thus making the book accessible to practicing engineers as well. The book commences with a review of fluid mechanics and basic vector concepts. The formulation and solution of the governing boundary value problem for small amplitude waves are developed and the kinematic and pressure fields for short and long waves are explored. The transformation of waves due to variations in depth and their interactions with structures are derived. Wavemaker theories and the statistics of ocean waves are reviewed. The application of the water particle motions and pressure fields are applied to the calculation of wave forces on small and large objects. Extension of the linear theory results to several nonlinear wave properties is presented. Each chapter concludes with a set of homework problems exercising and sometimes extending the material presented in the chapter. An appendix provides a description of nine experiments which can be performed, with little additional equipment, in most wave tank facilities.

Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering

Author: Young C. Kim

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812819304

Category: Science

Page: 1163

View: 6788

This handbook contains a comprehensive compilation of topics that are at the forefront of many of the technical advances in ocean waves, coastal, and ocean engineering. More than 70 internationally recognized authorities in the field of coastal and ocean engineering have contributed articles on their areas of expertise to this handbook. These international luminaries are from highly respected universities and renowned research and consulting organizations from all over the world. This handbook provides a comprehensive overview of shallow-water waves, water level fluctuations, coastal and offshore structures, port and harbors, coastal sediment processes, environmental problems, coastal hazards, physical modeling, and other issues in coastal and ocean engineering. It is an essential reference for professionals and researchers in the areas of coastal engineering, ocean engineering, oceanography, and meteorology, as well as an invaluable text for graduate students in these fields. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Wave Setup (2,255 KB). Chapter 2: Wavemaker Theories (607 KB). Contents: Shallow-Water Waves: Wave Setup (Robert G Dean and Todd L Walton ); Wavemaker Theories ( Robert T Hudspeth and Ronald B Guenther ); Analyses by the Melnikov Method of Damped Parametrically Excited Cross Waves (Ronald B Guenther and Robert T Hudspeth); Random Wave Breaking and Nonlinearity Evolution Across the Surf Zone (Yoshimi Goda); Aeration and Bubbles in the Surf Zone (Nobuhito Mori, Shohachi Kakuno and Daniel T Cox); Freak Wave (Nobuhito Mori); Short-Term Wave Statistics (Akira Kimura); Water-Level Fluctuations: Generation and Prediction of Seiches in Rotterdam Harbor Basins (Martijn P C de Jong and Jurjen A Battjes); Seiches and Harbor Oscillations (Alexander B Rabinovich); Finite Difference Model for Practical Simulation of Distant Tsunamis (Sung Bum Yoon); Coastal Structures: Tsunami-Induced Forces on Structures ( Ioan Nistor, Dan Palermo, Younes Nouri, Tad S Murty and Murat Saatcioglu); Nonconventional Wave Damping Structures (Hocine Oumeraci); Wave Interaction with Breakwaters Including Perforated Walls (Kyung-Duck Suh); Prediction of Overtopping (Jentsje van der Meer, Tim Pullen, William Allsop, Tom Bruce, Holger Schttrumpf and Andreas Kortenhaus); Wave Run-Up and Wave Overtopping at Armored Rubble Slopes and Mounds (Holger Schttrumpf, Jentsje van der Meer, Andreas Kortenhaus, Tom Bruce and Leopoldo Franco ); Wave Overtopping at Vertical and Steep Structures (Tom Bruce, Jentsje van der Meer, Tim Pullen and W Allsop); Surf Parameters for the Design of Coastal Structures (Dong Hoon Yoo); Development of Caisson Breakwater Design Based on Failure Experiences (Shigeo Takahashi); Design of Alternative Revetments ( Krystian W Pilarczyk ); Remarks on Coastal Stabilization and Alternative Solutions (Krystian Pilarczyk); Geotextile Sand Containers for Shore Protection (Hocine Oumeraci and Juan Recio); Low Crested Breakwaters (Alberto Lamberti and Barbara Zanuttigh ); Hydrodynamic Behavior of Net Cages in the Open Sea ( Yu-Cheng Li ); Offshore Structures: State of Offshore Structure Development and Design Challenges (Subrata Chakrabarti); Ports and Harbors: Computer Modeling for Harbor Planning and Design (Jiin-Jen Lee and Xiuying Xing); Prediction of Squat for Underkeel Clearance ( Michael J Briggs, Marc Vantorre, Klemens Uliczka and Pierre Debaillon); Coastal Sediment Processes: Wave-Induced Resuspension of Fine Sediment (Mamta Jain and Ashish J Mehta); Suspended Sand and Bedload Transport on Beaches (Nobuhisa Kobayashi, Andres Payo and Bradley D Johnson); Headland-Bay Beaches for Recreation and Shore Protection (John Rong-Chung Hsu, Melissa Meng-Jiuan Yu, Fang-Chun Lee and Richard Silvester); Beach Nourishment (Robert G Dean and Julie D Rosati); Engineering of Tidal Inlets and Morphologic Consequences (Nicholas C Kraus); Environmental Problems: Water and Nutrients Flow in the Enclosed Bays (Yukio Koibuchi & Masahiko Isobe ); Sustainable Coastal Development: Socioeconomic and Environmental Risk in Coastal and Ocean Engineering ( Miguel A Losada Rodr guez, Asuncion Baquerizo, Miquel Ortega-Sinchez, Juan M Santiago and Elena Sinchez-Badorrey); Utilization of the Coastal Area ( Hwung-Hweng Hwung ); Coastal Hazards: Ocean Wave Climates: Trends and Variations Due to Earth''s Changing Climate (Paul D Komar, Jonathan C Allan and Peter Ruggiero); Sea Level Rise: Major Implications to Coastal Engineering and Coastal Management (Lesley Ewing); Sea Level Rise and Coastal Erosion (Marcel J F Stive, Roshanka Ranasinghe and Peter J Cowell); Coastal Flooding: Analysis and Assessment of Risk (Panayotis Prinos and Panagiota Galiatsatou); Physical Modeling: Physical Modeling of Tsunami Waves (Michael J Briggs, Harry Yeh and Daniel T Cox); Laboratory Simulation of Waves (Etienne P D Mansard and Michael D Miles); Coastal Engineering Practice and Education: Perspective on Coastal Engineering Practice and Education ( J William Kamphuis ). Readership: Graduate students, researchers and professionals in coastal and ocean engineering, oceanography and meteorology."

Civil engineering in the oceans VI

proceedings of the international conference, October 20-22, 2004, Baltimore, Maryland

Author: Michael J. Briggs,Michael E. McCormick

Publisher: Amer Society of Civil Engineers

ISBN: 9780784407752

Category: Nature

Page: 546

View: 2593

Civil Engineering in the Oceans VI is a collection of 42 technical papers presented at the specialty conference held in Baltimore, Maryland on October 20-22, 2004. With the theme Meeting the New Challenges of the 21st Century, this proceedings is designed to be a comprehensive handbook of state-of-the-art coastal and offshore engineering in the fields of waves and wave forces, harbor and marine transportation systems, and education. Initiated in 1967, this international conference is the sixth in a series sponsored by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) and its Coasts, Oceans, Ports, and Rivers Institute (COPRI). This proceedings will benefit engineers, scientists, managers, educators, and all others who share an interest in civil engineering in the oceans research. Topics discussed include: Waves and Wave Forces Hydrodynamics Ocean Engineering Coastal Engineering Offshore Engineering Coastal Structures Marine Geotechnical Engineering Risk and Reliability Harbors and Marine Transportation Systems Econimic and Education Issues

An Introduction to Hydraulics of Fine Sediment Transport

Author: Ashish J Mehta

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9814449504

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1060

View: 1662

This book presents observations on the phenomena of fine sediment transport and their explanations under process-related divisions such as flocculation, erosion, and deposition. The text is a compilation of the author's lecture notes from nearly four decades of teaching and guiding graduate students in civil and coastal engineering. Illustrations of fine sediment transport processes and their complexities given in the book are taken from field and laboratory-based observations by the author and his students, as well as numerous investigators. The wide-ranging composition of particles (of inorganic and organic matter), their universal presence and their complex interactions with hydraulic forces make this branch of science a difficult one to deal with in a single treatise. It is therefore essential to study fine sediment transport as an independent subject rather than cover it in no more than a single chapter as many texts on coarse sediment transport have done. Even though the entire coverage is “introductory”, the twelve chapters collectively include more material than what can be reasonably dealt with in a one semester, three-credit course. The book includes an extensive description of the components of fine-grained — especially cohesive — sediment transport. It covers the development of the subject in scientific and engineering applications mainly from the 1950s to its present state. Solved examples and chapter-end exercises are also included. This text is aimed at senior civil engineering undergraduates and graduate students who, in the normal course of their study, seldom come across the subject of fine sediment transport in their curricula. Interested students should have a basic understanding of the mechanics of fluid flow and open channel hydraulics.

Arctic Offshore Engineering

Author: Andrew Palmer

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814368784

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 372

View: 2448

There is an increasing need to construct engineering structures in the Arctic seas. The requirement is principally generated by the oil and gas industry, because of the substantial reserves that are known to exist offshore in the Beaufort Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Barents Sea, the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Sakhalin, the Canadian Arctic, and almost certainly elsewhere. Structures have to withstand the severe environmental forces generated by sea ice, a subject that is developing rapidly but is still far from completely understood. Underwater pipelines have to be safe against ice gouging and strudel scour, but also have to be constructed safely and economically. The social and human environment has to be understood and respected.This important book intentionally takes a broad view, and vividly accounts for the many and often subtle interactions between the different factors. It is illustrated by case studies of actual projects.

Hydrodynamics Around Cylindrical Structures

Author: B. Mutlu Sumer,J?rgen Freds?e

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812700390

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 530

View: 5950

This book discusses the subject of wave/current flow around a cylinder, the forces induced on the cylinder by the flow, and the vibration pattern of slender structures in a marine environment.The primary aim of the book is to describe the flow pattern and the resulting load which develops when waves or current meet a cylinder. Special attention is paid to circular cylinder. The development in the forces is related to the various flow patterns and is discussed in detail. Regular as well as irregular waves are considered, and special cases like wall proximities (pipelines) are also investigated.

Beach Nourishment

Theory and Practice

Author: Robert G Dean

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9813103302

Category: Nature

Page: 420

View: 4263

This book is written for engineers, students of coastal processes and laypersons interested in beach nourishment, which consists of the placement of large quantities of good quality sediment on the beach to advance the shoreline seaward. The improvement of project performance through proper design and the predictability of performance are emphasized. The overall longevity of a project is addressed as are local erosional areas. The roles which wave height, project length and sediment quality play in project performance are addressed quantitatively. The results are illustrated through reference to a number of monitored nourishment projects. Biological and economic aspects of beach nourishment are addressed.

Coastal Processes

Concepts in Coastal Engineering and Their Applications to Multifarious Environments

Author: Tomoya Shibayama

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812813950

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 215

View: 6895

Features concepts in coastal engineering and their application to coastal processes and disaster prevention works. This title describes basic concepts of coastal engineering, dealing mainly with wave-induced physical problems. It consists of the author's results of 30 years' scientific research on the progress of coastal sediment transport study.

Random Seas and Design of Maritime Structures

Third Edition

Author: Yoshimi Goda

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9813101024


Page: 732

View: 4758

Random waves are the most important constituent of the sea environment, as they make the design of maritime structures quite different from that of structures on land. In this book, the concept of random waves for the design of breakwaters, seawalls, and harbor structures is fully explored for easy comprehension by practicing engineers. Theoretical aspects are also discussed in detail for further studies by graduate students and researchers.

Coastal and Estuarine Processes

Author: Peter Nielsen

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 981310113X

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 4623

This book covers water waves, surf zone hydrodynamics, tides in oceans and estuaries, storm surges, estuarine mixing, basic sediment transport, coastal morphodynamics and coastal groundwater dynamics. It is an introductory treatment, suitable for a first course in coastal and estuarine processes for earth scientists or engineers. Yet, there are substantial amounts of new material that are included, such as the explicit, analytical treatment of transient, forced long waves. Inclusion of this material will in turn strongly enhance the introductory treatment of tsunami, storm surges and surf beat. The treatment of sine wave theory emphasizes expressions which are explicit in the water depth h (using koh instead of kh) so that they can easily be differentiated or integrated with respect to h. This is a major pedagogical advantage because of the enhanced transparency. The treatment of turbulent mixing includes finite mixing length effects which provide an explanation for differential diffusion of different sediment sizes in suspension. The effects of acceleration skewness and boundary layer streaming are also included in the basic sediment transport models. The inclusion of beach groundwater dynamics — including the mechanisms by which waves as well as tides drive groundwater motion — provides a link between the previously unconnected fields of coastal hydraulics and regional groundwater modeling. Serving as a good reference book, it is fully indexed and comprehensively cross referenced. Abundant references to more detailed texts are also provided.

The Dynamics of Marine Craft

Maneuvering and Seakeeping

Author: Edward M Lewandowski

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814490067

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 424

View: 4816

This book presents a theoretical treatment, as well as a summary of practical methods of computation, of the forces and moments that act on marine craft. Its aim is to provide the tools necessary for the prediction or simulation of craft motions in calm water and in waves. In addition to developing the required equations, the author gives relations that permit at least approximate evaluation of the coefficients so that useful results can be obtained. The approach begins with the equations of motion for rigid bodies, relative to fixed- and moving-coordinate systems; then, the hydrodynamic forces are examined, starting with hydrostatics and progressing to the forces on a moving vehicle in calm water and (after a review of water-wave theory) in waves. Several detailed examples are presented, including calculations of hydrostatics, horizontal- and vertical-plane directional stability, and wave-induced motions. Also included are unique discussions on various effects, such as fin–hull interactions, numerical stability of integrators, heavy torpedoes, and the dynamics of high-speed craft. The book is intended to be an introductory-level graduate text and a reference for the practicing professional. Contents:Dynamics of Rigid BodiesCalm Water Behavior of Marine Vehicles at Zero Speed: HydrostaticsCalm Water Behavior of Marine Vehicles with Forward Speed: ManeuveringWater WavesWave-Induced Forces on Marine CraftDynamics of High-Speed Craft Readership: Advanced undergraduates, graduate students and practicing professionals in ocean engineering. Keywords:

Physical Models and Laboratory Techniques in Coastal Engineering

Author: Steven A. Hughes

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810215415

Category: Science

Page: 568

View: 6038

Laboratory physical models are a valuable tool for coastal engineers. Physical models help us to understand the complex hydrodynamic processes occurring in the nearshore zone and they provide reliable and economic engineering design solutions.This book is about the art and science of physical modeling as applied in coastal engineering. The aim of the book is to consolidate and synthesize into a single text much of the knowledge about physical modeling that has been developed worldwide.This book was written to serve as a graduate-level text for a course in physical modeling or as a reference text for engineers and researchers engaged in physical modeling and laboratory experimentation. The first three chapters serve as an introduction to similitude and physical models, covering topics such as advantages and disadvantages of physical models, systems of units, dimensional analysis, types of similitude and various hydraulic similitude criteria applicable to coastal engineering models.Practical application of similitude principles to coastal engineering studies is covered in Chapter 4 (Hydrodynamic Models), Chapter 5 (Coastal Structure Models) and Chapter 6 (Sediment Transport Models). These chapters develop the appropriate similitude criteria, discuss inherent laboratory and scale effects and overview the technical literature pertaining to these types of models. The final two chapters focus on the related subjects of laboratory wave generation (Chapter 7) and measurement and analysis techniques (Chapter 8).