Markov Chains and Mixing Times

Author: David Asher Levin,Yuval Peres,Elizabeth Lee Wilmer

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821886274

Category: Mathematics

Page: 371

View: 3990

This book is an introduction to the modern approach to the theory of Markov chains. The main goal of this approach is to determine the rate of convergence of a Markov chain to the stationary distribution as a function of the size and geometry of the state space. The authors develop the key tools for estimating convergence times, including coupling, strong stationary times, and spectral methods. Whenever possible, probabilistic methods are emphasized. The book includes many examples and provides brief introductions to some central models of statistical mechanics. Also provided are accounts of random walks on networks, including hitting and cover times, and analyses of several methods of shuffling cards. As a prerequisite, the authors assume a modest understanding of probability theory and linear algebra at an undergraduate level. Markov Chains and Mixing Times is meant to bring the excitement of this active area of research to a wide audience.

Markov Chains and Mixing Times: Second Edition

Author: David A. Levin,Yuval Peres

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470429624

Category: Distribution (Probability theory)

Page: 447

View: 4838

This book is an introduction to the modern theory of Markov chains, whose goal is to determine the rate of convergence to the stationary distribution, as a function of state space size and geometry. This topic has important connections to combinatorics, statistical physics, and theoretical computer science. Many of the techniques presented originate in these disciplines. The central tools for estimating convergence times, including coupling, strong stationary times, and spectral methods, are developed. The authors discuss many examples, including card shuffling and the Ising model, from statistical mechanics, and present the connection of random walks to electrical networks and apply it to estimate hitting and cover times. The first edition has been used in courses in mathematics and computer science departments of numerous universities. The second edition features three new chapters (on monotone chains, the exclusion process, and stationary times) and also includes smaller additions and corrections throughout. Updated notes at the end of each chapter inform the reader of recent research developments.

Markov Chains

Gibbs Fields, Monte Carlo Simulation, and Queues

Author: Pierre Bremaud

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475731248

Category: Mathematics

Page: 444

View: 3453

Primarily an introduction to the theory of stochastic processes at the undergraduate or beginning graduate level, the primary objective of this book is to initiate students in the art of stochastic modelling. However it is motivated by significant applications and progressively brings the student to the borders of contemporary research. Examples are from a wide range of domains, including operations research and electrical engineering. Researchers and students in these areas as well as in physics, biology and the social sciences will find this book of interest.

A First Course in Probability and Markov Chains

Author: Giuseppe Modica,Laura Poggiolini

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111847774X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 352

View: 6218

Provides an introduction to basic structures of probability with a view towards applications in information technology A First Course in Probability and Markov Chains presents an introduction to the basic elements in probability and focuses on two main areas. The first part explores notions and structures in probability, including combinatorics, probability measures, probability distributions, conditional probability, inclusion-exclusion formulas, random variables, dispersion indexes, independent random variables as well as weak and strong laws of large numbers and central limit theorem. In the second part of the book, focus is given to Discrete Time Discrete Markov Chains which is addressed together with an introduction to Poisson processes and Continuous Time Discrete Markov Chains. This book also looks at making use of measure theory notations that unify all the presentation, in particular avoiding the separate treatment of continuous and discrete distributions. A First Course in Probability and Markov Chains: Presents the basic elements of probability. Explores elementary probability with combinatorics, uniform probability, the inclusion-exclusion principle, independence and convergence of random variables. Features applications of Law of Large Numbers. Introduces Bernoulli and Poisson processes as well as discrete and continuous time Markov Chains with discrete states. Includes illustrations and examples throughout, along with solutions to problems featured in this book. The authors present a unified and comprehensive overview of probability and Markov Chains aimed at educating engineers working with probability and statistics as well as advanced undergraduate students in sciences and engineering with a basic background in mathematical analysis and linear algebra.

Essentials of Stochastic Processes

Author: Richard Durrett

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319456148

Category: Mathematics

Page: 275

View: 5634

Building upon the previous editions, this textbook is a first course in stochastic processes taken by undergraduate and graduate students (MS and PhD students from math, statistics, economics, computer science, engineering, and finance departments) who have had a course in probability theory. It covers Markov chains in discrete and continuous time, Poisson processes, renewal processes, martingales, and option pricing. One can only learn a subject by seeing it in action, so there are a large number of examples and more than 300 carefully chosen exercises to deepen the reader’s understanding. Drawing from teaching experience and student feedback, there are many new examples and problems with solutions that use TI-83 to eliminate the tedious details of solving linear equations by hand, and the collection of exercises is much improved, with many more biological examples. Originally included in previous editions, material too advanced for this first course in stochastic processes has been eliminated while treatment of other topics useful for applications has been expanded. In addition, the ordering of topics has been improved; for example, the difficult subject of martingales is delayed until its usefulness can be applied in the treatment of mathematical finance.

Algorithms for Random Generation and Counting: A Markov Chain Approach

Author: A. Sinclair

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461203236

Category: Computers

Page: 147

View: 705

This monograph is a slightly revised version of my PhD thesis [86], com pleted in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Edin burgh in June 1988, with an additional chapter summarising more recent developments. Some of the material has appeared in the form of papers [50,88]. The underlying theme of the monograph is the study of two classical problems: counting the elements of a finite set of combinatorial structures, and generating them uniformly at random. In their exact form, these prob lems appear to be intractable for many important structures, so interest has focused on finding efficient randomised algorithms that solve them ap proxim~ly, with a small probability of error. For most natural structures the two problems are intimately connected at this level of approximation, so it is natural to study them together. At the heart of the monograph is a single algorithmic paradigm: sim ulate a Markov chain whose states are combinatorial structures and which converges to a known probability distribution over them. This technique has applications not only in combinatorial counting and generation, but also in several other areas such as statistical physics and combinatorial optimi sation. The efficiency of the technique in any application depends crucially on the rate of convergence of the Markov chain.

Understanding Markov Chains

Examples and Applications

Author: Nicolas Privault

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9814451517

Category: Mathematics

Page: 354

View: 9361

This book provides an undergraduate introduction to discrete and continuous-time Markov chains and their applications. A large focus is placed on the first step analysis technique and its applications to average hitting times and ruin probabilities. Classical topics such as recurrence and transience, stationary and limiting distributions, as well as branching processes, are also covered. Two major examples (gambling processes and random walks) are treated in detail from the beginning, before the general theory itself is presented in the subsequent chapters. An introduction to discrete-time martingales and their relation to ruin probabilities and mean exit times is also provided, and the book includes a chapter on spatial Poisson processes with some recent results on moment identities and deviation inequalities for Poisson stochastic integrals. The concepts presented are illustrated by examples and by 72 exercises and their complete solutions.

Introduction to Markov Chains

With Special Emphasis on Rapid Mixing

Author: Ehrhard Behrends

Publisher: Vieweg+Teubner Verlag

ISBN: 3322901572

Category: Mathematics

Page: 234

View: 584

Besides the investigation of general chains the book contains chapters which are concerned with eigenvalue techniques, conductance, stopping times, the strong Markov property, couplings, strong uniform times, Markov chains on arbitrary finite groups (including a crash-course in harmonic analysis), random generation and counting, Markov random fields, Gibbs fields, the Metropolis sampler, and simulated annealing. With 170 exercises.

Lectures on the Coupling Method

Author: Torgny Lindvall

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 048615324X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 272

View: 2712

Practical and easy-to-use reference progresses from simple to advanced topics, covering, among other topics, renewal theory, Markov chains, Poisson approximation, ergodicity, and Strassen's theorem. 1992 edition.

Markov Chains

Author: J. R. Norris

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107393477

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 341

Markov chains are central to the understanding of random processes. This is not only because they pervade the applications of random processes, but also because one can calculate explicitly many quantities of interest. This textbook, aimed at advanced undergraduate or MSc students with some background in basic probability theory, focuses on Markov chains and quickly develops a coherent and rigorous theory whilst showing also how actually to apply it. Both discrete-time and continuous-time chains are studied. A distinguishing feature is an introduction to more advanced topics such as martingales and potentials in the established context of Markov chains. There are applications to simulation, economics, optimal control, genetics, queues and many other topics, and exercises and examples drawn both from theory and practice. It will therefore be an ideal text either for elementary courses on random processes or those that are more oriented towards applications.

Probability on Trees and Networks

Author: Russell Lyons,Yuval Peres

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316785335

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 7720

Starting around the late 1950s, several research communities began relating the geometry of graphs to stochastic processes on these graphs. This book, twenty years in the making, ties together research in the field, encompassing work on percolation, isoperimetric inequalities, eigenvalues, transition probabilities, and random walks. Written by two leading researchers, the text emphasizes intuition, while giving complete proofs and more than 850 exercises. Many recent developments, in which the authors have played a leading role, are discussed, including percolation on trees and Cayley graphs, uniform spanning forests, the mass-transport technique, and connections on random walks on graphs to embedding in Hilbert space. This state-of-the-art account of probability on networks will be indispensable for graduate students and researchers alike.

Divisors and Sandpiles: An Introduction to Chip-Firing

Author: Scott Corry,David Perkinson

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470442183

Category: Abelian groups

Page: 325

View: 6674

Divisors and Sandpiles provides an introduction to the combinatorial theory of chip-firing on finite graphs. Part 1 motivates the study of the discrete Laplacian by introducing the dollar game. The resulting theory of divisors on graphs runs in close parallel to the geometric theory of divisors on Riemann surfaces, and Part 1 culminates in a full exposition of the graph-theoretic Riemann-Roch theorem due to M. Baker and S. Norine. The text leverages the reader's understanding of the discrete story to provide a brief overview of the classical theory of Riemann surfaces. Part 2 focuses on sandpiles, which are toy models of physical systems with dynamics controlled by the discrete Laplacian of the underlying graph. The text provides a careful introduction to the sandpile group and the abelian sandpile model, leading ultimately to L. Levine's threshold density theorem for the fixed-energy sandpile Markov chain. In a precise sense, the theory of sandpiles is dual to the theory of divisors, and there are many beautiful connections between the first two parts of the book. Part 3 addresses various topics connecting the theory of chip-firing to other areas of mathematics, including the matrix-tree theorem, harmonic morphisms, parking functions, M-matrices, matroids, the Tutte polynomial, and simplicial homology. The text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students.

Zeros of Gaussian Analytic Functions and Determinantal Point Processes

Author: John Ben Hough,Manjunath Krishnapur ,Yuval Peres ,B\'alint Vir\'ag

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821843737

Category: Mathematics

Page: 154

View: 1208

The book examines in some depth two important classes of point processes, determinantal processes and ``Gaussian zeros'', i.e., zeros of random analytic functions with Gaussian coefficients. These processes share a property of ``point-repulsion'', where distinct points are less likely to fall close to each other than in processes, such as the Poisson process, that arise from independent sampling. Nevertheless, the treatment in the book emphasizes the use of independence: for random power series, the independence of coefficients is key; for determinantal processes, the number of points in a domain is a sum of independent indicators, and this yields a satisfying explanation of the central limit theorem (CLT) for this point count. Another unifying theme of the book is invariance of considered point processes under natural transformation groups. The book strives for balance between general theory and concrete examples. On the one hand, it presents a primer on modern techniques on the interface of probability and analysis. On the other hand, a wealth of determinantal processes of intrinsic interest are analyzed; these arise from random spanning trees and eigenvalues of random matrices, as well as from special power series with determinantal zeros. The material in the book formed the basis of a graduate course given at the IAS-Park City Summer School in 2007; the only background knowledge assumed can be acquired in first-year graduate courses in analysis and probability.

Metastability and Markov State Models in Molecular Dynamics: Modeling, Analysis, Algorithmic Approaches

Author: Christof Schütte,Marco Sarich

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821843591

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1280

View: 9932

Applications in modern biotechnology and molecular medicine often require simulation of biomolecular systems in atomic representation with immense length and timescales that are far beyond the capacity of computer power currently available. As a consequence, there is an increasing need for reduced models that describe the relevant dynamical properties while at the same time being less complex. In this book the authors exploit the existence of metastable sets for constructing such a reduced molecular dynamics model, the so-called Markov state model (MSM), with good approximation properties on the long timescales. With its many examples and illustrations, this book is addressed to graduate students, mathematicians, and practical computational scientists wanting an overview of the mathematical background for the ever-increasing research activity on how to construct MSMs for very different molecular systems ranging from peptides to proteins, from RNA to DNA, and via molecular sensors to molecular aggregation. This book bridges the gap between mathematical research on molecular dynamics and its practical use for realistic molecular systems by providing readers with tools for performing in-depth analysis of simulation and data-analysis methods. Titles in this series are co-published with the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences at New York University.

The Malliavin Calculus and Related Topics

Author: David Nualart

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540283293

Category: Mathematics

Page: 382

View: 6048

The Malliavin calculus is an infinite-dimensional differential calculus on a Gaussian space, developed to provide a probabilistic proof to Hörmander's sum of squares theorem but has found a range of applications in stochastic analysis. This book presents the features of Malliavin calculus and discusses its main applications. This second edition includes recent applications in finance and a chapter devoted to the stochastic calculus with respect to the fractional Brownian motion.

Game Theory, Alive

Author: Anna R. Karlin,Yuval Peres

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470419823

Category: Game theory

Page: 372

View: 7667

We live in a highly connected world with multiple self-interested agents interacting and myriad opportunities for conflict and cooperation. The goal of game theory is to understand these opportunities. This book presents a rigorous introduction to the mathematics of game theory without losing sight of the joy of the subject. This is done by focusing on theoretical highlights (e.g., at least six Nobel Prize winning results are developed from scratch) and by presenting exciting connections of game theory to other fields such as computer science (algorithmic game theory), economics (auctions and matching markets), social choice (voting theory), biology (signaling and evolutionary stability), and learning theory. Both classical topics, such as zero-sum games, and modern topics, such as sponsored search auctions, are covered. Along the way, beautiful mathematical tools used in game theory are introduced, including convexity, fixed-point theorems, and probabilistic arguments. The book is appropriate for a first course in game theory at either the undergraduate or graduate level, whether in mathematics, economics, computer science, or statistics. The importance of game-theoretic thinking transcends the academic setting—for every action we take, we must consider not only its direct effects, but also how it influences the incentives of others.

Probability

Theory and Examples

Author: Rick Durrett

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113949113X

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 9436

This classic introduction to probability theory for beginning graduate students covers laws of large numbers, central limit theorems, random walks, martingales, Markov chains, ergodic theorems, and Brownian motion. It is a comprehensive treatment concentrating on the results that are the most useful for applications. Its philosophy is that the best way to learn probability is to see it in action, so there are 200 examples and 450 problems. The fourth edition begins with a short chapter on measure theory to orient readers new to the subject.

Applied Stochastic Processes

Author: Mario Lefebvre

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387489766

Category: Mathematics

Page: 382

View: 6506

This book uses a distinctly applied framework to present the most important topics in stochastic processes, including Gaussian and Markovian processes, Markov Chains, Poisson processes, Brownian motion and queueing theory. The book also examines in detail special diffusion processes, with implications for finance, various generalizations of Poisson processes, and renewal processes. It contains numerous examples and approximately 350 advanced problems that reinforce both concepts and applications. Entertaining mini-biographies of mathematicians give an enriching historical context. The book includes statistical tables and solutions to the even-numbered problems at the end.