*Principles and Applications*

Author: Qihe Yang,John Snyder,Waldo Tobler

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780748406678

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 1707

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### Map Projection Transformation

With the advance of science and technology, there have been breakthroughs in the field of classical research and methods of map projection. Among these, computer science and space science have had the greater influence upon the field of research and the formation of a working body of map projection, developing them in breadth and depth. This book reflects several aspects of the development of modern mathematical cartography, especially the theory and methods of map projection transformation. Map projection transformation is an area of research in mathematical cartography newly developed over the last 25 years. It is widely used in surveying and computer-assisted cartography, data processing for information systems, and the transformation of data from space, remote sensing, and other space sciences. The development of map projection transformation not only expands new areas of research on mathematical cartography, but it also further develops the applied area with the creation and application of map projection transformation software and mapping mathematics bases on the computer.

### Map Projection Transformation

With the advance of science and technology, there have been breakthroughs in the field of classical research and methods of map projection. Among these, computer science and space science have had the greater influence upon the field of research and the formation of a working body of map projection, developing them in breadth and depth. This book reflects several aspects of the development of modern mathematical cartography, especially the theory and methods of map projection transformation. Map projection transformation is an area of research in mathematical cartography newly developed over the last 25 years. It is widely used in surveying and computer-assisted cartography, data processing for information systems, and the transformation of data from space, remote sensing, and other space sciences. The development of map projection transformation not only expands new areas of research on mathematical cartography, but it also further develops the applied area with the creation and application of map projection transformation software and mapping mathematics bases on the computer.

### Understanding Map Projections

### Map ProjectionsTheory and Applications

About the Author: Frederick Pearson has extensive experience in teaching map projection at the Air Force Cartography School and Virginia Polytechnic Institute. He developed star charts, satellite trajectory programs, and a celestial navigation device for the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center. He is an expert in orbital analysis of satellites, and control and guidance systems. At McDonnell-Douglas, he worked on the guidance system for the space shuttle. This text develops the plotting equations for the major map projections. The emphasis is on obtaining usable algorithms for computed aided plotting and CRT display. The problem of map projection is stated, and the basic terminology is introduced. The required fundamental mathematics is reviewed, and transformation theory is developed. Theories from differential geometry are particularized for the transformation from a sphere or spheroid as the model of the earth onto a selected plotting surface. The most current parameters to describe the figure of the earth are given. Formulas are included to calculate meridian length, parallel length, geodetic and geocentric latitude, azimuth, and distances on the sphere or spheroid. Equal area, conformal, and conventional projection transformations are derived. All result in direct transformation from geographic to cartesian coordinates. For selected projections, inverse transformations from cartesian to geographic coordinates are given. Since the avoidance of distortion is important, the theory of distortion is explored. Formulas are developed to give a quantitative estimate of linear, area, and angular distortions. Extended examples are given for several mapping problems of interest. Computer applications, and efficient algorithms are presented. This book is an appropriate text for a course in the mathematical aspects of mapping and cartography. Map projections are of interest to workers in many fields. Some of these are mathematicians, engineers, surveyors, geodi

### Small-Scale Map Projection Design

The use of computers in cartography has made it a lot easier for map makers to transform data from one map projection to another and experiment with alternative representations of geographical data. Yet this has also created new challenges and opportunities for map projection scientists. Small Scale Map Projection Design focuses on numerical map projection research, and is written from the perspective of the map projection user. It demonstrates how advances in the measurement of map projection distortion and in the development of low error map projections can help map makers decide what type of map projection is best for their purpose, and shows how they can eventually design their own tailor-made map projections. A number of significant contributions have been made to the subject over recent decades, and these are reviewed along with a substantial amount of original, unpublished material. This theoretical material is tied to practical applications and issues such as map projection use, optimization and selection, which are far too often carried out with simple rules-of-thumb methods.

### Datums and Map Projections for Remote Sensing, GIS, and Surveying

A practical guide for those working with spatially referenced data and the problems that may be associated with datums and map projections. The book focuses on solving the problems encountered when combining data from different sources, and explores possible short cuts.

### Cartographic Science

Geographic books routinely introduce map projections without providing mathematical explanations of projections and few delve into complex mathematical development or cover the breadth of projections. From basic projecting to advanced transformations, Cartographic Science: A Compendium of Map Projections, with Derivations is a comprehensive reference that offers an explanation of the science of cartography. The book is a compilation of more than a hundred map projections, from classic conics to contemporary transformations using complex variables. Starting from widely described geometric projecting onto flat paper, cylinder, and cone and then progressing through several layers of mathematics to reach modern projections, the author maximizes the application of one layer of complex mathematics before continuing on to the next. He also supplies numerous one-page tutorials that review terms and methodologies, helping minimize the challenges of unfamiliar mathematical territory. Divided into four parts, the first section examines the shape and size of the Earth, then proceeds to investigate the means for relating the curved surface to a flat surface, and addresses scaling. It goes on to cover pertinent principles of projection including literal projecting, true but synthetic projections, secantal projections, pseudocylindrical projections, and pseudoconical projections, as well as the other variants of more serious projections. The book concludes by looking at factors influencing Mean Sea Level and notes the cartographic aspects of current developments. Cartographic Science: A Compendium of Map Projections, with Derivations explains the mathematical development for a large range of projections within a framework of the different cartographic methodologies. This carefully paced book covers more projections, with gentle and progressive immersion in the mathematics involved, than any other book of its kind.

### Choosing a Map Projection

This book offers a much-needed critical approach to the intelligent use of the wide variety of map projections that are rapidly and inexpensively available today. It also discusses the distortions that are immanent in any map projection. A well-chosen map projection is one in which extreme distortions are smaller than those in any other projection used to map the same area and in which the map properties match its purpose. Written by leading experts in the field, including W. Tobler, F.C. Kessler, S.E. Battersby, M.P. Finn, K.C. Clarke, V.S. Tikunov, H. Hargitai, B. Jenny and N. Frančula. This book is designed for use by laymen. The book editors are M. Lapaine and E.L. Usery, Chair and Vice-Chair, respectively, of the ICA Commission on Map Projections for the period 2011-2015.

### Bibliography of Map Projections

### Computational Science and Its Applications –- ICCSA 2009

### Coordinate Systems and Map Projections

A revised and expanded new edition of the definitive English work on map projections. The revisions take into account the huge advances in geometrical geodesy which have occurred since the early years of satellite geodesy. The detailed configuration of the geoid resulting from the GEOS and SEASAT altimetry measurements are now taken into consideration. Additionally, the chapter on computation of map projections is updated bearing in mind the availability of pocket calculators and microcomputers. Analytical derivation of some map projections including examples of pseudocylindrical and polyconic projections is also covered. Work undertaken in the USA and USSR on the creation of suitable map projections obtained through numerical analysis has been included. The book concludes with a chapter on the abuse and misrepresentation of map projections. An invaluable reference source for professional cartographers and all those interested in the fundamental problems of mapping the Earth.

### Rhumb Lines and Map Wars

In Rhumb Lines and Map Wars, Mark Monmonier offers an insightful, richly illustrated account of the controversies surrounding Flemish cartographer Gerard Mercator's legacy. He takes us back to 1569, when Mercator announced a clever method of portraying the earth on a flat surface, creating the first projection to take into account the earth's roundness. As Monmonier shows, mariners benefited most from Mercator's projection, which allowed for easy navigation of the high seas with rhumb lines—clear-cut routes with a constant compass bearing—for true direction. But the projection's popularity among nineteenth-century sailors led to its overuse—often in inappropriate, non-navigational ways—for wall maps, world atlases, and geopolitical propaganda. Because it distorts the proportionate size of countries, the Mercator map was criticized for inflating Europe and North America in a promotion of colonialism. In 1974, German historian Arno Peters proffered his own map, on which countries were ostensibly drawn in true proportion to one another. In the ensuing "map wars" of the 1970s and 1980s, these dueling projections vied for public support—with varying degrees of success. Widely acclaimed for his accessible, intelligent books on maps and mapping, Monmonier here examines the uses and limitations of one of cartography's most significant innovations. With informed skepticism, he offers insightful interpretations of why well-intentioned clerics and development advocates rallied around the Peters projection, which flagrantly distorted the shape of Third World nations; why journalists covering the controversy ignored alternative world maps and other key issues; and how a few postmodern writers defended the Peters worldview with a self-serving overstatement of the power of maps. Rhumb Lines and Map Wars is vintage Monmonier: historically rich, beautifully written, and fully engaged with the issues of our time.

### Advanced Surveying

### Lining Up Data in Arcgis

Easy-to-navigate troubleshooting reference for any GIS user with the common problem of data misalignment. Updated for ArcGIS Desktop 10.6.

### U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin

### Second International Conference on Image and Graphics

### Image Processing

Focusing on mathematical methods in computer tomography, Image Processing: Tensor Transform and Discrete Tomography with MATLAB® introduces novel approaches to help in solving the problem of image reconstruction on the Cartesian lattice. Specifically, it discusses methods of image processing along parallel rays to more quickly and accurately reconstruct images from a finite number of projections, thereby avoiding overradiation of the body during a computed tomography (CT) scan. The book presents several new ideas, concepts, and methods, many of which have not been published elsewhere. New concepts include methods of transferring the geometry of rays from the plane to the Cartesian lattice, the point map of projections, the particle and its field function, and the statistical model of averaging. The authors supply numerous examples, MATLAB®-based programs, end-of-chapter problems, and experimental results of implementation. The main approach for image reconstruction proposed by the authors differs from existing methods of back-projection, iterative reconstruction, and Fourier and Radon filtering. In this book, the authors explain how to process each projection by a system of linear equations, or linear convolutions, to calculate the corresponding part of the 2-D tensor or paired transform of the discrete image. They then describe how to calculate the inverse transform to obtain the reconstruction. The proposed models for image reconstruction from projections are simple and result in more accurate reconstructions. Introducing a new theory and methods of image reconstruction, this book provides a solid grounding for those interested in further research and in obtaining new results. It encourages readers to develop effective applications of these methods in CT.

### Elements of Map Projection with Applications to Map and Chart Construction

### After the Map

For most of the twentieth century, maps were indispensable. They were how governments understood, managed, and defended their territory, and during the two world wars they were produced by the hundreds of millions. Cartographers and journalists predicted the dawning of a “map-minded age,” where increasingly state-of-the-art maps would become everyday tools. By the century’s end, however, there had been decisive shift in mapping practices, as the dominant methods of land surveying and print publication were increasingly displaced by electronic navigation systems. In After the Map, William Rankin argues that although this shift did not render traditional maps obsolete, it did radically change our experience of geographic knowledge, from the God’s-eye view of the map to the embedded subjectivity of GPS. Likewise, older concerns with geographic truth and objectivity have been upstaged by a new emphasis on simplicity, reliability, and convenience. After the Map shows how this change in geographic perspective is ultimately a transformation of the nature of territory, both social and political.

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*Principles and Applications*

Author: Qihe Yang,John Snyder,Waldo Tobler

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780748406678

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 1707

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