Ireland’s oceanic and temperate climate acts as a wonderful host to over 1,165 species of lichen. This is a richer biodiversity than that of flowering plants or the mosses, liverworts and ferns of Ireland. A concise introduction to lichen biology and ecology, this guide features: • lichen terminology explained using line drawings and photographs; • descriptions of over 250 Irish species with colour photographs; • a guide to chemical tests, fieldwork and how to keep a herbarium; • a vice-county distribution map for every described species.
Author: Paul Whelan
Publisher: The Collins Press
Th Is Book, SUCCESSIVE BOTANY (B.Sc Part 1) # Offers an integration of topics and units which is mentioned in syllabus framed by Kashmir University. # The book is framed as per the Single Paper Scheme and is Effective from year 2014 onwards. # Is the book with Diagrammatic Illustrations for clearer understanding of the complicated thoughts. # Is in a Book Antiqua Style with the subject being presented as an engaging story growing from elementary information to the most recent advances, and with theoretical discussions being supplemented with illustrations, flow charts and tables for easy understanding. # Has an appealing format, represented in two column format, which is impressive for understanding and memorization.r understanding and memorization.
FOR B. Sc Part 1 - Based on Kashmir University Syllabus, As Per Single Paper Scheme
Author: Z. R. RATHER
Publisher: ZAHOOR RASHID RATHER
Symbioses and Stress examines how organisms in tight symbiotic associations cope with abiotic and biotic stress. Presenting new findings on symbioses by experts and leading scholars in the field, this volume complements courses and lectures in biology and genetics.
Joint Ventures in Biology
Author: Joseph Seckbach,Martin Grube
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book discusses in detail molecular, mycobiont culture, biomonitoring and bioprospection of lichens, providing insights into advances in different fields of lichenology by applying modern techniques and approaches and examining how their application has enhanced or changed classical approaches. It offers a valuable resource, especially for beginners, students and researchers from different academic backgrounds interested in the study of lichens. In recent years, the introduction of modern analytical techniques and approaches has significantly improved our understanding of the environment, including lichens. Lichens are unique organisms which possess untapped potential as effective and reliable bioindicators, sources of therapeutic phytochemicals, and as excellent extremophiles. The unique and peculiar characteristics of lichens underline the need for a multidimensional approach to explore their potential in various fields of environment science, botany and chemistry. Modern techniques, especially molecular techniques, have greatly enriched the field of lichen taxonomy and its position in the plant kingdom, revealing little-known species and exploring their evolutionary history, while multivariate analysis and GIS approaches have established lichens as an ideal and reliable tool for monitoring air pollution. Advanced culture techniques have expanded the pharmacological applications of lichens, which was formerly restricted due to their small biomass. The advent of sophisticated analytical instrumentation has now facilitated the isolation and characterization of lichens’ bioactive constituents, even in lower concentrations, as well as the estimation of their stress responses at different levels of pollution. As lichen diversity is adversely affected by increasing air pollution, there is a pressing need to develop effective management practices to conserve, restore and document lichen diversity.
Modern Methods and Approaches in Lichen Systematics and Culture Techniques
Author: Dalip Kumar Upreti,Pradeep K. Divakar,Vertika Shukla,Rajesh Bajpai
Foliicolous lichens are one of the most abundant epiphytes in tropical rainforests and one of the few groups of organisms that characterize these forests. Tropical rainforests are increasingly affected by anthropogenic disturbance resulting in forest destruction and degradation. However, not much is known on the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on the diversity of foliicolous lichens. Understanding such effects is crucial for the development of appropriate measures for the conservation of such organisms. In this study, foliicolous lichens diversity was investigated in three tropical rainforests in East Africa. Godere Forest in Southwest Ethiopia is a transitional rainforest with a mixture of Afromontane and Guineo-Congolian species. The forest is secondary and has been affected by shifting cultivation, semi-forest coffee management and commercial coffee plantation. Budongo Forest in West Uganda is a Guineo-Congolian rainforest consisting of primary and secondary forests. Kakamega Forest in western Kenya is a transitional rainforest with a mixture of Guineo-Congolian and Afromontane species. The forest is a mosaic of near-primary forest, secondary forests of different seral stages, grasslands, plantations, and natural glades.
Author: Kumelachew Yeshitela
Publisher: Cuvillier Verlag
"The ultimate dictionary." Times Educational Supplement From the universe and our planet, to plants and animals, to the human body and the very latest in science and technology, the updated and revised Visual Dictionary is a unique encyclopedia packed with information. Not only does it tell you what a term means, it shows you with over 6,000 amazing photos and over 33,000 objects and terms defined. Discover how a plasma TV works, go inside a volcano or the latest high-tech car, see how a bronze statue is made, explore the prehistoric world and find the answers to all kinds of questions on science, art, music, sport and more. The Visual Dictionary is an unbeatable reference guide that will appeal to all the family.
Publisher: Dorling Kindersley Ltd
A comprehensive, up-to-date review of lichens as biomonitors of air pollution (bioindication, metal and radionuclide accumulation, biomarkers), and as monitors of environmental change (including global climate change and biodiversity loss) in a wide array of terrestrial habitats. Several methods for using lichens as biomonitors are described in a special section of the book.
Author: Pier Luigi Nimis,Christoph Scheidegger,Patricia A. Wolseley
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Peatlands form important landscape elements in many parts of the world and play significant roles for biodiversity and global carbon balance. This new edition has been fully revised and updated, documenting the latest advances in areas such as microbial processes and relations between biological processes and hydrology. As well as thoroughly referencing the latest research, the authors expose a rich older literature where an immense repository of natural history has accumulated. The Biology of Peatlands starts with an overview of the main peatland types (marsh, swamp, fen, and bog), before examining the entire range of biota present (microbes, invertebrates, plants, and vertebrates), together with their specific adaptations to peatland habitats. Detailed coverage is devoted to the genus Sphagnum, the most important functional plant group in northern peatlands, although tropical and southern hemisphere peatlands are also covered. Throughout the book the interactions between organisms and environmental conditions (especially wetness, availability of oxygen, and pH) are emphasized, with chapters on the physical and chemical characteristics of peat, the role of peat as an archive of past vegetation and climate, and peatland succession and development. Several other key factors and processes are then examined, including hydrology and nutrient cycling. The fascinating peatland landforms in different parts of the world are described, together with theories on how they have developed. Human interactions with peatlands are considered in terms of management, conservation, and restoration. A final chapter, new to this edition, focuses on the role of peatlands as sources or sinks for the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane, and the influences of climate change on peatlands. This timely and accessible text is suitable for students and researchers of peatland ecology, as well as providing an authoritative overview for professional ecologists and conservation biologists.
Author: Håkan Rydin,John K. Jeglum
Publisher: OUP Oxford
This is a timely volume in view of the considerable interest currently shown in the preservation of our cultural heritage and the extensive and growing literature on the subject. Unfortunately, the latter is to be found in a wide variety of published sources, some aimed at a very specific readership. The present volume draws together a spectrum of biodeterioration work from across the world to provide an overview of the materials examined and the methodologies employed to elucidate the nature of the problems, as well as an extensive and current bibliographical resource on lichen biodeterioration. Generally, we do not think of rock surfaces as particularly conducive to the growth and development of living things. Occasionally, we may encounter grasses or forbs or even more rarely a small shrub or stunted tree growing from a crack in a large boulder or rock wall; but for most people, rock is perceived as dry, sterile, impenetrable, and generally uninviting. However, to the experienced eye rock surfaces are often teeming with life – lichens, bryophytes, a host of small invertebrate animals, as well as a vast array of microscopic organisms including bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae and non-lichenized fungi. The longevity and structural stability of most rocks superficially suggest that rock surface inhabitants are benign; however, slowly and steadily all rock dwelling organisms contribute to the relentless decomposition of rock surfaces – augmented by the natural physical forces associated with changing seasons, weather patterns, and in some localized settings the caustic effects of air pollution. Rock dwelling communities vary in complexity and composition depending on the specific structural and chemical features of the rock. Even human manipulated or manufactured stone supports to some degree a living community – and herein are found the real issues and concerns related to biodeterioration of rock substrata. In a natural setting biodecomposition of rock is accepted as normal and even desirable – integral to the process of soil development; however, in the human environment biodeterioration of monuments, buildings, artwork, statues and gravestones is counted as a serious problem. Even in natural settings, culturally significant prehistoric and historic rock art is subject to the same processes of biodeterioration. In this volume the editors have compiled current papers from leading experts dealing with various issues related to biodeterioration of rock substrata. Topics range from biodeterioration effects on prehistoric rock art as well as culturally significant, historic rock structures. This is the first treatment of the subject of biodeterioration that includes a careful consideration of the role of related disciplines including geology, archaeology, crystallography, cultural conservation and resource management. This combination of disciplines makes this book valuable not only as a solid scientific treatise but equally important as a serious resource for evaluating both impact processes and preservation options related to biodeterioration of culturally significant rock substrata.
Lichens and Biofilms as Weathering Agents of Rocks and Cultural Heritage
Author: Mark Seaward
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Lichens are a unique form of plant life, the product of a symbiotic association between an alga and a fungus. The beauty and importance of lichens have long been overlooked, despite their abundance and diversity in most parts of North America and elsewhere in the world. This stunning book - the first accessible and authoritative guidebook to lichens of the North American continent - fills the gap, presenting superb colour photographs, descriptions, distribution maps, and keys for identifying the most common, conspicuous, or ecologically significant species. The book focuses on 805 foliose, fruticose, and crustose lichens (the latter rarely included in popular guidebooks) and presents information on another 70 species in the keys or notes, special attention is given to species endemic to North America. A comprehensive introduction discusses the biology, structure, uses, and ecological significance of lichens and is illustrated with 90 additional colour photos and many line drawings. English names are provided for most species, and the book also includes a glossary that explains technical terms. This visually rich and informative book will open the eyes of nature lovers everywhere to
Author: Irwin M. Brodo,Sylvia Duran Sharnoff,Stephen Sharnoff,Canadian Museum of Nature
Publisher: Yale University Press
Salt is an essential requirement of life. Already from ancient times (e. g. , see the books of the Bible) its importance in human life has been known. For example, salt symbolizes destruction (as in Sodom and Gomorra), but on the other hand it has been an ingredient of every sacrifice during the Holy Temple periods. Microbial life in concentrated salt solutions has fascinated scientists since its discovery. Recently there have been several international meetings and books devoted entirely to halophiles. This book includes the proceedings of the “Halophiles 2004” conference held in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in September 2004 (www. u- lj. si/~bfbhaloph/index. html). This meeting was attended by 120 participants from 25 countries. The editors have selected presentations given at the meeting for this volume, and have also invited a number of contributions from experts who had not been present in Ljubljana. This book complements “Halophilic Microorganisms”, edited by A. Ventosa and published by Springer-Verlag (2004), “Halophilic Microorganism and their Environments” by A. Oren (2002), published by Kluwer Academic Publishers as volume 5 of “Cellular Origins, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology” (COLE), and “Microbiology and Biogeochemistry of Hypersaline Environments” edited by A. Oren, and published by CRC Press, Boca Raton (1999). Salt-loving (halophilic) microorganisms grow in salt solutions above seawater salinity (~3. 5% salt) up to saturation ranges (i. e. , around 35% salt). High concentrations of salt occur in natural environments (e. g.
Author: Nina Gunde-Cimerman,Aharon Oren,Ana Plemenitaš
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Diese Ausgabe der renommierten RÖMPP Chemie-Enzyklopädie von 1999 enthält über 5000 Fachbegriffe aus dem Bereich Umwelt mit 19.000 Q uerverweisen, 8000 Literaturhinweisen, sowie 400 Abbildungen und Tabellen. Anwendungsbezogen und praxisnah erklären Experten die Sti chwörter so leicht verständlich, dass der RÖMPP auch für Nicht-Chemiker praktisch im Arbeitsalltag einsetzbar ist. Folgende Themen sind enthalten: Wasser, und Luftverschmutzung, Abfall, Ökotoxikologie, Naturschutz, Ökologie, Rohstof- und Energiequellen, Bodenschu tz, Strahlung, Umweltanalytik, Umweltgesetzgebung, Umweltmanagement, Risikobewertung, Sustainable Development und Ökoaudit. Ferner u mfasst der Band ein englischsprachiges Wörterbuch, Organisationen und Verbände.
Publisher: Georg Thieme Verlag
Activities for children involve skills in observing, classifying, measuring, recording, predicting, writing, brainstorming, constructing, comparing, contrasting, describing, organizing, and sharing.
Author: Edward Paul Ortleb
Publisher: Lorenz Educational Press
"Life on Mars" showed that there is indeed, life on the fourth planet from the Sun. This second book digs even deeper into the animal and human life on the red planet, uncovering and demonstrating further evidence, analysis, and knowledge, from NASA's Mars photos. This book is a must read for anyone, ages teen and up, including amateur stargazers, ufologists, doomsday preppers, survivalists, geeks and nerds, and students of science, astronomy, life forms, archaeology, anthropology, and ancient history.
Further Study of NASA's Mars Photos
Author: Michael G. Hunter
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
Fungi are ubiquitous in the world and responsible for driving the evolution and governing the sustainability of ecosystems now and in the past. Fossil Fungi is the first encyclopedic book devoted exclusively to fossil fungi and their activities through geologic time. The book begins with the historical context of research on fossil fungi (paleomycology), followed by how fungi are formed and studied as fossils, and their age. The next six chapters focus on the major lineages of fungi, arranging them in phylogenetic order and placing the fossils within a systematic framework. For each fossil the age and provenance are provided. Each chapter provides a detailed introduction to the living members of the group and a discussion of the fossils that are believed to belong in this group. The extensive bibliography (~ 2700 entries) includes papers on both extant and fossil fungi. Additional chapters include lichens, fungal spores, and the interactions of fungi with plants, animals, and the geosphere. The final chapter includes a discussion of fossil bacteria and other organisms that are fungal-like in appearance, and known from the fossil record. The book includes more than 475 illustrations, almost all in color, of fossil fungi, line drawings, and portraits of people, as well as a glossary of more than 700 mycological and paleontological terms that will be useful to both biologists and geoscientists. First book devoted to the whole spectrum of the fossil record of fungi, ranging from Proterozoic fossils to the role of fungi in rock weathering Detailed discussion of how fossil fungi are preserved and studied Extensive bibliography with more than 2000 entries Where possible, fungal fossils are placed in a modern systematic context Each chapter within the systematic treatment of fungal lineages introduced with an easy-to-understand presentation of the main characters that define extant members Extensive glossary of more than 700 entries that define both biological, geological, and mycological terminology
Author: Thomas N Taylor,Michael Krings,Edith L. Taylor
Publisher: Academic Press
Using evolution as the central theme, these concise essays explore the foundations of modern biology, focusing on heredity, embryonic development, and ultimately, relations between organisms and their environment. 24 black-and-white figures.
Author: John Tyler Bonner
Publisher: Courier Corporation
original investigations based upon new principles
Author: Olaf Galløe,M. Skyttle-Christiansen
Issues in Life Sciences: Botany and Plant Biology Research: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Life Sciences—Botany and Plant Biology Research. The editors have built Issues in Life Sciences: Botany and Plant Biology Research: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Life Sciences—Botany and Plant Biology Research in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Life Sciences: Botany and Plant Biology Research: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.