Land of Hope

Chicago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration

Author: James R. Grossman

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226309959

Category: History

Page: 384

View: 9904

Grossman’s rich, detailed analysis of black migration to Chicago during World War I and its aftermath brilliantly captures the cultural meaning of the movement.

Black Exodus

The Great Migration from the American South

Author: Alferdteen Harrison

Publisher: Univ. Press of Mississippi

ISBN: 9780878056095

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 107

View: 7533

What were the causes that motivated legions of black southerners to immigrate to the North? What was the impact upon the land they left and upon the communities they chose for their new homes? Perhaps no pattern of migration has changed America's socioeconomic structure more than this mass exodus of African Americans in the first half of the twentieth century. Because of this exodus, the South lost not only a huge percentage of its inhabitants to northern cities like Chicago, New York, Detroit, and Philadelphia but also its supply of cheap labor. Fleeing from racial injustice and poverty, southern blacks took their culture north with them and transformed northern urban centers with their churches, social institutions, and ways of life. In Black Exodus eight noted scholars consider the causes that stimulated the migration and examine the far-reaching results.

Chicago's New Negroes

Modernity, the Great Migration, and Black Urban Life

Author: Davarian L. Baldwin

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 9780807887608

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 7778

As early-twentieth-century Chicago swelled with an influx of at least 250,000 new black urban migrants, the city became a center of consumer capitalism, flourishing with professional sports, beauty shops, film production companies, recording studios, and other black cultural and communal institutions. Davarian Baldwin argues that this mass consumer marketplace generated a vibrant intellectual life and planted seeds of political dissent against the dehumanizing effects of white capitalism. Pushing the traditional boundaries of the Harlem Renaissance to new frontiers, Baldwin identifies a fresh model of urban culture rich with politics, ingenuity, and entrepreneurship. Baldwin explores an abundant archive of cultural formations where an array of white observers, black cultural producers, critics, activists, reformers, and black migrant consumers converged in what he terms a "marketplace intellectual life." Here the thoughts and lives of Madam C. J. Walker, Oscar Micheaux, Andrew "Rube" Foster, Elder Lucy Smith, Jack Johnson, and Thomas Dorsey emerge as individual expressions of a much wider spectrum of black political and intellectual possibilities. By placing consumer-based amusements alongside the more formal arenas of church and academe, Baldwin suggests important new directions for both the historical study and the constructive future of ideas and politics in American life.

The Warmth of Other Suns

The Epic Story of America's Great Migration

Author: Isabel Wilkerson

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0679763880

Category: Social Science

Page: 622

View: 2876

Presents an epic history that covers the period from the end of World War I through the 1970s, chronicling the decades-long migration of African Americans from the South to the North and West through the stories of three individuals and their families.

Selling the Race

Culture, Community, and Black Chicago, 1940-1955

Author: Adam Green

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226306410

Category: History

Page: 306

View: 6540

"In his study, Green tells the story of how this unified consciousness was shaped. With this portrayal of black life - complemented by a dozen works of the Chicago photographer Wayne F. Miller - Green ultimately presents African Americans as agents, rather than casualties, of modernity, reenvisioning urban existence in a way that will resonate with anyone interested in race, culture, or the life of cities."--Jacket.

L.A. City Limits

African American Los Angeles from the Great Depression to the Present

Author: Josh Sides

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520248309

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 6376

A lively history of modern black Los Angeles from the Great Depression to the present.

King

Pilgrimage to the Mountaintop

Author: Harvard Sitkoff

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 9780809063499

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 270

View: 4226

An incisive biography of Martin Luther King, Jr., looks at the life and legacy of one of America's most important civil rights leaders, describing both his successes and his failures while speculating about King's potential future accomplishments in a career cut tragically short by his 1968 assassination. Reprint.

Living In, Living Out

African American Domestics in Washington, D.C., 1910-1940

Author: Elizabeth Clark-Lewis

Publisher: Smithsonian Institution

ISBN: 1588344428

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 6764

This oral history portrays the lives of African American women who migrated from the rural South to work as domestic servants in Washington, DC in the early decades of the twentieth century. In Living In, Living Out Elizabeth Clark-Lewis narrates the personal experiences of eighty-one women who worked for wealthy white families. These women describe how they encountered—but never accepted—the master-servant relationship, and recount their struggles to change their status from “live in” servants to daily paid workers who “lived out.” With candor and passion, the women interviewed tell of leaving their families and adjusting to city life “up North,” of being placed as live-in servants, and of the frustrations and indignities they endured as domestics. By networking on the job, at churches, and at penny savers clubs, they found ways to transform their unending servitude into an employer-employee relationship—gaining a new independence that could only be experienced by living outside of their employers' homes. Clark-Lewis points out that their perseverance and courage not only improved their own lot but also transformed work life for succeeding generations of African American women. A series of in-depth vignettes about the later years of these women bears poignant witness to their efforts to carve out lives of fulfillment and dignity.

At Freedom's Edge

Black Mobility and the Southern White Quest for Racial Control, 1861-1915

Author: William Cohen

Publisher: LSU Press

ISBN: 9780807116524

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 340

View: 9218

Even after the Civil War, blacks despaired of being treated as equals in a white man's world. They were deprived of many of the most basic rights of citizenship, and were often cheated and exploited. As result they clung tenaciously to that most important of new rights -- the right to move. At Freedom's Edge is William Cohen's comprehensive history of black mobility fro the Civil War to World War I. Cohen treats mobility as a central component of black freedom, crucial in the emergence of a free labor system, and equally crucial as an obstacle to the persistent southern white effort to reassert hegemony over blacks in all areas of life. This study has a rigorously southern focus. Most historians of black migration concentrate on telling how the migrants adjusted to northern life, but Cohen provides detailed accounts of internal southern movement and efforts to leave the South. He also examines the relative absence, during this period, of significant migration to the North. Cohen presents a thorough treatments of the efforts of the Freedmen's Bureau to restructure the southern labor system, showing how heavily this organization was influenced by questions involving black mobility. He also gives the fullest picture yet of the postwar emergence of the occupation of the labor agent. Among the migration episodes he considers are they Liberia movement, the Kansas exodus, the movement of blacks from Georgia and the Carolinas to Arkansas and Mississippi, and the migration to Oklahoma. The post-Reconstruction era was marked by a concerted white thrust to destroy black freedom. Cohen shows that while whites succeeded in establishing almost total dominion in the political and social realms, they failed when they tried to erect a system of involuntary servitude that would seriously limit black movement. Cohen argues that the difference there arose from the fact that whites were largely united on matters such a suffrage and segregation but were divided on the desirability of immobilizing the black labor force. Those who depended on black labor sought legal formulas aimed at stopping black movement. They met resistance, however, from those who did not share their economic interests. They met resistance, however, from those who did not share their economic interests. This study, then is almost as much a legal history of white efforts to interdict black movement as it is a history of black migration. At Freedom's Edge is a probing study of the black search for freedom within freedom.

Making a Way Out of No Way

African American Women and the Second Great Migration

Author: Lisa Krissoff Boehm

Publisher: Univ. Press of Mississippi

ISBN: 9781604732160

Category: History

Page: 297

View: 8767

The Second Great Migration, the movement of African Americans between the South and the North that began in the early 1940s and tapered off in the late 1960s, transformed America. This migration of approximately five million people helped improve the financial prospects of black Americans, who, in the next generation, moved increasingly into the middle class. Over seven years, Lisa Krissoff Boehm gathered oral histories with women migrants and their children, two groups largely overlooked in the story of this event. She also utilized existing oral histories with migrants and southerners in leading archives. In extended excerpts from the oral histories, and in thoughtful scholarly analysis of the voices, this book offers a unique window into African American women's history. These rich oral histories reveal much that is surprising. Although the Jim Crow South presented persistent dangers, the women retained warm memories of southern childhoods. Notwithstanding the burgeoning war industry, most women found themselves left out of industrial work. The North offered its own institutionalized racism; the region was not the promised land. Additionally, these African American women juggled work and family long before such battles became a staple of mainstream discussion. In the face of challenges, the women who share their tales here crafted lives of great meaning from the limited options available, making a way out of no way.

Forging Freedom

The Formation of Philadelphia's Black Community, 1720-1840

Author: Gary B. Nash

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674309333

Category: History

Page: 354

View: 4904

Traces the experiences of Black Philadelphians from the time of slavery to the present, and discusses their family life, work, religion, neighborhoods, and social networks

The Encyclopedia of Chicago

Author: James R. Grossman,Ann Durkin Keating,Janice L. Reiff,Newberry Library,Chicago Historical Society

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780226310152

Category: History

Page: 1117

View: 4598

A comprehensive historical reference on metropolitan Chicago encompasses more than 1,400 entries on such topics as neighborhoods, ethnic groups, cultural institutions, and business history, and furnishes interpretive essays on the literary images of Chicago, the built environment, and the city's sports culture.

Growing Up Nisei

Race, Generation, and Culture Among Japanese Americans of California, 1924-49

Author: David Yoo

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252068225

Category: History

Page: 244

View: 414

Traces the emergence of a dynamic Nisei subculture and shows how the foundations laid during the 1920s and 1930s helped many Nisei adjust to the upheaval of the concentration camps.

The Southern Diaspora

How the Great Migrations of Black and White Southerners Transformed America

Author: James N. Gregory

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 0807876852

Category: Social Science

Page: 464

View: 5011

Between 1900 and the 1970s, twenty million southerners migrated north and west. Weaving together for the first time the histories of these black and white migrants, James Gregory traces their paths and experiences in a comprehensive new study that demonstrates how this regional diaspora reshaped America by "southernizing" communities and transforming important cultural and political institutions. Challenging the image of the migrants as helpless and poor, Gregory shows how both black and white southerners used their new surroundings to become agents of change. Combining personal stories with cultural, political, and demographic analysis, he argues that the migrants helped create both the modern civil rights movement and modern conservatism. They spurred changes in American religion, notably modern evangelical Protestantism, and in popular culture, including the development of blues, jazz, and country music. In a sweeping account that pioneers new understandings of the impact of mass migrations, Gregory recasts the history of twentieth-century America. He demonstrates that the southern diaspora was crucial to transformations in the relationship between American regions, in the politics of race and class, and in the roles of religion, the media, and culture.

A Ghetto Takes Shape

Black Cleveland, 1870-1930

Author: Kenneth L. Kusmer

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252006906

Category: History

Page: 305

View: 2930


Bound for Freedom

Black Los Angeles in Jim Crow America

Author: Douglas Flamming

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520249909

Category: History

Page: 467

View: 432

A definitive, illustrated account of Los Angeles's black community in the half century before World War I details African-American community life and political activism during the city's transformation from a small town to a sprawling metropolis. Reprint.

Buccaneers of the Caribbean

How Piracy Forged an Empire

Author: Jon Latimer

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674034031

Category: History

Page: 342

View: 524

During the seventeenth century, sea raiders known as buccaneers controlled the Caribbean. Buccaneers were not pirates but privateers, licensed to attack the Spanish by the governments of England, France, and Holland. Jon Latimer charts the exploits of these men who followed few rules as they forged new empires. From the crash of gunfire to the billowing sail on the horizon, Latimer brilliantly evokes the dramatic age of the buccaneers.

Knock at the Door of Opportunity

Black Migration to Chicago, 1900-1919

Author: Christopher Robert Reed

Publisher: SIU Press

ISBN: 0809333341

Category: History

Page: 390

View: 8106

Disputing the so-called ghetto studies that depicted the early part of the twentieth century as the nadir of African American society, this thoughtful volume by Christopher Robert Reed investigates black life in turn-of-the-century Chicago, revealing a vibrant community that grew and developed on Chicago’s South Side in the early 1900s. Reed also explores the impact of the fifty thousand black southerners who streamed into the city during the Great Migration of 1916–1918, effectively doubling Chicago’s African American population. Those already residing in Chicago’s black neighborhoods had a lot in common with those who migrated, Reed demonstrates, and the two groups became unified, building a broad community base able to face discrimination and prejudice while contributing to Chicago’s growth and development. Reed not only explains how Chicago’s African Americans openly competed with white people for jobs, housing and an independent political voice but also examines the structure of the society migrants entered and helped shape. Other topics include South Side housing, black politics and protest, the role of institutionalized religion, the economic aspects of African American life, the push for citizenship rights and political power for African Americans, and the impact of World War I and the race riot of 1919. The first comprehensive exploration of black life in turn-of-the-century Chicago beyond the mold of a ghetto perspective, this revealing work demonstrates how the melding of migrants and residents allowed for the building of a Black Metropolis in the 1920s. 2015 ISHS Superior Achievement Award

Competition in the Promised Land

Black Migrants in Northern Cities and Labor Markets

Author: Leah Platt Boustan

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400882974

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 216

View: 7780

From 1940 to 1970, nearly four million black migrants left the American rural South to settle in the industrial cities of the North and West. Competition in the Promised Land provides a comprehensive account of the long-lasting effects of the influx of black workers on labor markets and urban space in receiving areas. Traditionally, the Great Black Migration has been lauded as a path to general black economic progress. Leah Boustan challenges this view, arguing instead that the migration produced winners and losers within the black community. Boustan shows that migrants themselves gained tremendously, more than doubling their earnings by moving North. But these new arrivals competed with existing black workers, limiting black–white wage convergence in Northern labor markets and slowing black economic growth. Furthermore, many white households responded to the black migration by relocating to the suburbs. White flight was motivated not only by neighborhood racial change but also by the desire on the part of white residents to avoid participating in the local public services and fiscal obligations of increasingly diverse cities. Employing historical census data and state-of-the-art econometric methods, Competition in the Promised Land revises our understanding of the Great Black Migration and its role in the transformation of American society.