Justifying Interventions in Africa

(De)Stabilizing Sovereignty in Liberia, Burundi and the Congo

Author: Nina Wilén

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 0230313981

Category: Political Science

Page: 225

View: 1213

The Study of Sovereignty, Intervention and Peace Operations in International Relations Analysing a Moving Target: Sovereignty, a Complex Concept Intervention, Justifications and Interpretations: The Case of ECOWAS in Liberia Sanctions, Justifications and Reactions: The Case of the Regional Initiative in Burundi Intervention, Justifications and Interpretations: The Case of SADC in Congo Capacity-Building and Local Ownership: Indicators of Sovereignty? (De)Stabilization - So What?: An Analysis of the Political Consequences of the Interventions on a Regional and International Level Concluding Remarks.

African Foreign Policies in International Institutions

Author: Jason Warner,Timothy M. Shaw

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137575743

Category: Political Science

Page: 430

View: 2639

This book is the first to exclusively consider the foreign policy tendencies of African states in international institutions. As an edited volume offering empirically based perspectives from a variety of scholars, this project disabuses the notion that Africa should be considered a "niche" interest in the field of foreign policy analysis. It asserts that the actions of the continent's states collectively serve as an important heuristic by which to interrogate and understand the foreign policies of other global states, and are not simply "anomalously" extant entities whose actions should be studied only insofar as they deviate from predictions based on the experiences of Western or other non-African states.

Responding to Conflict in Africa

The United Nations and Regional Organizations

Author: J. Boulden

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 113736758X

Category: Political Science

Page: 340

View: 1440

Using nine case studies and an overview of recent changes at the institutional level, the purpose of this book is to examine the issues and experiences associated with the increased level of activity between the United Nations and regional organizations in their efforts to address conflict in Africa.

The Use of Force in International Law

A Case-Based Approach

Author: Tom Ruys,Olivier Corten,Alexandra Hofer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191087181

Category: Law

Page: 750

View: 7771

The international law on the use of force is one of the oldest branches of international law. It is an area twinned with the emergence of international law as a concept in itself, and which sees law and politics collide. The number of armed conflicts is equal only to the number of methodological approaches used to describe them. Many violent encounters are well known. The Kosovo Crisis in 1999 and the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 spring easily to the minds of most scholars and academics, and gain extensive coverage in this text. Other conflicts, including the Belgian operation in Stanleyville, and the Ethiopian Intervention in Somalia, are often overlooked to our peril. Ruys and Corten's expert-written text compares over sixty different instances of the use of cross border force since the adoption of the UN Charter in 1945, from all out warfare to hostile encounters between individual units, targeted killings, and hostage rescue operations, to ask a complex question. How much authority does the power of precedent really have in the law of the use of force?

Security and Stability in Africa

A Development Approach

Author: Clarence J. Bouchat

Publisher: Strategic Studies Institute

ISBN: 158487421X

Category: Africa

Page: 155

View: 464

The security and stability of Africa has recently become an important national issue readily seen in the increased time, effort, and resources now devoted to the continent by such new organizations as the U.S. Africa Command (USAFRICOM). This paper seeks to overcome centuries of ignorance and misunderstanding about the conditions and people of Africa by discussing the fundamental issues of economic development and political governance through which enduring stability and security might be obtained. This paper offers solutions in terms of improving African stability and security and a framework of several key issues which should give policymakers the knowledge they need to work in a constantly changing and very challenging environment.--

Security Sector Reform in Conflict-Affected Countries

The Evolution of a Model

Author: Mark Sedra

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317390806

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 9873

This book examines the evolution, impact, and future prospects of the Security Sector Reform (SSR) model in conflict-affected countries in the context of the wider debate over the liberal peace project. Since its emergence as a concept in the late 1990s, SSR has represented a paradigm shift in security assistance, from the realist, regime-centric, train-and-equip approach of the Cold War to a new liberal, holistic and people-centred model. The rapid rise of this model, however, belied its rather meagre impact on the ground. This book critically examines the concept and its record of achievement over the past two decades, putting it into the broader context of peace-building and state-building theory and practice. It focuses attention on the most common, celebrated and complex setting for SSR, conflict-affected environments, and comparatively examines the application and impacts of donor-supported SSR programing in a series of conflict-affected countries over the past two decades, including Afghanistan, Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, East Timor and Bosnia-Herzegovina. The broader aim of the book is to better understand how the contemporary SSR model has coalesced over the past two decades and become mainstreamed in international development and security policy and practice. This provides a solid foundation to investigate the reasons for the poor performance of the model and to assess its prospects for the future. This book will be of much interest to students of international security, peacebuilding, statebuilding, development studies and IR in general.

Dead Aid

Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is a Better Way for Africa

Author: Dambisa Moyo

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 9780374139568

Category: Political Science

Page: 188

View: 3651

Describes the state of postwar development policy in Africa that has channeled billions of dollars in aid but failed to either reduce poverty or increase growth, offering a hopeful vision of how to address the problem.

An African Peace Process

Mandela, South Africa, and Burundi

Author: Kristina A. Bentley,Roger Southall

Publisher: Human Sciences Research Council

ISBN: 9780796920904

Category: Political Science

Page: 220

View: 2825

The origins and nature of the civil war between the Tutsi ruling minority and the Hutu majority in Burundi are the focus in this analysis. Chapters discuss the problems of establishing democracy, the weapon of genocide, and the role of Nelson Mandela as a mediator between the warring sides with the hope of promoting demilitarization and a sustained peace.

The Future of African Peace Operations

From the Janjaweed to Boko Haram

Author: Cedric De Coning,Linnéa Gelot,John Karlsrud

Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.

ISBN: 1783607114

Category: Political Science

Page: 168

View: 8389

Facing threats ranging from Islamist insurgencies to the Ebola pandemic, African regional actors are playing an increasingly vital role in safeguarding peace and stability across the continent. But while the African Union has demonstrated its ability to deploy forces on short notice and in difficult circumstances, the challenges posed by increasingly complex conflict zones have revealed a widening divide between the theory and practice of peacekeeping. With the AU's African Standby Force becoming fully operational in 2016, this timely and much-needed work argues that responding to these challenges will require a new and distinctively African model of peacekeeping, as well as a radical revision of the current African security framework. The first book to provide a comprehensive overview and analysis of African peace operations, The Future of African Peace Operations gives a long overdue assessment of the ways in which peacekeeping on the continent has evolved over the past decade. It will be a vital resource for policy makers, researchers and all those seeking solutions and insights into the immense security challenges which Africa is facing today.

How Europe Underdeveloped Africa

Author: Walter Rodney

Publisher: Verso Books

ISBN: 1788731204

Category: History

Page: 312

View: 5543

The classic work of political, economic, and historical analysis, powerfully introduced by Angela Davis In his short life, the Guyanese intellectual Walter Rodney emerged as one of the leading thinkers and activists of the anticolonial revolution, leading movements in North America, South America, the African continent, and the Caribbean. In each locale, Rodney found himself a lightning rod for working class Black Power. His deportation catalyzed 20th century Jamaica's most significant rebellion, the 1968 Rodney riots, and his scholarship trained a generation how to think politics at an international scale. In 1980, shortly after founding of the Working People's Alliance in Guyana, the 38-year-old Rodney would be assassinated. In his magnum opus, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Rodney incisively argues that grasping "the great divergence" between the west and the rest can only be explained as the exploitation of the latter by the former. This meticulously researched analysis of the abiding repercussions of European colonialism on the continent of Africa has not only informed decades of scholarship and activism, it remains an indispensable study for grasping global inequality today.

Yes, Africa Can

Success Stories from a Dynamic Continent

Author: Punam Chuhan-Pole,Manka Angwafo

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821387456

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 477

View: 8685

Takes an in-depth look at twenty-six economic and social development successes in Sub-Saharan African countries, and addresses how these countries have overcome major developmental challenges.

Aid and Authoritarianism in Africa

Development without Democracy

Author: Tobias Hagmann,Professor Filip Reyntjens

Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.

ISBN: 1783606312

Category: Political Science

Page: 192

View: 7960

In 2013 almost half of Africa's top aid recipients were ruled by authoritarian regimes. While the West may claim to promote democracy and human rights, in practice major bilateral and international donors, such as USAID, DFID, the World Bank and the European Commission, have seen their aid policies become ever more entangled with the survival of their authoritarian protégés. Local citizens thus find themselves at the receiving end of a compromise between aid agencies and government elites, in which development policies are shaped in the interests of maintaining the status quo. Aid and Authoritarianism in Africa sheds light on the political intricacies and moral dilemmas raised by the relationship between foreign aid and autocratic rule in Africa. Through contributions by leading experts exploring the revival of authoritarian development politics in Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, Cameroon, Mozambique and Angola, the book exposes shifting donor interests and rhetoric as well as the impact of foreign aid on military assistance, rural development, electoral processes and domestic politics. In the process, it raises an urgent and too often neglected question: to what extent are foreign aid programmes actually perpetuating authoritarian rule?

Regional Economic Communities and Peacebuilding in Africa

The Experiences of Ecowas and Igad

Author: Victor Adebola O. Adetula,Redie Bereketeab,Olugbemi Jaiyebo

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9789171067982

Category:

Page: 50

View: 8091

Although primarily set up to promote economic integration, Africa's Regional Economic Communities (RECs), have taken a prominent role in conflict resolution and peace support operations. This policy dialogue examines the performance of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD).

Budgeting for the Military Sector in Africa

The Process and Mechanisms of Control

Author: Wuyi Omitoogun,Eboe Hutchful

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199262663

Category: Political Science

Page: 293

View: 1641

In this comprehensive study, 12 experts describe and analyse the military budgetary processes and degree of oversight and control in eight African countries-Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and South Africa-spanning the continent's sub-regions. Each country study addresses a wide range of questions, such as the roles of the finance and defence ministries, budget offices, audit departments and external actors in the military budgetary processes; the extent ofcompliance with standard public expenditure management procedures; and how well official military expenditure figures reflect the true economic resources devoted to military activities in these countries. The framework for the country studies is provided by a detailed model for good practice in budgeting for the military sector. The individual studies are tied together by a synthesis chapter, which provides a comparative analysis of the studies, classifies the eight countries according to their adherence to the principles of public expenditure management and explains why individual countries find themselves with a certain classification. The book draws on the results of the country studies and their analysis by making concrete recommendations to the governments of African countries and the international community. While the military sector in many African states is believed to be favoured in terms of resource allocation and degree of political autonomy, it is not subject to the same rules and procedures as other sectors. Because of the unique role of the armed forces as the guarantor of national security, and their demand for a high degree of confidentiality in certain activities, the military sector receives a significant proportion of state resources and is not subject to public scrutiny. The book argues that while the military sector requires some confidentiality it should be subject to the same standard procedures and rules followed by other state sectors.

Humanitarian Negotiations Revealed

The MSF Experience

Author: Claire Magone,Michael Neuman,Fabrice Weissman

Publisher: Hurst

ISBN: 1849045267

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 5316

From international NGOs to UN agencies, from donors to observers of humanitarianism, opinion is unanimous: in a context of the alleged "clash of civilizations", our "humanitarian space" is shrinking. Put another way, the freedom of action and of speech of humanitarians is being eroded due to the radicalisation of conflicts and the reaffirmation of state sovereignty over aid actors and policies. The purpose of this book is to challenge this assumption through an analysis of the events that have marked MSF's history since 2003 (when MSF published its first general work on humanitarian action and its relationships with governments). It addresses the evolution of humanitarian goals, the resistance to these goals and the political arrangements that overcame this resistance (or that failed to do so). The contributors seek to analyse the political transactions and balances of power and interests that allow aid activities to move forward, but that are usually masked by the lofty rhetoric of "humanitarian principles". They focus on one key question: what is an acceptable compromise for MSF? This book seeks to puncture a number of the myths that have grown up over the forty years since MSF was founded and describes in detail how the ideals of humanitarian principles and "humanitarian space" operating in conflict zones are in reality illusory. How, in fact, it is the grubby negotiations with varying parties, each of whom have their own vested interests, that may allow organisations such as MSF to operate in a given crisis situation - or not.

The Responsibility to Protect

Ending Mass Atrocity Crimes Once and For All

Author: Gareth Evans

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815701804

Category: Political Science

Page: 349

View: 7325

"Never again!" the world has vowed time and again since the Holocaust. Yet genocide, ethnic cleansing, and other mass atrocity crimes continue to shock our consciences—from the killing fields of Cambodia to the machetes of Rwanda to the agony of Darfur. Gareth Evans has grappled with these issues firsthand. As Australian foreign minister, he was a key broker of the United Nations peace plan for Cambodia. As president of the International Crisis Group, he now works on the prevention and resolution of scores of conflicts and crises worldwide. The primary architect of and leading authority on the Responsibility to Protect ("R2P"), he shows here how this new international norm can once and for all prevent a return to the killing fields. The Responsibility to Protect captures a simple and powerful idea. The primary responsibility for protecting its own people from mass atrocity crimes lies with the state itself. State sovereignty implies responsibility, not a license to kill. But when a state is unwilling or unable to halt or avert such crimes, the wider international community then has a collective responsibility to take whatever action is necessary. R2P emphasizes preventive action above all. That includes assistance for states struggling to contain potential crises and for effective rebuilding after a crisis or conflict to tackle its underlying causes. R2P's primary tools are persuasion and support, not military or other coercion. But sometimes it is right to fight: faced with another Rwanda, the world cannot just stand by. R2P was unanimously adopted by the UN General Assembly at the 2005 World Summit. But many misunderstandings persist about its scope and limits. And much remains to be done to solidify political support and to build institutional capacity. Evans shows, compellingly, how big a break R2P represents from the past, and how, with its acceptance in principle and effective application in practice, the promise of "Never again!" can at last become a reality.