Interpersonal Comparisons of Well-Being

Author: Jon Elster,John E. Roemer

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521457224

Category: Philosophy

Page: 400

View: 9229

In this volume a diverse group of economists, philosophers, political scientists, and psychologists address the problems, principles, and practices involved in comparing the well-being of different individuals. A series of questions lie at the heart of this investigation: What is the relevant concept of well-being for the purposes of comparison? How could the comparisons be carried out for policy purposes? How are such comparisons made now? How do the difficulties involved in these comparisons affect the status of utilitarian theories? This collection constitutes the most advanced and comprehensive treatment of one of the cardinal issues in social theory.

The Oxford Handbook of Well-Being and Public Policy

Author: Matthew D. Adler,Marc Fleurbaey

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199325839

Category: Law

Page: 848

View: 4741

What are the methodologies for assessing and improving governmental policy in light of well-being? The Oxford Handbook of Well-Being and Public Policy provides a comprehensive, interdisciplinary treatment of this topic. The contributors draw from welfare economics, moral philosophy, and psychology and are leading scholars in these fields. The Handbook includes thirty chapters divided into four Parts. Part I covers the full range of methodologies for evaluating governmental policy and assessing societal condition-including both the leading approaches in current use by policymakers and academics (such as GDP, cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, inequality and poverty metrics, and the concept of the "social welfare function"), and emerging techniques. Part II focuses on the nature of well-being. What, most fundamentally, determines whether an individual life is better or worse for the person living it? Her happiness? Her preference-satisfaction? Her attainment of various "objective goods"? Part III addresses the measurement of well-being and the thorny topic of interpersonal comparisons. How can we construct a meaningful scale of individual welfare, which allows for comparisons of well-being levels and differences, both within one individual's life, and across lives? Finally, Part IV reviews the major challenges to designing governmental policy around individual well-being.

Cost-benefit analysis is not scientific, because it requires interpersonal comparisons of well-being

Author: Jens Gehrmann

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3638116433

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 8

View: 4908

Seminar paper from the year 2000 in the subject Economics - Micro-economics, grade: 1,7 (A-), Royal Holloway, University of London (Department of Economics), course: Public Economics, 10 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: This essay is meant to give a brief overview of Cost-benefits-Analysis as part of public economics and should discuss especially the distribution of gains and losses caused by a public project. Economic methods of nearly exact estimation of particularly intangible, but also tangible elements and the examinations of market failures, which are intentionally left out.

Economic Analysis and Moral Philosophy

Author: Daniel M. Hausman,Michael S. McPherson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521558501

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 249

View: 6052

Understanding moral philosophy can help one to do economics better, and philosophers can learn by drawing on economic insights and analytical tools. This book argues that standard views of rationality lead economists to espouse questionable moral principles, and discusses methods of economic evaluation in terms of welfare and other moral criteria. It also contains a brief discussion of the relevance of social choice and game theory to philosophy. There is a glossary and at the end of each chapter are suggestions for further reading.

Die Psychologie der Entscheidung

Eine Einführung

Author: Hans-Rüdiger Pfister,Helmut Jungermann,Katrin Fischer

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662530384

Category: Psychology

Page: 457

View: 7962

Dieses Lehrbuch beschreibt, wie sich Menschen entscheiden, und erklärt, warum Menschen manchmal zu Beurteilungen und Entscheidungen kommen, die aus der Perspektive rationaler Entscheidungen nicht optimal sind. Das allgemein verständlich geschriebene Werk richtet sich an Studierende, an Wissenschaftler und an alle Leser, die an den psychologischen Prozessen interessiert sind, die unsere Urteile und Entscheidungen beeinflussen. Leser lernen hier die wichtigsten psychologischen Theorien und Forschungsergebnisse der Entscheidungspsychologie kennen: Wie entstehen Präferenzen, wie gehen Menschen mit Zielkonflikten und mit Unsicherheit um, und welche Rolle spielen Emotion und Intuition beim Entscheiden. Auch erfahren Sie über Entscheidungen in interessanten Anwendungsfeldern: Entscheidungen an der Börse, im Cockpit und im Gesundheitswesen. In dieser 4. Auflage wurden alle Kapitel komplett überarbeitet und auf den neuesten Stand gebracht. Zwei zusätzliche Kapitel erweitern das Themenspektrum, zum einen geht es um die Rolle von Emotionen bei Entscheidungen, zum anderen um die Integration von Entscheidungsprozessen in übergreifende kognitive Theorien. Die Entscheidungspsychologie ist Prüfungsstoff im Fach Allgemeine Psychologie, in der Sozialpsychologie und in der Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie. Sie spielt eine wesentliche Rolle in den Wirtschaftswissenschaften (Behavioral Economics) und in anderen Sozialwissenschaften wie der Soziologie und den politischen Wissenschaften. In Bereichen wie der Medizin und dem Gesundheitswesen oder bei der Analyse technischer und gesellschaftlicher Risiken finden entscheidungspsychologische Faktoren zunehmend Beachtung.

Valuing Health

Well-Being, Freedom, and Suffering

Author: Daniel M. Hausman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190233214

Category: Medical

Page: 304

View: 5398

In Valuing Health Daniel M. Hausman provides a philosophically sophisticated overview of generic health measurement that suggests improvements in standard methods and proposes a radical alternative. He shows how to avoid relying on surveys and instead evaluate health states directly. Hausman goes on to tackle the deep problems of evaluation, offering an account of fundamental evaluation that does not presuppose the assignment of values to the properties and consequences of alternatives. After discussing the purposes of generic health measurement, Hausman defends a naturalistic concept of health and its relations to measures such as quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). In examining current health-measurement systems, Valuing Health clarifies their value commitments and the objections to relying on preference surveys to assign values to health states. Relying on an interpretation of liberal political philosophy, Hausman argues that the public value of health states should be understood in terms of the activity limits and suffering that health states impose. Hausman also addresses the moral conundrums that arise when policy-makers attempt to employ the values of health states to estimate the health benefits of alternative policies and to adopt the most cost-effective. He concludes with a general discussion of the difficulties of combining consequentialist and non-consequentialist moral considerations in policy-making.

Capabilities - Handlungsbefähigung und Verwirklichungschancen in der Erziehungswissenschaft

Author: Hans-Uwe Otto,Holger Ziegler

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 9783531167602

Category: Social Science

Page: 198

View: 472

Mit diesem international besetzen Sammelband wird das Thema des 'Capability Approach' erstmals für die deutschsprachige Erziehungswissenschaft zusammengefasst. In der Bestimmung und Definition von 'Handlungsbefähigung' wird der Versuch unternommen, sowohl pädagogisch als auch sozialanalytisch zu einem neuen Gerechtigkeitsbegriff zu kommen, der die Zukunft der Erziehungswissenschaft maßgeblich beeinflussen kann.

American Gridlock

Why the Right and Left Are Both Wrong - Commonsense 101 Solutions to the Economic Crises

Author: H. Woody Brock

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118234626

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 304

View: 3203

A sensible solution to getting our economy back on track Pessimism is ubiquitous throughout the Western World as thepressing issues of massive debt, high unemployment, and anemiceconomic growth divide the populace into warring political camps.Right-and Left-wing ideologues talk past each other, with neitherside admitting the other has any good ideas. In AmericanGridlock, leading economist and political theorist H. WoodyBrock bridges the Left/Right divide, illuminating a clear path outof our economic quagmire. Arguing from first principles and with rigorous logic, Brockdemonstrates that the choice before us is not between freemarket capitalism and a government-driven economy. Rather, thesolution to our problems will require enactment of constructivepolicies that allow "true" capitalism to flourish even as theyincorporate social policies that help those who truly need it. Brock demonstrates how deductive logic (as opposed toideologically driven data analysis) can transform the way we thinkabout these problems and lead us to new and different solutionsthat cross the ideological divide. Drawing on new theories such asgame theory and the economics of uncertainty that are based upondeductive logic, Brock reveals fresh ideas for tackling issuescentral to the 2012 U.S, Presidential election and to thenation’s long-run future: Demonstrating that the concept of a government“deficit” is highly problematic since it blinds us tothe distinction between a good deficit and a bad deficit –where a deficit is good if it results from borrowing dedicated toproductive investment rather than to unproductive spending. Deriving the need for a U.S. Marshall Plan dedicated to veryhigh levels of profitable infrastructure spending as the solutionto today’s Lost Decade of high unemployment Drawing upon a logical extension of the Law of Supply andDemand to demonstrate how the health-care spending crisis can becompletely resolved by letting supply increase at a faster ratethan demand Utilizing the theory of bargaining inaugurated by the“Beautiful Mind” mathematician John F. Nash, Jr., tohelp us avoid being repeatedly duped in our negotiations withChina Making use of a completely new theory of market risk recentlydeveloped at Stanford University to demonstrate why dramaticallylimiting leverage is the key reform to preventing future PerfectStorms, whereas hoping to banish “greed” amounts towhistling Dixie Deducting from first principles a solution to the contentiousissue of fair shares of the economic pie, a solution thatintegrates the two fundamental norms of “to each according tohis contribution” and “to each according to hisneed.” Profound, timely and important, American Gridlock cutsthrough the stale biases of the Right and Left, advances new waysof thinking, and provides creative solutions to the problems thatthreaten American society.

Armut und Reichtum an Verwirklichungschancen

Amartya Sens Capability-Konzept als Grundlage der Armuts- und Reichtumsberichterstattung

Author: Jürgen Volkert

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 332286894X

Category: Social Science

Page: 309

View: 5518

Das Konzept der Verwirklichungschancen (Capabilities) des Ökonomienobelpreisträgers Amartya Sen bildet eine neue Grundlage der deutschen Armuts- und Reichtumsberichterstattung. Dieser Sammelband zum Capability-Ansatz diskutiert konzeptionelle Grundlagen sowie mögliche Anwendungen auf Armuts- und Reichtumsfragen ebenso wie Forschungsperspektiven.

Handbook of Income Distribution

Author: Anthony B. Atkinson,Francois Bourguignon

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444594760

Category: Social Science

Page: 2366

View: 1856

What new theories, evidence, explanations, and policies have shaped our studies of income distribution in the 21st century? Editors Tony Atkinson and Francois Bourguignon assemble the expertise of leading authorities in this survey of substantive issues. In two volumes they address subjects that were not covered in Volume 1 (2000), such as education, health and experimental economics; and subjects that were covered but where there have been substantial new developments, such as the historical study of income inequality and globalization. Some chapters discuss future growth areas, such as inheritance, the links between inequality and macro-economics and finance, and the distributional implications of climate change. They also update empirical advances and major changes in the policy environment. The volumes define and organize key areas of income distribution studies Contributors focus on identifying newly developing questions and opportunities for future research The authoritative articles emphasize the ways that income mobility and inequality studies have recently gained greater political significance

Handbook of Utility Theory

Volume 2: Extensions

Author: Salvador Barbera,Peter Hammond,Christian Seidl

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402077142

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 626

View: 3048

The main purpose of the Handbook of Utility Theory is to make more widely available some recent developments in the area. The editors selected a list of topics that seemed ripe enough to be covered by review articles. Then they invited contributions from researchers whose expert work had come to their attention. So the list of topics and contributors is largely the editors' responsibility. Each contributor's chapter has been refereed, and revised according to the referees' remarks. Whereas Volume I of the Handbook of Utility Theory is largely concentrated on basic theory, the present volume is concerned with extensions and applications to other branches of economic theory. Taken together, these first two volumes contain all the purely theoretical material that the editors planned to cover. The chapters on experimental and empirical research on utility and the chapters on the history of utility theory will appear in Volume III.

The Oxford Handbook of Political Economy

Author: Barry R. Weingast,Donald Wittman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199548471

Category: Philosophy

Page: 1112

View: 5798

Oxford Handbooks of Political Science are the essential guide to the state of political science today. With engaging contributions from 71 major international scholars, the Oxford Handbook of Political Economy provides the key point of reference for anyone working in political economy and beyond.

A Theory of Justice

Author: John Rawls

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780198250548

Category: Ethics

Page: 538

View: 9428

In this work the author argues that the correct principles of justice are those that would be agreed to by free and rational persons, placed in the original position behind a veil of ignorance: not knowing their own place in society; their class, race, or sex; their abilities, intelligence, or strengths; or even their conception ofthe good. Accordingly, he derives two principles of justice to regulate the distribution of liberties, and of social and economic goods. In this new edition the work is presented as Rawls himself wishes it to be transmitted to posterity, with numerous minor revisions and amendments and a new Preface in which Rawls reflects on his presentation of his thesis and explains how and why he has revised it.

Libertarianism without Inequality

Author: Michael Otsuka

Publisher: Clarendon Press

ISBN: 0191037265

Category: Philosophy

Page: 170

View: 6381

Michael Otsuka sets out to vindicate left-libertarianism, a political philosophy which combines stringent rights of control over one's own mind, body, and life with egalitarian rights of ownership of the world. Otsuka reclaims the ideas of John Locke from the libertarian Right, and shows how his Second Treatise of Government provides the theoretical foundations for a left-libertarianism which is both more libertarian and more egalitarian than the Kantian liberal theories of John Rawls and Thomas Nagel. Otsuka's libertarianism is founded on a right of self-ownership. Here he is at one with 'right-wing' libertarians, such as Robert Nozick, in endorsing the highly anti-paternalistic and anti-moralistic implications of this right. But he parts company with these libertarians in so far as he argues that such a right is compatible with a fully egalitarian principle of equal opportunity for welfare. In embracing this principle, his own version of left-libertarianism is more strongly egalitarian than others which are currently well known. Otsuka argues that an account of legitimate political authority based upon the free consent of each is strengthened by the adoption of such an egalitarian principle. He defends a pluralistic, decentralized ideal of political society as a confederation of voluntary associations. Part I of Libertarianism without Inequality concerns the natural rights of property in oneself and the world. Part II considers the natural rights of punishment and self-defence that form the basis for the government's authority to legislate and punish. Part III explores the nature and limits of the powers of governments which are created by the consensual transfer of the natural rights of the governed. Libertarianism without Inequality is a book which everyone interested in political theory should read.

Well-Being and Fair Distribution

Beyond Cost-Benefit Analysis

Author: Matthew Adler

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195384997

Category: Law

Page: 635

View: 2982

A comprehensive philosophically grounded argument for the use of social welfare functions as a framework for governmental policy analysis.

The Coming Prosperity

How Entrepreneurs Are Transforming the Global Economy

Author: Philip Auerswald

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199930848

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 280

View: 8596

Ours is the most dynamic era in human history. The benefits of four centuries of technological and organizational change are at last reaching a previously excluded global majority. This transformation will create large-scale opportunities in richer countries like the United States just as it has in poorer countries now in the ascent. In The Coming Prosperity, Philip E. Auerswald argues that it is time to overcome the outdated narratives of fear that dominate public discourse and to grasp the powerful momentum of progress. Acknowledging the gravity of today's greatest global challenges--like climate change, water scarcity, and rapid urbanization--Auerswald emphasizes that the choices we make today will determine the extent and reach of the coming prosperity. To make the most of this epochal transition, he writes, the key is entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs introduce new products and services, expand the range of global knowledge networks, and, most importantly, challenge established business interests, maintaining the vitality of mature capitalist economies and enhancing the viability of emerging ones. Auerswald frames narratives of inspiring entrepreneurs within the sweep of human history. The book's deft analysis of economic trends is enlivened by stories of entrepreneurs making an outsize difference in their communities and the world--people like Karim Khoja, who led the creation of the first mobile phone company in Afghanistan; Leila Janah, who is bringing digital-age opportunity to talented people trapped in refugee camps; and Victoria Hale, whose non-profit pharmaceutical company turned an orphan drug into a cure for black fever. Engagingly written and bracingly realistic about the prospects of our historical moment, The Coming Prosperity disarms the current narratives of fear and brings to light the vast new opportunities in the expanding global economy.

Cultures. Conflict - Analysis - Dialogue

Proceedings of the 29th International Ludwig Wittgenstein-Symposium in Kirchberg, Austria

Author: Christian Kanzian,Edmund Runggaldier SJ

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110328933

Category: Philosophy

Page: 431

View: 3736

What can systematic philosophy contribute to come from conflict between cultures to a substantial dialogue? - This question was the general theme of the 29th international symposium of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society in Kirchberg. Worldwide leading philosophers accepted the invitation to come to the conference, whose results are published in this volume, edited by Christian Kanzian Edmund Runggaldier. The sections are dedicated to the philosophy of Wittgenstein, Logics and Philosophy of Language, Decision- and Action Theory, Ethical Aspects of the Intercultural Dialogue, Intercultural Dialogue, and last not least to Social Ontology. Our edition include (among others) contributions authored by Peter Hacker, Jennifer Hornsby, John Hyman, Michael Kober, Richard Rorty, Hans Rott, Gerhard Schurz, Barry Smith, Pirmin Stekeler-Weithofer, Franz Wimmer, and Kwasi Wiredu.

Elements of a Critical Theory of Justice

Author: Gustavo Pereira

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137263385

Category: Political Science

Page: 246

View: 497

The capacity to take part in dialogues and justify one's positions constitutes the normative core of critical social justice. Ensuring this capacity to every citizen is the main objective of justice, which requires transforming social structures and relations as well as counteracting the effects of capitalist dynamics.