Inference in Hidden Markov Models

Author: Olivier Cappé,Eric Moulines,Tobias Ryden

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387289828

Category: Mathematics

Page: 653

View: 3133

This book is a comprehensive treatment of inference for hidden Markov models, including both algorithms and statistical theory. Topics range from filtering and smoothing of the hidden Markov chain to parameter estimation, Bayesian methods and estimation of the number of states. In a unified way the book covers both models with finite state spaces and models with continuous state spaces (also called state-space models) requiring approximate simulation-based algorithms that are also described in detail. Many examples illustrate the algorithms and theory. This book builds on recent developments to present a self-contained view.

Hidden Markov Models for Time Series

An Introduction Using R, Second Edition

Author: Walter Zucchini,Iain L. MacDonald,Roland Langrock

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482253844

Category: Mathematics

Page: 370

View: 4185

Hidden Markov Models for Time Series: An Introduction Using R, Second Edition illustrates the great flexibility of hidden Markov models (HMMs) as general-purpose models for time series data. The book provides a broad understanding of the models and their uses. After presenting the basic model formulation, the book covers estimation, forecasting, decoding, prediction, model selection, and Bayesian inference for HMMs. Through examples and applications, the authors describe how to extend and generalize the basic model so that it can be applied in a rich variety of situations. The book demonstrates how HMMs can be applied to a wide range of types of time series: continuous-valued, circular, multivariate, binary, bounded and unbounded counts, and categorical observations. It also discusses how to employ the freely available computing environment R to carry out the computations. Features Presents an accessible overview of HMMs Explores a variety of applications in ecology, finance, epidemiology, climatology, and sociology Includes numerous theoretical and programming exercises Provides most of the analysed data sets online New to the second edition A total of five chapters on extensions, including HMMs for longitudinal data, hidden semi-Markov models and models with continuous-valued state process New case studies on animal movement, rainfall occurrence and capture–recapture data

Hidden Markov Models

Applications in Computer Vision

Author: Horst Bunke,Terry Caelli

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814491470

Category: Computers

Page: 244

View: 5208

Hidden Markov models (HMMs) originally emerged in the domain of speech recognition. In recent years, they have attracted growing interest in the area of computer vision as well. This book is a collection of articles on new developments in the theory of HMMs and their application in computer vision. It addresses topics such as handwriting recognition, shape recognition, face and gesture recognition, tracking, and image database retrieval. This book is also published as a special issue of the International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence (February 2001). Contents: Introduction: A Simple Complex in Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (B H Juang)An Introduction to Hidden Markov Models and Bayesian Networks (Z Chahramani)Multi-Lingual Machine Printed OCR (P Natarajan et al.)Using a Statistical Language Model to Improve the Performance of an HMM-Based Cursive Handwriting Recognition System (U-V Marti & H Bunke)A 2-D HMM Method for Offline Handwritten Character Recognition (H-S Park et al.)Data-Driven Design of HMM Topology for Online Handwriting Recognition (J J Lee et al.)Hidden Markov Models for Modeling and Recognizing Gesture Under Variation (A D Wilson & A F Bobick)Sentence Lipreading Using Hidden Markov Model with Integrated Grammar (K Yu et al.)Tracking and Surveillance in Wide-Area Spatial Environments Using the Abstract Hidden Markov Model (H H Bui et al.)Shape Tracking and Production Using Hidden Markov Models (T Caelli et al.)An Integrated Approach to Shape and Color-Based Image Retrieval of Rotated Objects Using Hidden Markov Models (S Müller et al.) Readership: Graduate students of computer science, electrical engineering and related fields, as well as researchers at academic and industrial institutions. Keywords:Hidden Markov Models;Gesture Recognitoin;Bayesian Networks;Optical Character Recognition;Handwriting Character Recognition;Cartography;Shape Extraction;Image Feature Extraction.

Hidden Markov Models

Estimation and Control

Author: Robert J Elliott,Lakhdar Aggoun,John B. Moore

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387848541

Category: Science

Page: 382

View: 4895

As more applications are found, interest in Hidden Markov Models continues to grow. Following comments and feedback from colleagues, students and other working with Hidden Markov Models the corrected 3rd printing of this volume contains clarifications, improvements and some new material, including results on smoothing for linear Gaussian dynamics. In Chapter 2 the derivation of the basic filters related to the Markov chain are each presented explicitly, rather than as special cases of one general filter. Furthermore, equations for smoothed estimates are given. The dynamics for the Kalman filter are derived as special cases of the authors’ general results and new expressions for a Kalman smoother are given. The Chapters on the control of Hidden Markov Chains are expanded and clarified. The revised Chapter 4 includes state estimation for discrete time Markov processes and Chapter 12 has a new section on robust control.

Hidden Semi-Markov Models

Theory, Algorithms and Applications

Author: Shun-Zheng Yu

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 0128027711

Category: Computers

Page: 208

View: 5610

Hidden semi-Markov models (HSMMs) are among the most important models in the area of artificial intelligence / machine learning. Since the first HSMM was introduced in 1980 for machine recognition of speech, three other HSMMs have been proposed, with various definitions of duration and observation distributions. Those models have different expressions, algorithms, computational complexities, and applicable areas, without explicitly interchangeable forms. Hidden Semi-Markov Models: Theory, Algorithms and Applications provides a unified and foundational approach to HSMMs, including various HSMMs (such as the explicit duration, variable transition, and residential time of HSMMs), inference and estimation algorithms, implementation methods and application instances. Learn new developments and state-of-the-art emerging topics as they relate to HSMMs, presented with examples drawn from medicine, engineering and computer science. Discusses the latest developments and emerging topics in the field of HSMMs Includes a description of applications in various areas including, Human Activity Recognition, Handwriting Recognition, Network Traffic Characterization and Anomaly Detection, and Functional MRI Brain Mapping. Shows how to master the basic techniques needed for using HSMMs and how to apply them.

Speech Recognition and Understanding

Recent Advances, Trends and Applications

Author: Pietro Laface,Renato DeMori

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642766269

Category: Computers

Page: 559

View: 4377

The book collects the contributions to the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Speech Recognition and Understanding: Recent Advances, Trends and Applications", held in Cetraro, Italy, during the first two weeks of July 1990. This Institute focused on three topics that are considered of particular interest and rich of i'p.novation by researchers in the fields of speech recognition and understanding: Advances in Hidden Markov modeling, connectionist approaches to speech and language modeling, and linguistic processing including language and dialogue modeling. The purpose of any ASI is that of encouraging scientific communications between researchers of NATO countries through advanced tutorials and presentations: excellent tutorials were offered by invited speakers that present in this book 15 papers which sum marize or detail the topics covered in their lectures. The lectures were complemented by discussions, panel sections and by the presentation of related works carried on by some of the attending researchers: these presentations have been collected in 42 short contributions to the Proceedings. This volume, that the reader can find useful for an overview, although incomplete, of the state of the art in speech understanding, is divided into 6 Parts.

Hidden Markov Models in Finance

Author: Rogemar S. Mamon,Robert J Elliott

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387711635

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 186

View: 8069

A number of methodologies have been employed to provide decision making solutions globalized markets. Hidden Markov Models in Finance offers the first systematic application of these methods to specialized financial problems: option pricing, credit risk modeling, volatility estimation and more. The book provides tools for sorting through turbulence, volatility, emotion, chaotic events – the random "noise" of financial markets – to analyze core components.

Latent Markov Models for Longitudinal Data

Author: Francesco Bartolucci,Alessio Farcomeni,Fulvia Pennoni

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466583711

Category: Mathematics

Page: 252

View: 2141

Drawing on the authors’ extensive research in the analysis of categorical longitudinal data, Latent Markov Models for Longitudinal Data focuses on the formulation of latent Markov models and the practical use of these models. Numerous examples illustrate how latent Markov models are used in economics, education, sociology, and other fields. The R and MATLAB® routines used for the examples are available on the authors’ website. The book provides you with the essential background on latent variable models, particularly the latent class model. It discusses how the Markov chain model and the latent class model represent a useful paradigm for latent Markov models. The authors illustrate the assumptions of the basic version of the latent Markov model and introduce maximum likelihood estimation through the Expectation-Maximization algorithm. They also cover constrained versions of the basic latent Markov model, describe the inclusion of the individual covariates, and address the random effects and multilevel extensions of the model. After covering advanced topics, the book concludes with a discussion on Bayesian inference as an alternative to maximum likelihood inference. As longitudinal data become increasingly relevant in many fields, researchers must rely on specific statistical and econometric models tailored to their application. A complete overview of latent Markov models, this book demonstrates how to use the models in three types of analysis: transition analysis with measurement errors, analyses that consider unobserved heterogeneity, and finding clusters of units and studying the transition between the clusters.


Algorithms, Architectures and Applications

Author: Francoise Fogelman Soulie,Jeanny Herault

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642761534

Category: Computers

Page: 455

View: 3359

This volume contains the collected papers of the NATO Conference on Neurocomputing, held in Les Arcs in February 1989. For many of us, this conference was reminiscent of another NATO Conference, in 1985, on Disordered Systems [1], which was the first conference on neural nets to be held in France. To some of the participants that conference opened, in a way, the field of neurocomputing (somewhat exotic at that time!) and also allowed for many future fruitful contacts. Since then, the field of neurocomputing has very much evolved and its audience has increased so widely that meetings in the US have often gathered more than 2000 participants. However, the NATO workshops have a distinct atmosphere of free discussions and time for exchange, and so, in 1988, we decided to go for another session. This was an ~casion for me and some of the early birds of the 1985 conference to realize how much, and how little too, the field had matured.

Stochastic Filtering Theory

Author: G. Kallianpur

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475765924

Category: Science

Page: 318

View: 3829

This book is based on a seminar given at the University of California at Los Angeles in the Spring of 1975. The choice of topics reflects my interests at the time and the needs of the students taking the course. Initially the lectures were written up for publication in the Lecture Notes series. How ever, when I accepted Professor A. V. Balakrishnan's invitation to publish them in the Springer series on Applications of Mathematics it became necessary to alter the informal and often abridged style of the notes and to rewrite or expand much of the original manuscript so as to make the book as self-contained as possible. Even so, no attempt has been made to write a comprehensive treatise on filtering theory, and the book still follows the original plan of the lectures. While this book was in preparation, the two-volume English translation of the work by R. S. Liptser and A. N. Shiryaev has appeared in this series. The first volume and the present book have the same approach to the sub ject, viz. that of martingale theory. Liptser and Shiryaev go into greater detail in the discussion of statistical applications and also consider inter polation and extrapolation as well as filtering.

Computer Vision - ECCV 2002

7th European Conference on Computer Vision, Copenhagen, Denmark, May 28-31, 2002, Proceedings

Author: Anders Heyden,Gunnar Sparr,Mads Nielsen,Peters Johansen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540479775

Category: Computers

Page: 919

View: 1801

Premiering in 1990 in Antibes, France, the European Conference on Computer Vision, ECCV, has been held biennially at venues all around Europe. These conferences have been very successful, making ECCV a major event to the computer vision community. ECCV 2002 was the seventh in the series. The privilege of organizing it was shared by three universities: The IT University of Copenhagen, the University of Copenhagen, and Lund University, with the conference venue in Copenhagen. These universities lie ̈ geographically close in the vivid Oresund region, which lies partly in Denmark and partly in Sweden, with the newly built bridge (opened summer 2000) crossing the sound that formerly divided the countries. We are very happy to report that this year’s conference attracted more papers than ever before, with around 600 submissions. Still, together with the conference board, we decided to keep the tradition of holding ECCV as a single track conference. Each paper was anonymously refereed by three different reviewers. For the nal selection, for the rst time for ECCV, a system with area chairs was used. These met with the program chairsinLundfortwodaysinFebruary2002toselectwhatbecame45oralpresentations and 181 posters.Also at this meeting the selection was made without knowledge of the authors’identity.

Multivariate Statistical Modelling Based on Generalized Linear Models

Author: Ludwig Fahrmeir,Gerhard Tutz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1489900101

Category: Mathematics

Page: 426

View: 3933

Concerned with the use of generalised linear models for univariate and multivariate regression analysis, this is a detailed introductory survey of the subject, based on the analysis of real data drawn from a variety of subjects such as the biological sciences, economics, and the social sciences. Where possible, technical details and proofs are deferred to an appendix in order to provide an accessible account for non-experts. Topics covered include: models for multi-categorical responses, model checking, time series and longitudinal data, random effects models, and state-space models. Throughout, the authors have taken great pains to discuss the underlying theoretical ideas in ways that relate well to the data at hand. As a result, numerous researchers whose work relies on the use of these models will find this an invaluable account.

Biological Sequence Analysis

Probabilistic Models of Proteins and Nucleic Acids

Author: Richard Durbin,Sean R. Eddy,Anders Krogh,Graeme Mitchison

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113945739X

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 3177

Probabilistic models are becoming increasingly important in analysing the huge amount of data being produced by large-scale DNA-sequencing efforts such as the Human Genome Project. For example, hidden Markov models are used for analysing biological sequences, linguistic-grammar-based probabilistic models for identifying RNA secondary structure, and probabilistic evolutionary models for inferring phylogenies of sequences from different organisms. This book gives a unified, up-to-date and self-contained account, with a Bayesian slant, of such methods, and more generally to probabilistic methods of sequence analysis. Written by an interdisciplinary team of authors, it aims to be accessible to molecular biologists, computer scientists, and mathematicians with no formal knowledge of the other fields, and at the same time present the state-of-the-art in this new and highly important field.

Markov Chains

Author: David Freedman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461255007

Category: Mathematics

Page: 382

View: 2089

A long time ago I started writing a book about Markov chains, Brownian motion, and diffusion. I soon had two hundred pages of manuscript and my publisher was enthusiastic. Some years and several drafts later, I had a thousand pages of manuscript, and my publisher was less enthusiastic. So we made it a trilogy: Markov Chains Brownian Motion and Diffusion Approximating Countable Markov Chains familiarly - MC, B & D, and ACM. I wrote the first two books for beginning graduate students with some knowledge of probability; if you can follow Sections 10.4 to 10.9 of Markov Chains you're in. The first two books are quite independent of one another, and completely independent of the third. This last book is a monograph which explains one way to think about chains with instantaneous states. The results in it are supposed to be new, except where there are specific disclaim ers; it's written in the framework of Markov Chains. Most of the proofs in the trilogy are new, and I tried hard to make them explicit. The old ones were often elegant, but I seldom saw what made them go. With my own, I can sometimes show you why things work. And, as I will VB1 PREFACE argue in a minute, my demonstrations are easier technically. If I wrote them down well enough, you may come to agree.

Digital Signal Processing (DSP) with Python Programming

Author: Maurice Charbit

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119373034

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 290

View: 2138

The parameter estimation and hypothesis testing are the basic tools in statistical inference. These techniques occur in many applications of data processing., and methods of Monte Carlo have become an essential tool to assess performance. For pedagogical purposes the book includes several computational problems and exercices. To prevent students from getting stuck on exercises, detailed corrections are provided.

Chance and decision. Stochastic control in discrete time

Author: Jerzy Zabczyk

Publisher: Edizioni della Normale

ISBN: 9788876422423

Category: Mathematics

Page: 185

View: 3175

Mathematical theory of discrete time decision processes, also known as stochastic control, is based on two major ideas: backward induction and conditioning. It has a large number of applications in almost all branches of the natural sciences. The aim of these notes is to give a self-contained introduction to this theory and its applications. Our intention was to give a global and mathematically precise picture of the subject and present well motivated examples. We cover systems with complete or partial information as well as with complete or partial observation. We have tried to present in a unified way several topics such as dynamic programming equations, stopping problems, stabilization, Kalman-Bucy filter, linear regulator, adaptive control and option pricing. The notes discuss a large variety of models rather than concentrate on general existence theorems.