The Induction Book

Author: Steven H. Weintraub

Publisher: Courier Dover Publications

ISBN: 0486821234

Category: Mathematics

Page: 128

View: 1036

Mathematical induction — along with its equivalents, complete induction and well-ordering, and its immediate consequence, the pigeonhole principle — constitute essential proof techniques. Every mathematician is familiar with mathematical induction, and every student of mathematics requires a grasp of its concepts. This volume provides an introduction and a thorough exposure to these proof techniques. Geared toward students of mathematics at all levels, the text is particularly suitable for courses in mathematical induction, theorem-proving, and problem-solving. The treatment begins with both intuitive and formal explanations of mathematical induction and its equivalents. The next chapter presents many problems consisting of results to be proved by induction, with solutions omitted to enable instructors to assign them to students. Problems vary in difficulty; the majority of them require little background, and the most advanced involve calculus or linear algebra. The final chapter features proofs too complicated for students to find on their own, some of which are famous theorems by well-known mathematicians. For these beautiful and important theorems, the author provides expositions and proofs. The text concludes with a helpful Appendix providing the logical equivalence of the various forms of induction.

Handbook of Mathematical Induction

Theory and Applications

Author: David S. Gunderson

Publisher: Discrete Mathematics and its Applications

ISBN: 9781138199019


Page: 921

View: 4884

Handbook of Mathematical Induction: Theory and Applications shows how to find and write proofs via mathematical induction. This comprehensive book covers the theory, the structure of the written proof, all standard exercises, and hundreds of application examples from nearly every area of mathematics. In the first part of the book, the author discusses different inductive techniques, including well-ordered sets, basic mathematical induction, strong induction, double induction, infinite descent, downward induction, and several variants. He then introduces ordinals and cardinals, transfinite induction, the axiom of choice, Zorn s lemma, empirical induction, and fallacies and induction. He also explains how to write inductive proofs. The next part contains more than 750 exercises that highlight the levels of difficulty of an inductive proof, the variety of inductive techniques available, and the scope of results provable by mathematical induction. Each self-contained chapter in this section includes the necessary definitions, theory, and notation and covers a range of theorems and problems, from fundamental to very specialized. The final part presents either solutions or hints to the exercises. Slightly longer than what is found in most texts, these solutions provide complete details for every step of the problem-solving process. "

Calculus: A Rigorous First Course

Author: Daniel J. Velleman

Publisher: Courier Dover Publications

ISBN: 0486809366

Category: Mathematics

Page: 736

View: 1801

Designed for undergraduate mathematics majors, this rigorous and rewarding treatment covers the usual topics of first-year calculus: limits, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series. Author Daniel J. Velleman focuses on calculus as a tool for problem solving rather than the subject's theoretical foundations. Stressing a fundamental understanding of the concepts of calculus instead of memorized procedures, this volume teaches problem solving by reasoning, not just calculation. The goal of the text is an understanding of calculus that is deep enough to allow the student to not only find answers to problems, but also achieve certainty of the answers' correctness. No background in calculus is necessary. Prerequisites include proficiency in basic algebra and trigonometry, and a concise review of both areas provides sufficient background. Extensive problem material appears throughout the text and includes selected answers. Complete solutions are available to instructors.


Chapter 0

Author: Paolo Aluffi

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821847813

Category: Algebra

Page: 713

View: 3681

Algebra: Chapter 0 is a self-contained introduction to the main topics of algebra, suitable for a first sequence on the subject at the beginning graduate or upper undergraduate level. The primary distinguishing feature of the book, compared to standard textbooks in algebra, is the early introduction of categories, used as a unifying theme in the presentation of the main topics. A second feature consists of an emphasis on homological algebra: basic notions on complexes are presented as soon as modules have been introduced, and an extensive last chapter on homological algebra can form the basis for a follow-up introductory course on the subject. Approximately 1,000 exercises both provide adequate practice to consolidate the understanding of the main body of the text and offer the opportunity to explore many other topics, including applications to number theory and algebraic geometry. This will allow instructors to adapt the textbook to their specific choice of topics and provide the independent reader with a richer exposure to algebra. Many exercises include substantial hints, and navigation of the topics is facilitated by an extensive index and by hundreds of cross-references.

Category Theory in Context

Author: Emily Riehl

Publisher: Courier Dover Publications

ISBN: 048680903X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 272

View: 6947

Category theory has provided the foundations for many of the twentieth century's greatest advances in pure mathematics. This concise, original text for a one-semester course on the subject is derived from courses that author Emily Riehl taught at Harvard and Johns Hopkins Universities. The treatment introduces the essential concepts of category theory: categories, functors, natural transformations, the Yoneda lemma, limits and colimits, adjunctions, monads, and other topics. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in mathematics, the text provides tools for understanding and attacking difficult problems in algebra, number theory, algebraic geometry, and algebraic topology. Drawing upon a broad range of mathematical examples from the categorical perspective, the author illustrates how the concepts and constructions of category theory arise from and illuminate more basic mathematical ideas. Prerequisites are limited to familiarity with some basic set theory and logic.

Geometry of Characteristic Classes

Author: Shigeyuki Morita

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821821393

Category: Mathematics

Page: 185

View: 9311

Characteristic classes are central to the modern study of the topology and geometry of manifolds. They were first introduced in topology, where, for instance, they could be used to define obstructions to the existence of certain fiber bundles. Characteristic classes were later defined using connections on vector bundles, thus revealing their geometric side. The purpose of this book is to introduce the reader to the three theories of characteristic classes that were developed in the late 1960s. They include characteristic classes of flat bundles, characteristic classes of foliations, and characteristic classes of surface bundles. The book is intended for graduate students and research mathematicians working in various areas of geometry and topology.

Cyclic Modules and the Structure of Rings

Author: S.K. Jain,Ashish K. Srivastava,Askar A. Tuganbaev

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019966451X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 220

View: 5394

This unique monograph brings together important material in the field of noncommutative rings and modules. It provides an up-to-date account of the topic of cyclic modules and the structure of rings which will be of particular interest to those working in abstract algebra and to graduate students who are exploring potential research topics.

Differential Forms

A Complement to Vector Calculus

Author: Steven H. Weintraub

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780127425108

Category: Mathematics

Page: 256

View: 3184

This text is one of the first to treat vector calculus using differential forms in place of vector fields and other outdated techniques. Geared towards students taking courses in multivariable calculus, this innovative book aims to make the subject more readily understandable. Differential forms unify and simplify the subject of multivariable calculus, and students who learn the subject as it is presented in this book should come away with a better conceptual understanding of it than those who learn using conventional methods. * Treats vector calculus using differential forms * Presents a very concrete introduction to differential forms * Develops Stokess theorem in an easily understandable way * Gives well-supported, carefully stated, and thoroughly explained definitions and theorems. * Provides glimpses of further topics to entice the interested student

Professor Higgins's Problem Collection

Author: Peter M. Higgins

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191071978

Category: Mathematics

Page: 136

View: 2869

What can you do with your maths? You can use it to thoroughly understand all manner of things that cannot be dealt with in any other way. This book serves up a variety of problems and shows how mathematics answers them. Topics range from cracking codes to the persistence of recessive genes; from logic puzzles to classical geometry; and from planetary motion questions to predicting the market share of competing companies. And there are other problems where the mathematics itself is intrinsically surprising and interesting.

Axiomatic Set Theory

Author: Patrick Suppes

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486136876

Category: Mathematics

Page: 265

View: 5724

Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this treatment examines the basic paradoxes and history of set theory and advanced topics such as relations and functions, equipollence, more. 1960 edition.

Galois Theory

Author: Steven H. Weintraub

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387875751

Category: Mathematics

Page: 212

View: 5692

Galois theory is a mature mathematical subject of particular beauty. Any Galois theory book written nowadays bears a great debt to Emil Artin’s classic text "Galois Theory," and this book is no exception. While Artin’s book pioneered an approach to Galois theory that relies heavily on linear algebra, this book’s author takes the linear algebra emphasis even further. This special approach to the subject together with the clarity of its presentation, as well as the choice of topics covered, has made the first edition of this book a more than worthwhile addition to the literature on Galois Theory. The second edition, with a new chapter on transcendental extensions, will only further serve to make the book appreciated by and approachable to undergraduate and beginning graduate math majors.

Practical Foundations of Mathematics

Author: Paul Taylor

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521631075

Category: Mathematics

Page: 572

View: 9523

Practical Foundations collects the methods of construction of the objects of twentieth-century mathematics. Although it is mainly concerned with a framework essentially equivalent to intuitionistic Zermelo-Fraenkel logic, the book looks forward to more subtle bases in categorical type theory and the machine representation of mathematics. Each idea is illustrated by wide-ranging examples, and followed critically along its natural path, transcending disciplinary boundaries between universal algebra, type theory, category theory, set theory, sheaf theory, topology and programming. Students and teachers of computing, mathematics and philosophy will find this book both readable and of lasting value as a reference work.

How to Prove It

A Structured Approach

Author: Daniel J. Velleman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139450972

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 4141

Many students have trouble the first time they take a mathematics course in which proofs play a significant role. This new edition of Velleman's successful text will prepare students to make the transition from solving problems to proving theorems by teaching them the techniques needed to read and write proofs. The book begins with the basic concepts of logic and set theory, to familiarize students with the language of mathematics and how it is interpreted. These concepts are used as the basis for a step-by-step breakdown of the most important techniques used in constructing proofs. The author shows how complex proofs are built up from these smaller steps, using detailed 'scratch work' sections to expose the machinery of proofs about the natural numbers, relations, functions, and infinite sets. To give students the opportunity to construct their own proofs, this new edition contains over 200 new exercises, selected solutions, and an introduction to Proof Designer software. No background beyond standard high school mathematics is assumed. This book will be useful to anyone interested in logic and proofs: computer scientists, philosophers, linguists, and of course mathematicians.


A Brief History of Humankind

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 0062316109

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 6864

New York Times Bestseller A Summer Reading Pick for President Barack Obama, Bill Gates, and Mark Zuckerberg From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what it means to be “human.” One hundred thousand years ago, at least six different species of humans inhabited Earth. Yet today there is only one—homo sapiens. What happened to the others? And what may happen to us? Most books about the history of humanity pursue either a historical or a biological approach, but Dr. Yuval Noah Harari breaks the mold with this highly original book that begins about 70,000 years ago with the appearance of modern cognition. From examining the role evolving humans have played in the global ecosystem to charting the rise of empires, Sapiens integrates history and science to reconsider accepted narratives, connect past developments with contemporary concerns, and examine specific events within the context of larger ideas. Dr. Harari also compels us to look ahead, because over the last few decades humans have begun to bend laws of natural selection that have governed life for the past four billion years. We are acquiring the ability to design not only the world around us, but also ourselves. Where is this leading us, and what do we want to become? Featuring 27 photographs, 6 maps, and 25 illustrations/diagrams, this provocative and insightful work is sure to spark debate and is essential reading for aficionados of Jared Diamond, James Gleick, Matt Ridley, Robert Wright, and Sharon Moalem.

Geometry from Euclid to Knots

Author: Saul Stahl

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486134989

Category: Mathematics

Page: 480

View: 824

This text provides a historical perspective on plane geometry and covers non-neutral Euclidean geometry, circles and regular polygons, projective geometry, symmetries, inversions, informal topology, and more. Includes 1,000 practice problems. Solutions available. 2003 edition.

How to Solve Applied Mathematics Problems

Author: B. L. Moiseiwitsch

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486285227

Category: Mathematics

Page: 336

View: 5626

This workbook bridges the gap between lectures and practical applications, offering students of mathematics, engineering, and physics the chance to practice solving problems from a wide variety of fields. 2011 edition.

Mathematical Analysis of Evolution, Information, and Complexity

Author: Wolfgang Arendt,Wolfgang P. Schleich

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527628037

Category: Science

Page: 502

View: 7842

Mathematical Analysis of Evolution, Information, and Complexity deals with the analysis of evolution, information and complexity. The time evolution of systems or processes is a central question in science, this text covers a broad range of problems including diffusion processes, neuronal networks, quantum theory and cosmology. Bringing together a wide collection of research in mathematics, information theory, physics and other scientific and technical areas, this new title offers elementary and thus easily accessible introductions to the various fields of research addressed in the book.