Imperfect Pregnancies

A History of Birth Defects and Prenatal Diagnosis

Author: Ilana Löwy

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421423642

Category: Medical

Page: 296

View: 3656

In the 1960s, thanks to the development of prenatal diagnosis, medicine found a new object of study: the living fetus. At first, prenatal testing was proposed only to women at a high risk of giving birth to an impaired child. But in the following decades, such testing has become routine. In Imperfect Pregnancies, Ilana Löwy argues that the generalization of prenatal diagnosis has radically changed the experience of pregnancy for tens of millions of women worldwide. Although most women are reassured that their future child is developing well, others face a stressful period of waiting for results, uncertain prognosis, and difficult decisions. Löwy follows the rise of biomedical technologies that made prenatal diagnosis possible and investigates the institutional, sociocultural, economic, legal, and political consequences of their widespread diffusion. Because prenatal diagnosis is linked to the contentious issue of selective termination of pregnancy for a fetal anomaly, debates on this topic have largely centered on the rejection of human imperfection and the notion that we are now perched on a slippery slope that will lead to new eugenics. Imperfect Pregnancies tells a more complicated story, emphasizing that there is no single standardized way to scrutinize the fetus, but there are a great number of historically conditioned and situated approaches. This book will interest students, scholars, health professionals, administrators, and activists interested in issues surrounding new medical technologies, screening, risk management, pregnancy, disability, and the history and social politics of women’s bodies. -- Joanna Latimer, University of York, author of The Gene, the Clinic, and the Family: Diagnosing Dysmorphology, Reviving Medical Dominance

Imperfect Pregnancies

A History of Birth Defects and Prenatal Diagnosis

Author: Ilana Löwy

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421423634

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 296

View: 4138

In the 1960s, thanks to the development of prenatal diagnosis, medicine found a new object of study: the living fetus. At first, prenatal testing was proposed only to women at a high risk of giving birth to an impaired child. But in the following decades, such testing has become routine. In Imperfect Pregnancies, Ilana Löwy argues that the generalization of prenatal diagnosis has radically changed the experience of pregnancy for tens of millions of women worldwide. Although most women are reassured that their future child is developing well, others face a stressful period of waiting for results, uncertain prognosis, and difficult decisions. Löwy follows the rise of biomedical technologies that made prenatal diagnosis possible and investigates the institutional, sociocultural, economic, legal, and political consequences of their widespread diffusion. Because prenatal diagnosis is linked to the contentious issue of selective termination of pregnancy for a fetal anomaly, debates on this topic have largely centered on the rejection of human imperfection and the notion that we are now perched on a slippery slope that will lead to new eugenics. Imperfect Pregnancies tells a more complicated story, emphasizing that there is no single standardized way to scrutinize the fetus, but there are a great number of historically conditioned and situated approaches. This book will interest students, scholars, health professionals, administrators, and activists interested in issues surrounding new medical technologies, screening, risk management, pregnancy, disability, and the history and social politics of women’s bodies.

Cesarean Section

An American History of Risk, Technology, and Consequence

Author: Jacqueline H. Wolf

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421425521

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 336

View: 4604

Between 1965 and 1987, the cesarean section rate in the United States rose precipitously—from 4.5 percent to 25 percent of births. By 2009, one in three births was by cesarean, a far higher number than the 5–10% rate that the World Health Organization suggests is optimal. While physicians largely avoided cesareans through the mid-twentieth century, by the early twenty-first century, cesarean section was the most commonly performed surgery in the country. Although the procedure can be life-saving, how—and why—did it become so ubiquitous? Cesarean Section is the first book to chronicle this history. In exploring the creation of the complex social, cultural, economic, and medical factors leading to the surgery’s increase, Jacqueline H. Wolf describes obstetricians’ reliance on assorted medical technologies that weakened the skills they had traditionally employed to foster vaginal birth. She also reflects on an unsettling malpractice climate—prompted in part by a raft of dubious diagnoses—that helped to legitimize "defensive medicine," and a health care system that ensured cesarean birth would be more lucrative than vaginal birth. In exaggerating the risks of vaginal birth, doctors and patients alike came to view cesareans as normal and, increasingly, as essential. Sweeping change in women’s lives beginning in the 1970s cemented this markedly different approach to childbirth. Wolf examines the public health effects of a high cesarean rate and explains how the language of reproductive choice has been used to discourage debate about cesareans and the risks associated with the surgery. Drawing on data from nineteenth- and early twentieth-century obstetric logs to better represent the experience of cesarean surgery for women of all classes and races, as well as interviews with obstetricians who have performed cesareans and women who have given birth by cesarean, Cesarean Section is the definitive history of the use of this surgical procedure and its effects on women’s and children’s health in the United States.

Deliver Me from Pain

Anesthesia and Birth in America

Author: Jacqueline H. Wolf

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9781421403236

Category: Medical

Page: 296

View: 6184

As American women make decisions about anesthesia today, Deliver Me from Pain offers them insight into how women made this choice in the past and why each generation of mothers has made dramatically different decisions.

Quackery

A Brief History of the Worst Ways to Cure Everything

Author: Lydia Kang,Nate Pedersen

Publisher: Workman Publishing

ISBN: 1523501855

Category: Medical

Page: 256

View: 7462

What won’t we try in our quest for perfect health, beauty, and the fountain of youth? Well, just imagine a time when doctors prescribed morphine for crying infants. When liquefied gold was touted as immortality in a glass. And when strychnine—yes, that strychnine, the one used in rat poison—was dosed like Viagra. Looking back with fascination, horror, and not a little dash of dark, knowing humor, Quackery recounts the lively, at times unbelievable, history of medical misfires and malpractices. Ranging from the merely weird to the outright dangerous, here are dozens of outlandish, morbidly hilarious “treatments”—conceived by doctors and scientists, by spiritualists and snake oil salesmen (yes, they literally tried to sell snake oil)—that were predicated on a range of cluelessness, trial and error, and straight-up scams. With vintage illustrations, photographs, and advertisements throughout, Quackery seamlessly combines macabre humor with science and storytelling to reveal an important and disturbing side of the ever-evolving field of medicine.

Born Broken

An Adoptive Journey

Author: Kristin Berry

Publisher: New Leaf Publishing Group

ISBN: 161458589X

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 160

View: 9872

You look into this beautiful child’s eyes and suddenly realize all the love you have to give, all the hopes you had for them can’t change the damage done to them in the womb before they ever had a chance. This is the heartbreaking reality for some adoptive parents as they realize the lifelong consequences of alcohol use during pregnancy. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder is a leading cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. What do you do when the fairy tale family you believed in suddenly seems to be falling apart in the face of this harsh reality? Author Kristin Berry: There is no need to struggle alone or in isolation. Other families know what you are going through. Find strength in not only your faith, but in the community of others who understand your heartache and disappointment, and the desperate need to help these children have a future. Provides an account of real-life struggles and solutions from early childhood to young adulthood Opens a window into their life and family in hopes of encouraging others Reveals understanding, compassionate support for families facing these heart-wrenching challenges.

Playful Painting: Pets

More than 20 fun and clever painting projects for animal lovers

Author: Faye Moorhouse

Publisher: Walter Foster Publishing

ISBN: 1633224511

Category: Art

Page: 144

View: 9605

From an affectionate French Bulldog and astute Boxer to a sassy tabby cat, if you love animals and art, then your tail will be wagging with each of our easy-to-learn lessons and the humor that goes with them. You’ll be an expert in gouache, pencil, and ink in no time! Playful Painting: Pets is the first title in Walter Foster’s new compact and portable Playful Painting series, and it is aimed at artists, doodlers, and painting enthusiasts. There has never been a better time to learn to paint and illustrate whimsical portraits of your pets and favorite animals! Startup is easy, with minimal tools and materials required. You’ll be inspired to create when you see our gallery of dozens of cute cat and dog breeds (plus mixes!) as well as birds, pigs, rabbits, and other favorites. Then, when you’re ready, dive into exclusive bonus content to see how to use finished artwork in fresh and clever ways. Artist Faye Moorhouse illustrates this book in her signature friendly, quirky style. Not an artist? Playful Painting: Pets is a perfect gift for the animal lover in your life and a must-have for anyone who’s shared their life and living space with furry or feathered friends.

The Unfinished Child

Author: Theresa Shea

Publisher: Brindle and Glass

ISBN: 1927366038

Category: Fiction

Page: 312

View: 2015

Marie finds herself unexpectedly pregnant at 39. Meanwhile, her best friend, Elizabeth, has never been able to conceive, despite years of fertility treatments. In a genetic test routinely offered to older mothers, Marie discovers that the child she is carrying has Down syndrome. Intertwined throughout the novel is the story of Margaret, a woman who gave birth to a daughter with Down syndrome in 1947, when such infants were considered to be “unfinished” children. As the novel shifts through the decades, the lives of the three women converge, and the story speeds to an unexpected conclusion. With skill and poise, debut novelist Theresa Shea dramatically explores society’s changing views of Down syndrome over the past 60 years. The story offers an unflinching and compassionate history of the treatment of people with Down syndrome and their struggle for basic human rights. Ultimately, The Unfinished Child is an unforgettable and inspiring tale about the mysterious and complex bonds of family, friendship and motherhood.

The World in Guangzhou

Africans and Other Foreigners in South China’s Global Marketplace

Author: Gordon Mathews,Linessa Dan Lin,Yang Yang

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022650624X

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 7546

Only decades ago, the population of Guangzhou was almost wholly Chinese. Today, it is a truly global city, a place where people from around the world go to make new lives, find themselves, or further their careers. A large number of these migrants are small-scale traders from Africa who deal in Chinese goods—often knockoffs or copies of high-end branded items—to send back to their home countries. In The World in Guangzhou, Gordon Mathews explores the question of how the city became a center of “low-end globalization” and shows what we can learn from that experience about similar transformations elsewhere in the world. Through detailed ethnographic portraits, Mathews reveals a world of globalization based on informality, reputation, and trust rather than on formal contracts. How, he asks, can such informal relationships emerge between two groups—Chinese and sub-Saharan Africans—that don't share a common language, culture, or religion? And what happens when Africans move beyond their status as temporary residents and begin to put down roots and establish families? Full of unforgettable characters, The World in Guangzhou presents a compelling account of globalization at ground level and offers a look into the future of urban life as transnational connections continue to remake cities around the world.

Annapolis, City on the Severn

A History

Author: Jane W. McWilliams

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 0801896592

Category: History

Page: 478

View: 5801

The story of Annapolis resonates in every century of American history. Annapolis has been home to tobacco plantations, political intrigue, international commerce, the U.S. Naval Academy, ballooning population growth, and colonial, state, and national government. Jane Wilson McWilliams’s captivating history explores Annapolis from its settlement in 1650 to its historic preservation campaign of the late twentieth century. McWilliams brings alive the people of Annapolis as she recounts their fortunes and foibles. Be they black or white, slave or master, woman or man, each has a place in this book. With unsurpassed detail and graceful prose, she describes the innermost workings of Maryland’s capital city—its social, civic, and religious institutions; its powerful political leaders; and its art, architecture, and neighborhoods. Beautifully illustrated throughout, this book chronicles more than three hundred years of Annapolis history. As unique as the city it describes, Annapolis, City on the Severn builds on the most recent scholarship and offers readers a fascinating portrait into the past of this great city.

The Dream of the Perfect Child

Author: Joan Rothschild

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 9780253345653

Category: Medical

Page: 343

View: 7663

"Others have addressed the societal implications of contemplating ‘the perfect child’ but no one has written about it so poignantly, so compellingly, and so beautifully.... The best discussion of bioethics and reproductive practices I’ve seen." —Carole Browner, University of California, Los Angeles "Science and technology, medical professionals, and parents meet in the doctor’s office. This privatized setting is the site for individual decisions: whether to test or not, whether to keep a pregnancy or terminate it, and for which diagnosed ‘defect.’ Each decision becomes another judgment as to which conditions, and which children, are acceptable or not. As they aggregate over time, individual decisions add up to a selection process, marking the imperfect, those who may be dispensed with, while certifying those worthy to be born. This process constitutes the discourse of the perfect child." —from the Introduction Every parent wants a healthy, normal child, and scientific and technological advances have now made this increasingly possible to achieve. But progress comes with a price. Tracing its roots from Enlightenment thought through the biological discoveries of the 19th and 20th centuries, Joan Rothschild shows how the dream of human perfectibility masks a darker motivation to eliminate all that does not meet its increasingly heightened standards. Joan Rothschild points to the thousands of decisions about prenatal testing that are made each day in the doctor’s office, the context in which they occur, and how they add up to the discourse of the perfect—and imperfect—child. She argues that the mainstream bioethics community has been ineffective in raising appropriate questions, resulting in support for the status quo. Drawing on counter-voices from medicine and feminist ethics, as well as from pregnant women and people with disabilities, The Dream of the Perfect Child reevaluates the uses of genetics and prenatal testing. Ultimately, the goal is to change reproductive medical practice and thereby transform the dream.

Pregnancy Day By Day

Author: Maggie Blott

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 0756663601

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 496

View: 2551

The complete guide to pregnancy, day-by-day No other pregnancy book provides this level of detail, allied with such extraordinary photographs, 3D scans and illustrations which reveal in unprecedented clarity exactly what is happening to you and your baby every single day. From early fetal development to how your hormones prepare you for birth, learn from world-class experts. Plus, obstetricians, midwives and parents advise on your baby's development, medical matters, your changing body, diet, fitness and much more. A special hour-by-hour rundown of what to expect during and immediately after birth, plus further reassurance for the first two weeks of your baby's life, will give a helping hand through the culmination of your pregnancy, from pain relief to those first intimate and unique moments between you and your child.

Congenital Abnormalities and Preterm Birth Related to Maternal Illnesses During Pregnancy

Author: Nándor Ács,Ferenc G. Bánhidy,Andrew E. Czeizel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048186204

Category: Medical

Page: 532

View: 5602

The major objective of our studies in the last decade was a systematic analysis of maternal diseases during pregnancy to reveal their possible adverse effects on birth outcomes. The two most important factors of infant mortality were parti- larly analyzed: structural birth defects, known as congenital abnormalities (CAs) and preterm birth (PB). In general the objectives of scienti c studies might be either to test a new hypothesis or to con rm or confront previously published results. However, less frequently the authors/scientists have personal motivations determined by their professional activities. The authors of this book are practicing physicians and genetic epidemiologist who are mainly interested in the following three practical questions: 1. The possible adverse effects of pharmaceutical products. The possible t- atogenic potential of about 170 drugs has been evaluated very thoroughly using the data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities (HCCSCA) in the last 50 years. These drugs were used to treat maternal diseases and the ndings of our population-based case-control studies will be cited in this book and are shown in the Appendix at the end of the book. However, our long experiences showed two problems in the drug teratology. In general the evaluation of clinical doses of these drugs is a particularly dif- cult challenge due to the modi cation effects of confounders. This problem motivated one of the authors to establish a new model of disaster epidemiology.

Bad Mother

A Chronicle of Maternal Crimes, Minor Calamities, and Occasional Moments of Grace

Author: Ayelet Waldman

Publisher: Anchor

ISBN: 0767932161

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 224

View: 8962

In our mothers’ day there were good mothers, indifferent mothers, and occasionally, great mothers. Today we have only Bad Mothers: If you work, you’re neglectful; if you stay home, you’re smothering. If you discipline, you’re buying them a spot on the shrink’s couch; if you let them run wild, they will be into drugs by seventh grade. Is it any wonder so many women refer to themselves at one time or another as a “bad mother”? Writing with remarkable candor, and dispensing much hilarious and helpful advice along the way—Is breast best? What should you do when your daughter dresses up as a “ho” for Halloween?—Ayelet Waldman says it's time for women to get over it and get on with it in this wry, unflinchingly honest, and always insightful memoir on modern motherhood.

Preventive Strikes

Women, Precancer, and Prophylactic Surgery

Author: Ilana Löwy

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801898693

Category: Medical

Page: 344

View: 9164

Preventive Strikes aims to improve our understanding of professional, social, and cultural responses to cancer in the twenty-first century and to inform our reflections about how values are incorporated into routine medical practices.Ilana Löwy

Medical Disorders in Pregnancy

A Manual for Midwives

Author: S. Elizabeth Robson,Jason Waugh

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118712285

Category: Medical

Page: 416

View: 7522

The need for joint medical and midwifery care is stressed in the latest CEMACH report, with a recommendation that contemporary midwifery education prepares midwives for problems in pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcome. Pre-conception care for women with medical disorders has also been stressed. Medical Disorders in Pregnancy is one of the first texts written specifically for midwives that provides an outline of common medical disorders that may be affected by pregnancy or which may cause pregnancy complications. For ease of use, all conditions are presented on two page templates, and each addresses: An explanation of the condition; Standard 'Non-pregnancy' treatment; Pre-conception care; Antenatal care; Intrapartum care, and Postnatal care. The management, treatment and care by both doctors and midwives are provided to allow a mutual understanding of each others roles and responsibilities.

Perfecting Pregnancy

Law, Disability, and the Future of Reproduction

Author: Karpin/Savell,Kristin Savell

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 052176520X

Category: Law

Page: 381

View: 4322

Examines the legislative oversight in the regulation of prenatal and preimplantation testing technologies across a number of jurisdictions.

A Woman's Disease

The history of cervical cancer

Author: Ilana Lowy

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019163414X

Category: Medical

Page: 240

View: 576

Cervical cancer is an emotive disease with multiple connotations. It has stood for the horror of cancer, the curse of femininity, the hope of cutting-edge medical technologies and the promise of screening for malignant tumours. For a long time, this disease was identified with the most dreaded aspects of malignancies: prolonged invalidity and chronic pain, but also physical degradation, shame and social isolation. Cervical cancer displayed in parallel the dangers of being a woman. In the 20th century, innovations initially developed to control cervical cancer - radiotherapy and radium therapy, exfoliate cytology (Pap smear), homogenisation of the 'staging' of tumours, mass campaigns for an early detection of precancerous lesions of the cervix - set standards for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of other malignancies. In the late 20th century, cervical cancer underwent another important change. With the display of the role of selected strands of HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) in the genesis of this malignancy, it was transformed into a sexually transmitted disease. This new understanding of cervical cancer linked it more firmly with lifestyle choices, and thus increased the danger of stigmatisation of patients; on the other hand it opened the possibility for efficient prevention of this malignancy through vaccination. Ilana Lowy follows the disease from antiquity to the 21st century, focussing on the period since the mid-19th century, during which cervical cancer was dissociated from other gynaecological disorders and became a distinct entity. Following the ways in which new developments in science, medicine, and society have affected beliefs about medical progress and an individual's responsibility, gender roles, reproduction, and sex, Lowy demonstrates our understanding of what cervical cancer is, and how it can be prevented and cured.