How Nature Works

the science of self-organized criticality

Author: Per Bak

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475754264

Category: Mathematics

Page: 212

View: 6874

Self-organized criticality, the spontaneous development of systems to a critical state, is the first general theory of complex systems with a firm mathematical basis. This theory describes how many seemingly desperate aspects of the world, from stock market crashes to mass extinctions, avalanches to solar flares, all share a set of simple, easily described properties. "...a'must read'...Bak writes with such ease and lucidity, and his ideas are so intriguing...essential reading for those interested in complex systems...it will reward a sufficiently skeptical reader." -NATURE "...presents the theory (self-organized criticality) in a form easily absorbed by the non-mathematically inclined reader." -BOSTON BOOK REVIEW "I picture Bak as a kind of scientific musketeer; flamboyant, touchy, full of swagger and ready to join every fray... His book is written with panache. The style is brisk, the content stimulating. I recommend it as a bracing experience." -NEW SCIENTIST

Self-Organized Criticality in Earth Systems

Author: Stefan Hergarten

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662043904

Category: Mathematics

Page: 272

View: 2861

Self-organized criticality (SOC) has become a magic word in various scientific disciplines; it provides a framework for understanding complexity and scale invariance in systems showing irregular fluctuations. In the first 10 years after Per Bak and his co-workers presented their seminal idea, more than 2000 papers on this topic appeared. Seismology has been a field in earth sciences where the SOC concept has already deepened the understanding, but there seem to be much more examples in earth sciences where applying the SOC concept may be fruitful. After introducing the reader into the basics of fractals, chaos and SOC, the book presents established and new applications of SOC in earth sciences, namely earthquakes, forest fires, landslides and drainage networks.

Theologie und Naturwissenschaften

Author: Christian Tapp,Christof Breitsameter

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110389789

Category: Philosophy

Page: 334

View: 5470

Galilei und Darwin - diese Namen stehen bis heute für einen tiefgreifenden Konflikt zwischen Theologie und Naturwissenschaften. Weltweit führende Exponenten des Science-Religion-Dialogs zeigen (einige erstmals in deutscher Übersetzung) an Beispielen der physikalischen Kosmologie, der Evolutionsbiologie oder der Psychologie, wie ein Brückenschlag gelingen kann.

Selbstorganisation

Aspekte einer wissenschaftlichen Revolution

Author: Wolfgang Krohn

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322865452

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 332

View: 312


Das Megatrend-Prinzip

Wie die Welt von morgen entsteht

Author: Matthias Horx

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 3641072638

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 7336

Was unsere Welt bewegt Megatrends markieren die großen Veränderungen der Gesellschaft, sie wirken global, langfristig, tiefgreifend: die Globalisierung etwa, die Verschiebung der Altersstruktur, Individualisierung oder die immer wichtigere Rolle der Frauen. Matthias Horx beschreibt die innere Dynamik dieser Treiber des Wandels und erläutert ihre Rolle für den Fortschritt in den komplexen Zusammenhängen der modernen Welt. Vielen erscheint diese unübersichtlich, chaotisch, auf dem Weg in den Abgrund. Dabei sind heutige Gesellschaften aufgrund ihrer Vielschichtigkeit und Vernetzung robuster und viel eher in der Lage, neue Wege einzuschlagen. Wie immer ideensprühend und unterhaltsam verknüpft Matthias Horx die Analyse der Wandlungskräfte mit einem Blick auf die wichtigsten Megatrends.

Die fünf Geheimnisse, die Sie entdecken sollten, bevor Sie sterben

Author: John Izzo

Publisher: Riemann Verlag

ISBN: 3641024943

Category: Psychology

Page: 240

View: 9327

Besinnung auf das wirklich Wichtige im Leben Die 5 fundamentalen Lebensweisheiten – verdichtet aus der Weisheitsessenz von über 200 älteren Menschen aus ganz verschiedenen religiösen, geistigen und sozialen Milieus. Gibt es das Geheimnis eines geglückten Lebens? Unzählige Bücher beschäftigen sich mit dieser Frage, die meisten von ihnen basieren allerdings eher auf Spekulation und den persönlichen Erfahrungen ihrer Autoren. Im Gegensatz dazu präsentiert Bestsellerautor John Izzo das lebendige Resultat einer soziologischen Studie, in deren Rahmen Hunderte von Menschen interviewt wurden. Izzo stellte ihnen Fragen wie „Was machte Sie am glücklichsten? “, „Was bereuen Sie am meisten?“, „Was zählt wirklich, und was stellte sich als unwesentlich heraus?“, „Was hätten Sie gern etwas früher gewusst?“ Daraus gewann er die Essenz der Lebensweisheit von über 200 älteren Menschen – Christen und Muslimen, Männern und Frauen, außergewöhnlich erfolgreichen und ganz „normalen“ Menschen. Überraschendes Ergebnis der Befragung: Unabhängig von Religion, Geschlecht, Hautfarbe und sozialem Status stimmten die Auskünfte weitgehend überein. Die „fünf Geheimnisse“, die John Izzo entdeckte, sind universell und können somit auch allen Lesern wertvolle und wirklich fundierte Lebenshilfe bieten. John Izzo zieht daraus die Konsequenz: „Wir müssen nicht warten, bis wir alt sind, um weise zu werden. Wir können die Geheimnisse des Lebens in jedem Alter entdecken, und je eher wir sie entdecken, desto erfüllter wird unser Leben sein. “ Geschenkbuch in liebevoller Ausstattung.

Self-Organized Biological Dynamics and Nonlinear Control

Toward Understanding Complexity, Chaos and Emergent Function in Living Systems

Author: Jan Walleczek

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139427593

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 4374

The growing impact of nonlinear science on biology and medicine is fundamentally changing our view of living organisms and disease processes. This book introduces the application to biomedicine of a broad range of interdisciplinary concepts from nonlinear dynamics, such as self-organization, complexity, coherence, stochastic resonance, fractals and chaos. It comprises 18 chapters written by leading figures in the field and covers experimental and theoretical research, as well as the emerging technological possibilities such as nonlinear control techniques for treating pathological biodynamics, including heart arrhythmias and epilepsy. This book will attract the interest of professionals and students from a wide range of disciplines, including physicists, chemists, biologists, sensory physiologists and medical researchers such as cardiologists, neurologists and biomedical engineers.

Rhythms of the Brain

Author: Gyorgy Buzsaki

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199885303

Category: Medical

Page: 464

View: 2267

This book provides eloquent support for the idea that spontaneous neuron activity, far from being mere noise, is actually the source of our cognitive abilities. In a sequence of "cycles," György Buzsáki guides the reader from the physics of oscillations through neuronal assembly organization to complex cognitive processing and memory storage. His clear, fluid writing-accessible to any reader with some scientific knowledge-is supplemented by extensive footnotes and references that make it just as gratifying and instructive a read for the specialist. The coherent view of a single author who has been at the forefront of research in this exciting field, this volume is essential reading for anyone interested in our rapidly evolving understanding of the brain.

Green Tribology

Biomimetics, Energy Conservation and Sustainability

Author: Michael Nosonovsky,Bharat Bhushan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642236812

Category: Science

Page: 634

View: 4659

Tribology is the study of friction, wear and lubrication. Recently, the concept of “green tribology” as “the science and technology of the tribological aspects of ecological balance and of environmental and biological impacts” was introduced. The field of green tribology includes tribological technology that mimics living nature (biomimetic surfaces) and thus is expected to be environmentally friendly, the control of friction and wear that is of importance for energy conservation and conversion, environmental aspects of lubrication and surface modification techniques, and tribological aspects of green applications such as wind-power turbines or solar panels. This book is the first comprehensive volume on green tribology. The chapters are prepared by leading experts in their fields and cover such topics as biomimetics, environmentally friendly lubrication, tribology of wind turbines and renewable sources of energy, and ecological impact of new technologies of surface treatment.

The Why of Things

Causality in Science, Medicine, and Life

Author: Peter V. Rabins

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231535457

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 8330

Why was there a meltdown at the Fukushima power plant? Why do some people get cancer and not others? Why is global warming happening? Why does one person get depressed in the face of life's vicissitudes while another finds resilience? Questions like these—questions of causality—form the basis of modern scientific inquiry, posing profound intellectual and methodological challenges for researchers in the physical, natural, biomedical, and social sciences. In this groundbreaking book, noted psychiatrist and author Peter Rabins offers a conceptual framework for analyzing daunting questions of causality. Navigating a lively intellectual voyage between the shoals of strict reductionism and relativism, Rabins maps a three-facet model of causality and applies it to a variety of questions in science, medicine, economics, and more. Throughout this book, Rabins situates his argument within relevant scientific contexts, such as quantum mechanics, cybernetics, chaos theory, and epigenetics. A renowned communicator of complex concepts and scientific ideas, Rabins helps readers stretch their minds beyond the realm of popular literary tipping points, blinks, and freakonomic explanations of the world.

More Than You Know

Finding Financial Wisdom in Unconventional Places (Updated and Expanded)

Author: Michael J. Mauboussin

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 023151347X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 594

Since its first publication, Michael J. Mauboussin's popular guide to wise investing has been translated into eight languages and has been named best business book by BusinessWeek and best economics book by Strategy+Business. Now updated to reflect current research and expanded to include new chapters on investment philosophy, psychology, and strategy and science as they pertain to money management, this volume is more than ever the best chance to know more than the average investor. Offering invaluable tools to better understand the concepts of choice and risk, More Than You Know is a unique blend of practical advice and sound theory, sampling from a wide variety of sources and disciplines. Mauboussin builds on the ideas of visionaries, including Warren Buffett and E. O. Wilson, but also finds wisdom in a broad and deep range of fields, such as casino gambling, horse racing, psychology, and evolutionary biology. He analyzes the strategies of poker experts David Sklansky and Puggy Pearson and pinpoints parallels between mate selection in guppies and stock market booms. For this edition, Mauboussin includes fresh thoughts on human cognition, management assessment, game theory, the role of intuition, and the mechanisms driving the market's mood swings, and explains what these topics tell us about smart investing. More Than You Know is written with the professional investor in mind but extends far beyond the world of economics and finance. Mauboussin groups his essays into four parts-Investment Philosophy, Psychology of Investing, Innovation and Competitive Strategy, and Science and Complexity Theory-and he includes substantial references for further reading. A true eye-opener, More Than You Know shows how a multidisciplinary approach that pays close attention to process and the psychology of decision making offers the best chance for long-term financial results.

The Engine of Complexity

Evolution as Computation

Author: John E. Mayfield

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231535287

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 8431

The concepts of evolution and complexity theory have become part of the intellectual ether permeating the life sciences, the social and behavioral sciences, and, more recently, management science and economics. In this book, John E. Mayfield elegantly synthesizes core concepts from multiple disciplines to offer a new approach to understanding how evolution works and how complex organisms, structures, organizations, and social orders can and do arise based on information theory and computational science. Intended for the intellectually adventuresome, this book challenges and rewards readers with a nuanced understanding of evolution and complexity that offers consistent, durable, and coherent explanations for major aspects of our life experiences. Numerous examples throughout the book illustrate evolution and complexity formation in action and highlight the core function of computation lying at the work's heart.

Discontinuities in Ecosystems and Other Complex Systems

Author: Craig R. Allen,C. S. Holling

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231516827

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 3825

Following the publication of C. S. Holling's seminal work on the relationship between animal body mass patterns and scale-specific landscape structure, ecologists began to explore the theoretical and applied consequences of discontinuities in ecosystems and other complex systems. Are ecosystems and their components continuously distributed and do they adhere to scaling laws, or are they discontinuous and more complex than early models would have us believe? The resulting propositions over the structure of complex systems sparked an ongoing debate regarding the mechanisms generating discontinuities and the statistical methods used for their detection. This volume takes the view that ecosystems and other complex systems are inherently discontinuous and that such fields as ecology, economics, and urban studies greatly benefit from this paradigm shift. Contributors present evidence of the ubiquity of discontinuous distributions in ecological and social systems and how their analysis provides insight into complex phenomena. The book is divided into three sections. The first focuses on background material and contrasting views concerning the discontinuous organization of complex systems. The second discusses discontinuous patterns detected in a number of different systems and methods for detecting them, and the third touches on the potential significance of discontinuities in complex systems. Science is still dominated by a focus on power laws, but the contributors to this volume are convinced power laws often mask the interesting dynamics of systems and that those dynamics are best revealed by investigating deviations from assumed power law distributions. In 2008, a grand conference on resilience was held in Stockholm, hosting 600 participants from around the world. There are now three big centers established with resilience, the most recent one being the Stockholm Resilience Center, with others in Australia (an international coral reef center), Arizona State University's new sustainability center focusing on anthropology, and Canada's emerging social sciences and resilience center. Activity continues to flourish in Alaska, South Africa, and the Untied Kingdom, and a new center is forming in Uruguay.

Networks in Society

Links and Language

Author: Robert Stocker,Terry Bossomaier

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9814364827

Category: Mathematics

Page: 226

View: 2606

This book covers technical fundamentals, complexity and social networks, and communication and language. It raises readers’ interest in social networks, the importance of language in the emergence and maintenance of networks, the integral patterns of interconnectivity, and the means to measure and model social structure. It presents a broad range of ideas from several fields of research endeavor. It also explores social networks and their integration with communication and language, thereby providing a discussion of relevant theory, modeling, metrics, and application to business, natural resource management, and technology.

The Death of Money

The Coming Collapse of the International Monetary System

Author: James Rickards

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101637242

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 384

View: 8999

The next financial collapse will resemble nothing in history. . . . Deciding upon the best course to follow will require comprehending a minefield of risks, while poised at a crossroads, pondering the death of the dollar. The U.S. dollar has been the global reserve currency since the end of World War II. If the dollar fails, the entire international monetary system will fail with it. But optimists have always said, in essence, that confidence in the dollar will never truly be shaken, no matter how high our national debt or how dysfunctional our government. In the last few years, however, the risks have become too big to ignore. While Washington is gridlocked, our biggest rivals—China, Russia, and the oil-producing nations of the Middle East—are doing everything possible to end U.S. monetary hegemony. The potential results: Financial warfare. Deflation. Hyperinflation. Market collapse. Chaos. James Rickards, the acclaimed author of Currency Wars, shows why money itself is now at risk and what we can all do to protect ourselves. He explains the power of converting unreliable investments into real wealth: gold, land, fine art, and other long-term stores of value.

An Introduction to Socio-Finance

Author: Jørgen Vitting Andersen,Andrzej Nowak

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642419445

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 185

View: 4937

This introductory text is devoted to exposing the underlying nature of price formation in financial markets as a predominantly sociological phenomenon that relates individual decision-making to emergent and co-evolving social and financial structures. Two different levels of this sociological influence are considered: First, we examine how price formation results from the social dynamics of interacting individuals, where interaction occurs either through the price or by direct communication. Then the same processes are revisited and examined at the level of larger groups of individuals. In this book, models of both levels of socio-finance are presented, and it is shown, in particular, how complexity theory provides the conceptual and methodological tools needed to understand and describe such phenomena. Accordingly, readers are first given a broad introduction to the standard economic theory of rational financial markets and will come to understand its shortcomings with the help of concrete examples. Complexity theory is then introduced in order to properly account for behavioral decision-making and match the observed market dynamics. This book is conceived as a primer for newcomers to the field, as well as for practitioners seeking new insights into the field of complexity science applied to socio-economic systems in general, and financial markets and price formation in particular.

The Signal and the Noise

Why So Many Predictions Fail-but Some Don't

Author: Nate Silver

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101595957

Category: Political Science

Page: 544

View: 2929

"One of the more momentous books of the decade." -The New York Times Book Review Nate Silver built an innovative system for predicting baseball performance, predicted the 2008 election within a hair’s breadth, and became a national sensation as a blogger—all by the time he was thirty. He solidified his standing as the nation's foremost political forecaster with his near perfect prediction of the 2012 election. Silver is the founder and editor in chief of the website FiveThirtyEight. Drawing on his own groundbreaking work, Silver examines the world of prediction, investigating how we can distinguish a true signal from a universe of noisy data. Most predictions fail, often at great cost to society, because most of us have a poor understanding of probability and uncertainty. Both experts and laypeople mistake more confident predictions for more accurate ones. But overconfidence is often the reason for failure. If our appreciation of uncertainty improves, our predictions can get better too. This is the “prediction paradox”: The more humility we have about our ability to make predictions, the more successful we can be in planning for the future. In keeping with his own aim to seek truth from data, Silver visits the most successful forecasters in a range of areas, from hurricanes to baseball, from the poker table to the stock market, from Capitol Hill to the NBA. He explains and evaluates how these forecasters think and what bonds they share. What lies behind their success? Are they good—or just lucky? What patterns have they unraveled? And are their forecasts really right? He explores unanticipated commonalities and exposes unexpected juxtapositions. And sometimes, it is not so much how good a prediction is in an absolute sense that matters but how good it is relative to the competition. In other cases, prediction is still a very rudimentary—and dangerous—science. Silver observes that the most accurate forecasters tend to have a superior command of probability, and they tend to be both humble and hardworking. They distinguish the predictable from the unpredictable, and they notice a thousand little details that lead them closer to the truth. Because of their appreciation of probability, they can distinguish the signal from the noise. With everything from the health of the global economy to our ability to fight terrorism dependent on the quality of our predictions, Nate Silver’s insights are an essential read.