How Nature Works

the science of self-organized criticality

Author: Per Bak

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475754264

Category: Mathematics

Page: 212

View: 3373

Self-organized criticality, the spontaneous development of systems to a critical state, is the first general theory of complex systems with a firm mathematical basis. This theory describes how many seemingly desperate aspects of the world, from stock market crashes to mass extinctions, avalanches to solar flares, all share a set of simple, easily described properties. "...a'must read'...Bak writes with such ease and lucidity, and his ideas are so intriguing...essential reading for those interested in complex systems...it will reward a sufficiently skeptical reader." -NATURE "...presents the theory (self-organized criticality) in a form easily absorbed by the non-mathematically inclined reader." -BOSTON BOOK REVIEW "I picture Bak as a kind of scientific musketeer; flamboyant, touchy, full of swagger and ready to join every fray... His book is written with panache. The style is brisk, the content stimulating. I recommend it as a bracing experience." -NEW SCIENTIST

Synergetik

Eine Einführung Nichtgleichgewichts-Phasenübergänge und Selbstorganisation in Physik, Chemie und Biologie

Author: Hermann Haken

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642967752

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 9898


Synergetik

Eine Einführung. Nichtgleichgewichts-Phasenübergänge und Selbstorganisation in Physik, Chemie und Biologie

Author: Hermann Haken

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662101866

Category: Science

Page: 396

View: 5837


Self-Organized Criticality in Earth Systems

Author: Stefan Hergarten

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662043904

Category: Mathematics

Page: 272

View: 9514

Self-organized criticality (SOC) has become a magic word in various scientific disciplines; it provides a framework for understanding complexity and scale invariance in systems showing irregular fluctuations. In the first 10 years after Per Bak and his co-workers presented their seminal idea, more than 2000 papers on this topic appeared. Seismology has been a field in earth sciences where the SOC concept has already deepened the understanding, but there seem to be much more examples in earth sciences where applying the SOC concept may be fruitful. After introducing the reader into the basics of fractals, chaos and SOC, the book presents established and new applications of SOC in earth sciences, namely earthquakes, forest fires, landslides and drainage networks.

Selbstorganisation

Aspekte einer wissenschaftlichen Revolution

Author: Wolfgang Krohn

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322865452

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 332

View: 3523


Die fünf Geheimnisse, die Sie entdecken sollten, bevor Sie sterben

Author: John Izzo

Publisher: Riemann Verlag

ISBN: 3641024943

Category: Psychology

Page: 240

View: 9441

Besinnung auf das wirklich Wichtige im Leben Die 5 fundamentalen Lebensweisheiten – verdichtet aus der Weisheitsessenz von über 200 älteren Menschen aus ganz verschiedenen religiösen, geistigen und sozialen Milieus. Gibt es das Geheimnis eines geglückten Lebens? Unzählige Bücher beschäftigen sich mit dieser Frage, die meisten von ihnen basieren allerdings eher auf Spekulation und den persönlichen Erfahrungen ihrer Autoren. Im Gegensatz dazu präsentiert Bestsellerautor John Izzo das lebendige Resultat einer soziologischen Studie, in deren Rahmen Hunderte von Menschen interviewt wurden. Izzo stellte ihnen Fragen wie „Was machte Sie am glücklichsten? “, „Was bereuen Sie am meisten?“, „Was zählt wirklich, und was stellte sich als unwesentlich heraus?“, „Was hätten Sie gern etwas früher gewusst?“ Daraus gewann er die Essenz der Lebensweisheit von über 200 älteren Menschen – Christen und Muslimen, Männern und Frauen, außergewöhnlich erfolgreichen und ganz „normalen“ Menschen. Überraschendes Ergebnis der Befragung: Unabhängig von Religion, Geschlecht, Hautfarbe und sozialem Status stimmten die Auskünfte weitgehend überein. Die „fünf Geheimnisse“, die John Izzo entdeckte, sind universell und können somit auch allen Lesern wertvolle und wirklich fundierte Lebenshilfe bieten. John Izzo zieht daraus die Konsequenz: „Wir müssen nicht warten, bis wir alt sind, um weise zu werden. Wir können die Geheimnisse des Lebens in jedem Alter entdecken, und je eher wir sie entdecken, desto erfüllter wird unser Leben sein. “ Geschenkbuch in liebevoller Ausstattung.

Theologie und Naturwissenschaften

Author: Christian Tapp,Christof Breitsameter

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110389789

Category: Philosophy

Page: 334

View: 7318

How can we say at once that God’s act of creation is a rational act and the world is the fulfillment of God’s plan, and that science tries to unlock the secrets of this plan? These perspectives can only be reconciled through a successful teleological interpretation of physical phenomena. Renowned theologians and natural scientists examine this problem from different points of view.

Das Megatrend-Prinzip

Wie die Welt von morgen entsteht

Author: Matthias Horx

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 3641072638

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 6949

Was unsere Welt bewegt Megatrends markieren die großen Veränderungen der Gesellschaft, sie wirken global, langfristig, tiefgreifend: die Globalisierung etwa, die Verschiebung der Altersstruktur, Individualisierung oder die immer wichtigere Rolle der Frauen. Matthias Horx beschreibt die innere Dynamik dieser Treiber des Wandels und erläutert ihre Rolle für den Fortschritt in den komplexen Zusammenhängen der modernen Welt. Vielen erscheint diese unübersichtlich, chaotisch, auf dem Weg in den Abgrund. Dabei sind heutige Gesellschaften aufgrund ihrer Vielschichtigkeit und Vernetzung robuster und viel eher in der Lage, neue Wege einzuschlagen. Wie immer ideensprühend und unterhaltsam verknüpft Matthias Horx die Analyse der Wandlungskräfte mit einem Blick auf die wichtigsten Megatrends.

Self-Organized Biological Dynamics and Nonlinear Control

Toward Understanding Complexity, Chaos and Emergent Function in Living Systems

Author: Jan Walleczek

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139427593

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 4845

The growing impact of nonlinear science on biology and medicine is fundamentally changing our view of living organisms and disease processes. This book introduces the application to biomedicine of a broad range of interdisciplinary concepts from nonlinear dynamics, such as self-organization, complexity, coherence, stochastic resonance, fractals and chaos. It comprises 18 chapters written by leading figures in the field and covers experimental and theoretical research, as well as the emerging technological possibilities such as nonlinear control techniques for treating pathological biodynamics, including heart arrhythmias and epilepsy. This book will attract the interest of professionals and students from a wide range of disciplines, including physicists, chemists, biologists, sensory physiologists and medical researchers such as cardiologists, neurologists and biomedical engineers.

Rhythms of the Brain

Author: Gyorgy Buzsaki

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199885303

Category: Medical

Page: 464

View: 4850

This book provides eloquent support for the idea that spontaneous neuron activity, far from being mere noise, is actually the source of our cognitive abilities. In a sequence of "cycles," György Buzsáki guides the reader from the physics of oscillations through neuronal assembly organization to complex cognitive processing and memory storage. His clear, fluid writing-accessible to any reader with some scientific knowledge-is supplemented by extensive footnotes and references that make it just as gratifying and instructive a read for the specialist. The coherent view of a single author who has been at the forefront of research in this exciting field, this volume is essential reading for anyone interested in our rapidly evolving understanding of the brain.

Bankpolitik

Author: Felix Somary

Publisher: Рипол Классик

ISBN: 5878079054

Category: History

Page: 353

View: 8416


Green Tribology

Biomimetics, Energy Conservation and Sustainability

Author: Michael Nosonovsky,Bharat Bhushan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642236812

Category: Science

Page: 634

View: 4737

Tribology is the study of friction, wear and lubrication. Recently, the concept of “green tribology” as “the science and technology of the tribological aspects of ecological balance and of environmental and biological impacts” was introduced. The field of green tribology includes tribological technology that mimics living nature (biomimetic surfaces) and thus is expected to be environmentally friendly, the control of friction and wear that is of importance for energy conservation and conversion, environmental aspects of lubrication and surface modification techniques, and tribological aspects of green applications such as wind-power turbines or solar panels. This book is the first comprehensive volume on green tribology. The chapters are prepared by leading experts in their fields and cover such topics as biomimetics, environmentally friendly lubrication, tribology of wind turbines and renewable sources of energy, and ecological impact of new technologies of surface treatment.

The Why of Things

Causality in Science, Medicine, and Life

Author: Peter V. Rabins

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231535457

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 677

Why was there a meltdown at the Fukushima power plant? Why do some people get cancer and not others? Why is global warming happening? Why does one person get depressed in the face of life's vicissitudes while another finds resilience? Questions like these—questions of causality—form the basis of modern scientific inquiry, posing profound intellectual and methodological challenges for researchers in the physical, natural, biomedical, and social sciences. In this groundbreaking book, noted psychiatrist and author Peter Rabins offers a conceptual framework for analyzing daunting questions of causality. Navigating a lively intellectual voyage between the shoals of strict reductionism and relativism, Rabins maps a three-facet model of causality and applies it to a variety of questions in science, medicine, economics, and more. Throughout this book, Rabins situates his argument within relevant scientific contexts, such as quantum mechanics, cybernetics, chaos theory, and epigenetics. A renowned communicator of complex concepts and scientific ideas, Rabins helps readers stretch their minds beyond the realm of popular literary tipping points, blinks, and freakonomic explanations of the world.

More Than You Know

Finding Financial Wisdom in Unconventional Places (Updated and Expanded)

Author: Michael J. Mauboussin

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 023151347X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 6786

Since its first publication, Michael J. Mauboussin's popular guide to wise investing has been translated into eight languages and has been named best business book by BusinessWeek and best economics book by Strategy+Business. Now updated to reflect current research and expanded to include new chapters on investment philosophy, psychology, and strategy and science as they pertain to money management, this volume is more than ever the best chance to know more than the average investor. Offering invaluable tools to better understand the concepts of choice and risk, More Than You Know is a unique blend of practical advice and sound theory, sampling from a wide variety of sources and disciplines. Mauboussin builds on the ideas of visionaries, including Warren Buffett and E. O. Wilson, but also finds wisdom in a broad and deep range of fields, such as casino gambling, horse racing, psychology, and evolutionary biology. He analyzes the strategies of poker experts David Sklansky and Puggy Pearson and pinpoints parallels between mate selection in guppies and stock market booms. For this edition, Mauboussin includes fresh thoughts on human cognition, management assessment, game theory, the role of intuition, and the mechanisms driving the market's mood swings, and explains what these topics tell us about smart investing. More Than You Know is written with the professional investor in mind but extends far beyond the world of economics and finance. Mauboussin groups his essays into four parts-Investment Philosophy, Psychology of Investing, Innovation and Competitive Strategy, and Science and Complexity Theory-and he includes substantial references for further reading. A true eye-opener, More Than You Know shows how a multidisciplinary approach that pays close attention to process and the psychology of decision making offers the best chance for long-term financial results.

Logicomix

eine epische Suche nach Wahrheit : Leseprobe

Author: Apostolos K. Doxiadēs,Christos H. Papadimitriou

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783855350698

Category: German comic books, strips, etc

Page: 351

View: 7875


The Engine of Complexity

Evolution as Computation

Author: John E. Mayfield

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231535287

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 416

The concepts of evolution and complexity theory have become part of the intellectual ether permeating the life sciences, the social and behavioral sciences, and, more recently, management science and economics. In this book, John E. Mayfield elegantly synthesizes core concepts from multiple disciplines to offer a new approach to understanding how evolution works and how complex organisms, structures, organizations, and social orders can and do arise based on information theory and computational science. Intended for the intellectually adventuresome, this book challenges and rewards readers with a nuanced understanding of evolution and complexity that offers consistent, durable, and coherent explanations for major aspects of our life experiences. Numerous examples throughout the book illustrate evolution and complexity formation in action and highlight the core function of computation lying at the work's heart.

Discontinuities in Ecosystems and Other Complex Systems

Author: Craig R. Allen,C. S. Holling

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231516827

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 6829

Following the publication of C. S. Holling's seminal work on the relationship between animal body mass patterns and scale-specific landscape structure, ecologists began to explore the theoretical and applied consequences of discontinuities in ecosystems and other complex systems. Are ecosystems and their components continuously distributed and do they adhere to scaling laws, or are they discontinuous and more complex than early models would have us believe? The resulting propositions over the structure of complex systems sparked an ongoing debate regarding the mechanisms generating discontinuities and the statistical methods used for their detection. This volume takes the view that ecosystems and other complex systems are inherently discontinuous and that such fields as ecology, economics, and urban studies greatly benefit from this paradigm shift. Contributors present evidence of the ubiquity of discontinuous distributions in ecological and social systems and how their analysis provides insight into complex phenomena. The book is divided into three sections. The first focuses on background material and contrasting views concerning the discontinuous organization of complex systems. The second discusses discontinuous patterns detected in a number of different systems and methods for detecting them, and the third touches on the potential significance of discontinuities in complex systems. Science is still dominated by a focus on power laws, but the contributors to this volume are convinced power laws often mask the interesting dynamics of systems and that those dynamics are best revealed by investigating deviations from assumed power law distributions. In 2008, a grand conference on resilience was held in Stockholm, hosting 600 participants from around the world. There are now three big centers established with resilience, the most recent one being the Stockholm Resilience Center, with others in Australia (an international coral reef center), Arizona State University's new sustainability center focusing on anthropology, and Canada's emerging social sciences and resilience center. Activity continues to flourish in Alaska, South Africa, and the Untied Kingdom, and a new center is forming in Uruguay.