Higher Recursion Theory

Author: Gerald E. Sacks

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316739465

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 3428

Since their inception, the Perspectives in Logic and Lecture Notes in Logic series have published seminal works by leading logicians. Many of the original books in the series have been unavailable for years, but they are now in print once again. This volume, the second publication in the Perspectives in Logic series, is an almost self-contained introduction to higher recursion theory, in which the reader is only assumed to know the basics of classical recursion theory. The book is divided into four parts: hyperarithmetic sets, metarecursion, α-recursion, and E-recursion. This text is essential reading for all researchers in the field.

Bounded Queries in Recursion Theory

Author: William Levine,Georgia Martin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461206359

Category: Computers

Page: 353

View: 6829

One of the major concerns of theoretical computer science is the classifi cation of problems in terms of how hard they are. The natural measure of difficulty of a function is the amount of time needed to compute it (as a function of the length of the input). Other resources, such as space, have also been considered. In recursion theory, by contrast, a function is considered to be easy to compute if there exists some algorithm that computes it. We wish to classify functions that are hard, i.e., not computable, in a quantitative way. We cannot use time or space, since the functions are not even computable. We cannot use Turing degree, since this notion is not quantitative. Hence we need a new notion of complexity-much like time or spac~that is quantitative and yet in some way captures the level of difficulty (such as the Turing degree) of a function.

Recursion Theory

Computational Aspects of Definability

Author: Chi Tat Chong,Liang Yu

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110275643

Category: Mathematics

Page: 320

View: 3275

This monograph presents recursion theory from a generalized point of view centered on the computational aspects of definability. A major theme is the study of the structures of degrees arising from two key notions of reducibility, the Turing degrees and the hyperdegrees, using techniques and ideas from recursion theory, hyperarithmetic theory, and descriptive set theory. The emphasis is on the interplay between recursion theory and set theory, anchored on the notion of definability. The monograph covers a number of fundamental results in hyperarithmetic theory as well as some recent results on the structure theory of Turing and hyperdegrees. It also features a chapter on the applications of these investigations to higher randomness.

Computability in Context

Computation and Logic in the Real World

Author: S Barry Cooper,Andrea Sorbi

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1908978767

Category: Mathematics

Page: 420

View: 3950

Computability has played a crucial role in mathematics and computer science, leading to the discovery, understanding and classification of decidable/undecidable problems, paving the way for the modern computer era, and affecting deeply our view of the world. Recent new paradigms of computation, based on biological and physical models, address in a radically new way questions of efficiency and challenge assumptions about the so-called Turing barrier. This volume addresses various aspects of the ways computability and theoretical computer science enable scientists and philosophers to deal with mathematical and real-world issues, covering problems related to logic, mathematics, physical processes, real computation and learning theory. At the same time it will focus on different ways in which computability emerges from the real world, and how this affects our way of thinking about everyday computational issues. Contents:Computation, Information, and the Arrow of Time (P Adriaans & P van Emde Boas)The Isomorphism Conjecture for NP (M Agrawal)The Ershov Hierarchy (M M Arslanov)Complexity and Approximation in Reoptimization (G Ausiello et al.)Definability in the Real Universe (S B Cooper)HF-Computability (Y L Drshov et al.)The Mathematics of Computing Between Logic and Physics (G Longo & T Paul)Liquid State Machines: Motivation, Theory, and Applications (W Maass)Experiments on an Internal Approach to Typed Algorithms in Analysis (D Normann)Recursive Functions: An Archeological Look (P Odifreddi)Reverse Mathematics and Well-Ordering Principles (M Rathjen & A Weiermann)Discrete Transfinite Computation Models (P D Welch) Readership: Researchers in computational mathematics, logic, and theoretical computer science. Keywords:Computability;Logic;Real World;Turing Barrier;Real Computation;Learning Theory

Fundamentals of Mathematical Logic

Author: Peter G. Hinman

Publisher: A K Peters/CRC Press

ISBN: 9781568812625

Category: Mathematics

Page: 896

View: 8544

This introductory graduate text covers modern mathematical logic from propositional, first-order and infinitary logic and Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems to extensive introductions to set theory, model theory and recursion (computability) theory. Based on the author's more than 35 years of teaching experience, the book develops students' intuition by presenting complex ideas in the simplest context for which they make sense. The book is appropriate for use as a classroom text, for self-study, and as a reference on the state of modern logic.

General Recursion Theory

Author: Jens E. Fenstad

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107168163

Category: Mathematics

Page: 237

View: 1687

Since their inception, the Perspectives in Logic and Lecture Notes in Logic series have published seminal works by leading logicians. Many of the original books in the series have been unavailable for years, but they are now in print once again. In this volume, the tenth publication in the Perspectives in Logic series, Jens E. Fenstad takes an axiomatic approach to present a unified and coherent account of the many and various parts of general recursion theory. The main core of the book gives an account of the general theory of computations. The author then moves on to show how computation theories connect with and unify other parts of general recursion theory. Some mathematical maturity is required of the reader, who is assumed to have some acquaintance with recursion theory. This book is ideal for a second course in the subject.

The higher infinite

large cardinals in set theory from their beginnings

Author: Akihiro Kanamori

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540570714

Category: Mathematics

Page: 536

View: 7084

After describing the beginnings of the subject - the theory of large cardinals - a comprehensive account is given of the work in the 1960s on partition properties, forcing and sets of reals, and aspects of measurability (including saturated ideals and inner models of measurability). Then discussed are the strong hypotheses like supercompactness up to Kunen's inconsistency. The last sections describe the investigation of determinacy from its beginnings up to a survey of the recent consistency results of Woodin. The material is presented in the context of its historical development and leads to the frontiers of contemporary research. It will serve as a reference and guide to graduate students and researchers in set theory and set-theoretic topology.

COLT

Author: Vanderbilt University

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780897918916

Category: Machine learning

Page: 338

View: 5660


Constructivity and Computability in Historical and Philosophical Perspective

Author: Jacques Dubucs,Michel Bourdeau

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9401792178

Category: Philosophy

Page: 214

View: 3729

Ranging from Alan Turing’s seminal 1936 paper to the latest work on Kolmogorov complexity and linear logic, this comprehensive new work clarifies the relationship between computability on the one hand and constructivity on the other. The authors argue that even though constructivists have largely shed Brouwer’s solipsistic attitude to logic, there remain points of disagreement to this day. Focusing on the growing pains computability experienced as it was forced to address the demands of rapidly expanding applications, the content maps the developments following Turing’s ground-breaking linkage of computation and the machine, the resulting birth of complexity theory, the innovations of Kolmogorov complexity and resolving the dissonances between proof theoretical semantics and canonical proof feasibility. Finally, it explores one of the most fundamental questions concerning the interface between constructivity and computability: whether the theory of recursive functions is needed for a rigorous development of constructive mathematics. This volume contributes to the unity of science by overcoming disunities rather than offering an overarching framework. It posits that computability’s adoption of a classical, ontological point of view kept these imperatives separated. In studying the relationship between the two, it is a vital step forward in overcoming the disagreements and misunderstandings which stand in the way of a unifying view of logic.

Situations, Language and Logic

Author: J.E. Fenstad,Per-Kristian Halvorsen,Tore Langholm,Johan van Benthem

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400913354

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 194

View: 6920

This monograph grew out of research at Xerox PARC and the Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI) during the first year of CSLI's existence. The Center was created as a meeting place for people from many different research traditions and there was much interest in seeing how the various approaches could be joined in a common effort to understand the complexity of language and information. CSLI was thus an ideal environment for our group and our enterprise. Our original goal was to see how a well-developed linguistic the ory, such as lexical-functional grammar, could be joined with the ideas emerging from research in situation semantics in a manner which would measure up to the technical standards set by Montague grammar. The outcome was our notion of situation schemata and the extension of constraint-based grammar formalisms to deal with semantic as well as syntactic information. As our work progressed we widened our approach. We decided to also include a detailed study of the logic of situation theory, and to investigate how this logical theory is related to the relational theory of meaning developed in situation semantics.

Foundational Theories of Classical and Constructive Mathematics

Author: Giovanni Sommaruga

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400704312

Category: Mathematics

Page: 316

View: 7477

The book "Foundational Theories of Classical and Constructive Mathematics" is a book on the classical topic of foundations of mathematics. Its originality resides mainly in its treating at the same time foundations of classical and foundations of constructive mathematics. This confrontation of two kinds of foundations contributes to answering questions such as: Are foundations/foundational theories of classical mathematics of a different nature compared to those of constructive mathematics? Do they play the same role for the resp. mathematics? Are there connections between the two kinds of foundational theories? etc. The confrontation and comparison is often implicit and sometimes explicit. Its great advantage is to extend the traditional discussion of the foundations of mathematics and to render it at the same time more subtle and more differentiated. Another important aspect of the book is that some of its contributions are of a more philosophical, others of a more technical nature. This double face is emphasized, since foundations of mathematics is an eminent topic in the philosophy of mathematics: hence both sides of this discipline ought to be and are being paid due to.